Developmental Psychology• study of the relatively predictable changes (motor, cognitive, social, and emotional) in behavior with age 3
Developmental Psychology Issue Details How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience Nature/Nurture (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior? Is development a gradual, continuous processContinuity/Stages or a sequence of separate stages? Do our early personality traits persist through life, or Stability/Change do we become different persons as we age. 4
Prenatal Development and the NewbornHow, over time, did we come to be who we are?From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence. 5
ConceptionA single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell. 6
Prenatal DevelopmentA zygote is a fertilized egg with 100 cells thatbecome increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote (a) turns into an embryo (b). 7
Prenatal Development At 9 weeks, an embryo (c) turns into a fetus (d).Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus. 8
Placenta• The placenta forms the interface between the mother and fetus• Old View: no chemicals can pass the placenta• New View: anything that can cross the blood brain barrier can also cross the placenta 9
Thalidomide• Used to treat morning sickness• Administered to 20,000 women in 1950s 10
Mouse Research (GD7) Alcohol - Alcohol + 12Godin, E.A. et al. (2010). Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 98–111.
Adolescent Taste Preference Following Prenatal Alcohol ExposureLong-Evans rat dams received a diethigh in ethyl alcohol (EtOH) fromGD 5-20. *Offspring were tested on theiralcohol intake at postnatal day 30. 13 Youngentob & Glendinning (2009). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 5359-64.
The Competent NewbornInfants are born with reflexes that aid in survival.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyVLD0hl0XYRooting Reflex: turning head toward anything thatstrokes cheekMoro Reflex: sudden spreading of arms inresponse to sensation of being droppedPalmer Grasp Reflex: closing of hand 14
Infancy and Childhood Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development
Infancy and ChildhoodInfancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally. Stage Span Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager
Physical DevelopmentInfants’ psychological development depends ontheir biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain.
Developing Brain At birth, most brain cells are present. Afterbirth, the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities.
MaturationThe development of the brain unfolds based ongenetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation. Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.
Back to SleepThe causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)are not well understood but may involve an immaturebrainstem.The Back to Sleep educational program was institutedwith the hope of reducing SIDS. prone: laying on stomach supine: laying on back 20
Motor DevelopmentFirst, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Thissequence if consistent across human cultures. Milestone Age (months) Sitting unsupported 6 Crawling 8 Walking 12 Running 15
Auditory Perception • 1 and 4 month old infants are capable of responding to speech 23Eimas et al. (1971). Science, 171, 303-306.
Maturation and Infant Memory The capacity and duration of Long-Term Memory shows pronounced improvements during the first two-years. Infants of different ages came to the lab and played with toys (e.g. Make the monkey jump. This event consisted of a toy monkey and a blue teeter-totter. The infant placed the monkey on one end of the teeter-totter (Step 1) and pushed down on the opposite end (Step 2). This caused the monkey to “jump” into the air.. Later, they were given props and asked to recreate what happened earlier..Bauer (2007). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 142-146.
Jean Piaget• Prolific Swiss developmental & cognitive psychologist (50+ books, 500+ papers).• Eminence (20th century): 2nd!• He noticed patterns in child errors while completing intelligence tests.• Studied his own 3 children (Jacqueline, Lucienne, and Laurent). 25 1896-1980
SchemasSchemas are mental molds into which we pour ourexperiences.Example: living things move
Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding Bill Anderson/ Photo Researchers, Inc.(schema). The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation. Jean Piaget with a subject
Cognitive Development Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make.Quick Time Videos MPG 1 & 2 Deloache et al. (1987). Science, 304, 1027-1029.
Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months ofage do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.
Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas. However, recent research shows that infants in the sensorimotor stage can think and count. 1. Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear.Two min:http://www.pbs.org/parents/sid/blogs/teachers/archives/2010/10/babies-physics-uncovering-the-impressive-knowledge-of-infants.html
Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms 2. Infants can also “count”. Five-month olds stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones.Wynn (1992). Nature, 358, 749-759.
Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 7 years old, children are in the preoperationalstage—too young to perform mental operations. Ontario Science Center
Conservation of Volume Test• Age 5.5 (wrong): “Daddy, why did you ask such an easy question? Everyone could see that there was more water in that glass!”• Age 6.5 (wrong): “Daddy, I don’t know … Why did you ask such a hard question!”• Age 7.5 (correct): “Both glasses have the same amount of water, of course! Why? Is this some sort of trick question? 36
Conservation of Number Test• Which has more, top or bottom row? 37
Preoperational Stage: Criticism 1 Children as young as 3 years of age are able to use mental operations. Representation Reality When shown a model of a toy dog’s hiding place behind the couch, 2½- year-olds could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year- olds did.A 3 year-old is shown a small room where a stuffed toy is hidden. Child is able to find the stuffed animal in the larger room . DeLoache (1987). Science, 238, 1556-1557.
Preoperational Criticism 2• Even young children can show conservation of number when the question is asked differently.• Which has more?• XXX• X X X 39
EgocentrismPiaget concluded that preschool children areegocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture facing herown eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes. Hurt child example.
Sense of Self-Rouge Test • Rouge is placed on infants nose • Infant is placed in front of mirror • Do they? – Touch mirror (no self-recognition) – Touch nose (self-recognition), usually 1.5 yrsRouge (Mark) Test (3:50 – end):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJFo3trMuD8 41
Theory of Mind Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another’s mental state when they begin forming a theory of mind. The problem on the right probes such ability in children.4 min Video: Autismhttp://www.thetransporters.com/researchvid.html Sally-Anne False Belief Test
Concrete Operational Stage In concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back andforth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities.Children in this stage are also able to transformmathematical functions. So, if 4 + 8 = 12, then atransformation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable.
Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expandsfrom concrete thinking to abstract thinking. Wecan now use symbols and imagined realities tosystematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.
Criticism: Formal Operational StageRudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982).If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?
Egg Comparison• What weights more, a 1 day or a 20 day old chicken egg?• What answers are possible?• How would each answer be indicative of a specific Piagetian stage? 48
Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s stage theory has been influentialglobally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and cognitive development in many cultures and societies. However, today’s researchers believe the following: 1. Development is a continuous process.2. Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.
Origins of Attachment 1905-1981 Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment.3 min:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsA5Sec6dAI
Origins of AttachmentLike bodily contact, familiarity is another factor that causes attachment. In some animals (goslings), imprinting is the cause of attachment. Alastair Miller
Attachment Differences Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachment, i.e., they explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When their mother leave, they show distress.The other 30% show insecure attachment. Thesechildren cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore the environment.
Secure AttachmentRelaxed and attentive caregiving becomes the backbone of secure attachment.
Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age,regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care.
Deprivation of AttachmentWhat happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? In such circumstances children become: 1. Withdrawn 2. Frightened 3. Unable to develop speech
Prolonged DeprivationIf parental or caregiving support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at riskfor physical, psychological, and social problems.
Child-Rearing Practices Practice Description Parents impose rules and expectAuthoritarian obedience. Parents submit to children’s Permissive demands. Parents are demanding butAuthoritative responsive to their children.
Authoritative Parenting Authoritative parenting correlates with socialcompetence — other factors like common genes may lead to an easy-going temperament and may invoke an authoritative parenting style.
Alternative View: Do parents matter? • Judith Harris: The Nurture Assumption • Accent example • Peers 611938-
Summary• Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operations• Tests: – Object permanence – Conservation of volume – Rouge Test• Limitations of Piaget 62