Introductory Psychology: Biopsychology


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lecture 5 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. ( at Willamette University, includes Golgi, Cajal, parts of the neuron, action potentials, synapse, neurotransmitters, agonist, antagonist, parts of the nervous system

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  • Preview Question 1: What are neurons, and how do they transmit information?
  • Preview Question 2: How do neurotransmitters affect our mood and behavior?
  • Preview Question 3: What are the major divisions of the nervous system, and what are their basic functions?
  • Preview Question 4: How does the endocrine system-the body’s slower information system-transmit its messages?
  • Introductory Psychology: Biopsychology

    1. 1. The Biology of Mind (Modules 4 & 5) Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.Neuroanatomy Review:
    2. 2. Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence UsThe Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous SystemThe Endocrine System
    3. 3. Controversy: Golgi vs. Cajal• Italian physician• Reticulum theory• Silver stain Camillo Golgi (1843-1926)
    4. 4. Controversy: Golgi vs. Cajal • Santiogo Ramon y Cajal – Neuroanatomist – Used Golgi’s technique – Neuron theory1852-1934 Chicken cerebellum
    5. 5. Neural Communication The body’s information system is built frombillions of interconnected cells called neurons.
    6. 6. NeuronA nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts.
    7. 7. Parts of a NeuronCell Body: Life support center of the neuron.Dendrites: Branching extensions at the cell body.Receive messages from other neurons.Axon: Long single extension of a neuron, covered withmyelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath to insulate and speed upmessages through neurons.Terminal Branches of axon: Branched endings of anaxon that transmit messages to other neurons.
    8. 8. Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.
    9. 9. Pyramidal neuron (Golgi stained) Sensory Neuon
    10. 10. Threshold Threshold: Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signalsexceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential.
    11. 11. Action Potential Properties All-or-None Response: A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed. Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon. Video (2 min): mentions ions & White, 2009
    12. 12. SynapseSynapse [SIN-aps] a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite orcell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
    13. 13. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters (chemicals) released from the sendingneuron travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron,thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.
    14. 14. Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.Cocaine Mouse & Dopamine
    15. 15. Lock & Key MechanismNeurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism.
    16. 16. Agonists
    17. 17. AntagonistsReview of Neurotransmission: 4 min, mentions 2nd messengers
    18. 18. How Neurotransmitters Influence UsSerotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation. From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
    19. 19. Dopamine PathwaysDopamine pathways are involved with diseases such as schizophrenia andParkinson’s disease. From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
    20. 20. NeurotransmittersChemical Abbreviation Functions ReceptorsDopamine DA Motivation D1, D2 (food/sex)Serotonin 5-HT Depression 5-HT1 … 5-HT7(5-hydroxytryptamine) Nicotinic (nACh) andAcetylcholine ACh Movement muscarinic (mACh) NMDAGlutamate Glu LearningGamma- GABAA GABA Anxiety GABABaminobutyric GABACAcid
    21. 21. Nervous SystemCentral PeripheralNervous NervousSystem System (CNS) (PNS)
    22. 22. The Nervous SystemNervous System: Consists of all the nerve cells. Itis the body’s speedy, electrochemicalcommunication system.Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain andspinal cord.Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory andmotor neurons that connect the central nervoussystem (CNS) to the rest of the body.
    23. 23. The Nervous System
    24. 24. Peripheral Nervous SystemSomatic Nervous System: The division of theperipheral nervous system that controls the body’sskeletal muscles.Autonomic Nervous System: Part of the PNS thatcontrols the glands and other muscles.
    25. 25. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of theANS that arouses the body, mobilizing itsenergy in stressful situations.Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division ofthe ANS that calms the body, conserving itsenergy.
    26. 26. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic NS “Arouses” (fight-or-flight)Parasympathetic NS “Calms” (rest and digest)
    27. 27. “Lie Detection” (aka pseudoscience) • Polygraph measures: – heart rate – skin conductance – blood pressure Decision Innocent Guilty Innocent Correct False +Reality Guilty False - Correct
    28. 28. Kinds of NeuronsSensory Neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS (afferent). Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands (efferent). Interneurons connect the two neurons. Interneuron Sensory Neuron (Bipolar) Motor Neuron (Multipolar)
    29. 29. The NervesNerves consist of neural “cables” containing many axons. They are part of the peripheral nervous system and connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to the central nervous system.
    30. 30. Central Nervous System The Spinal Cord and Reflexes Simple Reflex
    31. 31. Central Nervous System The Brain and Neural Networks Interconnected neurons form networks in thebrain. Theses networks are complex and modify with growth and experience. Complex Neural Network
    32. 32. Glia• Support cells of brain• Can divide• Different types – Astrocytes – Oligodendrocytes Hippocampus of rat with astrocytes & neurons
    33. 33. The Endocrine System The Endocrine System is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
    34. 34. Hormones Hormones are chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are secreted in thebloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and many other tissues of the body. For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and feelings of excitement during emergency situations.
    35. 35. Pituitary GlandIs called the “master gland.” The anterior pituitarylobe releases hormones that regulate other glands. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance.
    36. 36. Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Regulate metabolic and calcium rate.
    37. 37. Adrenal GlandsAdrenal glands consist of the adrenal medulla and the cortex. The medulla secretes hormones(epinephrine and norepinephrine) during stressful and emotional situations, while the adrenal cortex regulates salt and carbohydrate metabolism.
    38. 38. GonadsSex glands are located in different places in menand women. They regulate bodily development and maintain reproductive organs in adults.
    39. 39. Neural Communication Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing information.Note the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all engaged in information processing.
    40. 40. Summary• Neurons communication both electrically and chemically.• The Nervous system has 6 divisions.• The brain also communicates with the body with hormones.