http://www.georgesbraque.org/French art critic Louis Vauxcelles first used the term Cubism, or "bizarre cubiques", in 1908 after seeing a picture by Braque. He described it as 'full of little cubes', after which the term quickly gained wide use although the two creators did not initially adopt it. Art historian Ernst Gombrich described cubism as "the most radical attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture - that of a man-made construction, a colored canvas." The Cubist movement spread quickly throughout Paris and EuropeChallenged conventional forms of art – such as perspective which was solved using geometry during the time of the Renaissance
Address public opinion/reactions to this art movement
Political/social influences – artyfactory.comhttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/pcez/hd_pcez.htm – pictures and infoPICTURE 1Dish of Apples, ca. 1875–77Paul Cézanne (French, 1839–1906)Oil on canvas This rich and dense still life, with a napkin shaped like Mont Sainte-Victoire, was painted about 1875–77 in the house of Cézanne's father in Aix. The artist painted the decorative screen visible in the background when a very young man.PICTURE 2Still Life with a Ginger Jar and Eggplants, 1893–94Paul Cézanne (French, 1839–1906)Oil on canvas For this commanding still life, with its richly orchestrated play of overlapping shapes, patterns, colors, and textures, Cézanne relied on a stock of familiar objects. The raffia-corded ginger jar, for example, is featured in more than a dozen compositions, including three of comparable verve dating to the early 1890s.PICTURE 3Gardanne, 1885–86Paul Cézanne (French, 1839–1906)Oil on canvas This is one of three views of Gardanne, a hill town near Aix-en-Provence, where Cézanne worked in the autumn of 1885 and most of 1886. The town is observed from a close vantage point in a picture in the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and from the opposite direction in a picture in the Brooklyn Museum. The views anticipate Cubism in their restricted palettes and faceted forms.In Gardanne (57.181), he painted the landscape with intense volumetric patterns of geometric rhythms most pronounced in the houses. This picture anticipates the Cubism of Georges Braque (1882–1963) and Pablo Picasso (1881–1973), especially Braque's impressions of L'Estaque of about 1908. http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/landscapes/paul_cezanne.htmThe art of Paul Cézanne was a major influence on Picasso and Braque in the development of Cubism. Cézanne was a Post Impressionist artist. This was a vague term used to describe certain artists who were influenced by the color and vitality of Impressionism but dissatisfied with the limitations of the style.In traditional painting, one of the techniques that artists used create the illusion of depth was to apply larger brushstrokes in the foreground of a picture, which gradually decrease in size towards the background in order to convey the distant details.What was modern about Cézanne's painting was that he did not try to deny the two-dimensional quality of a painting's surface. Instead, he liked to emphasise the surface quality of a painting and to make it an essential element in the way we read a picture. He did this by applying regular sized strokes of paint to construct abstract patterns of color across the work. His fluid brushstrokes force the viewer to read the surface of a painting as a unified plane. He called his pictures 'constructions after nature' in which elements from the three-dimensional world were translated into patterns of color on a flat canvas. PICTURE-LEFT BOTTOM CORNERThe 'Château at Médan' is a good example of this style. It portrays the summer house of his friend, the writer Emile Zola. This is a flat, frontal view of the house which is situated on the banks of the River Seine. Cézanne's use of parallel oblong brushstrokes gives the surface a distinctly woven appearance which emphasizes its flatness. This effect is strengthened by the horizontal and vertical lines of the houses, trees and riverbank that bind the composition together. It is a three-dimensional scene which has been deliberately arranged as a flat pattern on a two-dimensional surface. Any suggestion of depth is conveyed by aerial perspective: using the natural properties of warm and cool colors to respectively advance and recede.
Changes that cause the artist to break away from Fauvism/post-ImpressionismAfrican Art – “draw on the expressive energy of art from other cultures”Following the trend of the nineteenth-century transcendentalism, the artists believed that "true reality lay in the essential idea and not in its reflection in the material world"(Colliers 546).
All of these peeps were friends. Hence the interrelated style of art.
Considered one of the first Cubism pieces, and said to be one of the single most important paintings of the 20th centuryOriginally titled The Brothel of Avignon; translates to The Young Ladies of AvignonExhibits in 1916 for the first time – 1912 split between Picasso and his lover said to be the cause for the re-painting of the two heads on the far right
Military - This changed his style of painting – brought back human figures – brilliant color and textured surfaces, personal style
One of the earliest instances that Braque used an ovalBraque and Picasso both turn to this shape in future paintings
Violin and candlestickhttp://www.georgesbraque.org/violin-and-candlestick.jspThis work embodies the dynamic and energetic qualities of Analytic Cubism, a revolutionary artistic style pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso to depict three-dimensional objects on a flat canvas without the use of traditional Renaissance perspective. In this conceptual approach to painting, perceived forms are broken down, fractured, flattened, and then reconstructed in multiple-point perspective within a shallow space. Braque described this kind of fragmentation as "a technique for getting closer to the object." Violin and Candlestick was an outcome of Georges' obsession for form and stability, fuelled with a desire to create an illusion in a viewer's mind to move around freely within the painting. To achieve this, the painter conglomerated the subjects at the centre of a grid like armature & covered the boundaries of the black-outlined objects using earth-toned colors. Thereby, he managed to transform the volumes of static to hold compound surfaces on a flat plane, enabling onlookers to appreciate more of form compared to any other angle. Recognizing and understanding the effects of light astutely to elicit the appropriate emotions and effects of the subjects also served as a vital parameter for Braque's Violin and Candlestick. Here, still-life props (some recognizable and some impossible to identify) are clustered toward the center of a gridlike armature. Braque united the objects and the background by opening up and covering over the boundaries of the black-outlined objects, and by using the same earth-toned colors for the entire painting. He transformed volumes in the still life to accommodate their multiple surfaces on a flat plane, thereby allowing the viewer to see more of the form than would be possible from a single vantage point.
Reordering of reality – work in pieces of their day to day lives into their paintings – makes use of father’s techniques to create wood grains, father was a painter decorator and passed them on to Braque – not found/learned in schoolshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJ1zcViAUBc
Still Life of Bach
1912 fruit dish and glasshttp://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/braque/papcol1.jpg.html
Houses at L’Estaque in 1907http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2011/10/georges-braque--from-fauvism-to-cubism_slideshow_item1_2
“In still life, space is tactile, even manual, while the space of landscape is a visual space,” Braque once noted, when describing the differences in painting various subjects. In the artist’s seascape painting, Harbor (1909), space is transformed into a solid, rather than an empty, expanse.http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2011/10/georges-braque--from-fauvism-to-cubism_slideshow_item2_3
Georges Braque, Piano and Mandola, Winter 1909–10; oil on canvas; 36⅛ in. by 16⅞ in.; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2011/10/georges-braque--from-fauvism-to-cubism_slideshow_item3_4
After suffering from temporary blindness due to a severe head injury during W.W.I., Braque returned to the art scene, picking up his career where he had left it. Corrugated cardboard is a key inspiration in his composition of Bottle and Musical Instruments, relating to his continuing trials with papier collé, the pasted-paper technique he developed with Picasso.Georges Braque, Bottle and Musical Instruments, 1918; crayon, charcoal and white chalk on collaged paper and corrugated cardboard on primed board; 20⅞ in. by 29¾ in.; private collection.
In the early 1920s, Braque’s Cubist fascinations with mixing various vantage points and geometric forms evolved to include interwoven decorative passages. In The Pantry, the artist depicts decorative motifs of wall and mantle moldings to create a location for a still life, while still blurring the lines between flat and raised spaces within the picture.Georges Braque, The Pantry, 1920; oil on canvas; 31⅞ in. x 39 ⅜ in.; Albertina Vienna–Batliner Collection.
Known as “The Third Cubist” for refining the cubist vocabulary into something that was his own “visual language”Juan Gris was more calculating than any other Cubist painter in the way he composed his pictures. Every element of a painting was considered with classical precision: line, shape, tone, colour and pattern were carefully refined to create an interlocking arrangement free from any unnecessary decoration or detail. Juan Gris was born in Madrid and his real name was José Victoriano González-Pérez. Gris studied engineering drawing before he became an artist.He was a friend and neighbour of Picasso in Paris.After Picasso and Braque, Juan Gris is thought of as the third Cubist but he was the artist who was the most consistently dedicated to the style.Gris painted mostly still lifes in a synthetic cubist style often using bold colours and collage techniques.Although his paintings may appear quite methodical in their design he was quoted as saying, 'I prefer the emotion that corrects the rule', which suggests his instinct and not his intellect was the controlling factor in his art.Gris also created sculptures and worked on set designs for Diaghilev's ballets.Juan Gris died at the young age of 39.http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/still_life/juan_gris.htmOriginally named Jose Victoriano Gonzalez, he adopted the pseudonym by which he is known after moving (1906) to Paris, where he lived as Picasso's friend and neighbor. Between 1907 and 1912 he watched closely the development of the cubist style and in 1912 exhibited his Homage to Picasso (collection of Mrs. and Mrs. Leigh Block, Chicago), which established his reputation as a painter of the first rank. He worked closely with Picasso and Braque until the outbreak of World War I, adapting what had been their intuitively generated innovations to his own methodical temperament. In the 1920s, Gris designed costumes and scenery for Serge DIAGHILEV's Ballets Russes. He also completed some of the boldest and most mature statements of his cubist style, with landscape-still lifes that compress interiors and exteriors into synthetic cubist compositions, such as Le Canigou (1921; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, N.Y.), and figure paintings, especially the fine series of clowns that includes Two Pierrots (1922; collection of Mr. and Mrs. Harold Hecht, Beverly Hills, Calif.)http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/gris/
Juan Gris was the only artist included in the 1912 Salon de la Section d'Or who actually used the ideal mathematical proportions of the Golden Section to construct his compositions, as seen in the complex system of grids and geometrical forms that make up this image of a café-terrace dandy. This modern man of taste, complete with top hat and black suit, rests one hand on a chair, while cradling a glass of absinthe in the other. The inclusion of the letters "PIC" and "AP" to the left of the man's shoulder can be understood as a reference to Picasso, the co-creator of Cubism, and Guillaume Apollinaire, the movement's fervent critical champion.Masterpieces from the Philadelphia Museum of Art: Impressionism and Modern ArtAfter working in Madrid as a satirical magazine illustrator, Juan Gris moved in 1906 to Paris, where he resided in the Montmartre tenement dubbed the Bateau-Lavoir ("laundry boat"), then also home to Pablo Picasso and a host of other artists. Although Gris ultimately devoted his full attention to painting, his roots as a satirist were never completely abandoned, as can be seen in this depiction of a smug middle-class gentleman. The artist painted Man in a Café while involved with the Puteaux Group, a circle of artists who gathered at Jacques Villon's suburban studio to discuss science and philosophy in relation to their Cubist practices. To construct his compositions, Gris would come to rely particularly on the section d'or, or golden section, the ratio or proportion employed by artists and architects since antiquity. Man in a Café, with its complex yet balanced system of grids and facets, may have been inspired by the golden section; it was exhibited in the landmark Salon de la Section d'Or in 1912. The inclusion of the initials PIC and AP in the painting may also indicate that Gris was paying homage to Cubism's cocreator, Picasso, and its early critic, Guillaume Apollinaire. Melissa Kerr, from Masterpieces from the Philadelphia Museum of Art: Impressionism and Modern Art (2007), p. 154.http://www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/51698.html
Still Life before an Open Window, Place RavignanStill life was the most popular of the cubist themes as it allowed artists to use everyday objects whose forms were still recognizable after they had been simplified and stylized. 'Still Life with Open Window, Rue Ravignan' is a great example of Gris' cubist style. It contains some of the traditional objects commonly associated with still life: a bowl of fruit, a bottle and a glass, a newspaper and a book, all carefully arranged on a table top at a balcony window. The objects are lit by electric light which contrasts with the moonlit scene outside the window. The subject may have been clichéd and predictable but its arrangement was revolutionary.Gris flattens the composition of 'Still Life with Open Window, Rue Ravignan' into a grid of overlapping planes. Within the structure of this grid, he delicately balances and counterbalances different areas of the work. Sections shift from light to dark, positive to negative, monochrome to colour, transparency to opacity, and from lamplight inside the room to moonlight outside. The relationships of these juxtaposed elements leave us with a sense of the still life group in its surroundings - the kind of fragmented sense that our memory would retain had we seen them for ourselves. http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/still_life/juan_gris.htmPhiladelphia Museum of Art: Handbook of the CollectionsIn early 1915, Juan Gris realized that at last his paintings were no longer the mere inventories of objects of which he long had despaired. His works now presented newly unified structures of interrelated pictorial elements, despite their densely complex compositions. Indeed, in Place Ravignan, Gris weds interior and exterior, still life and landscape, even day and night. The title refers to Gris's Paris address, and the painting presumably presents his own daily view from his studio. Traditional elements of still life--newspaper, glass, carafe, compote, bottle, and book--are arranged on a table, but refracted in great shafts of light from the window that bring the neighboring trees and houses into the composition. The umbrella of foliage on the trees and the wrought iron designs of the balcony gather background and foreground into one dreamlike sweep that revels in intense color, evoking the artist's close association with Henri Matisse. Gris, by nature an exacting artist, has here let calculation make room for a poetry and sensuousness rarely so explicitly revealed in his work. Ann Temkin, from Philadelphia Museum of Art: Handbook of the Collections (1995), p. 313.Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculpture in the Philadelphia Museum of ArtGris's Still Life Before an Open Window, Place Ravignan reveals the artist at the height of his powers, expertly balancing lyricism and geometric rigor in a composition of evocative spatial juxtapositions and luxurious color. Its harmonious balance of dense pockets of animated, fractured space and flat areas of simplicity and tranquillity reflects Gris's talent and experience as a brilliant maker of Cubist collages. The resplendent colors and subject, a view through his studio to an open window and the street, hint at Gris's recent friendship with Henri Matisse and the mutual exchange that shaped both artists' work at this time. Gris's innovations lie in his extension of the Cubist premise of interlacing planes to encompass the relation of interior and exterior spaces.In rendering the indoor still life, Gris elided distinctions between a compote, glasses, a wine bottle, a newspaper, and a book. The table is meticulously painted to imitate wood graining. This detail makes reference to the trompe l'oeil painting and pasted papers in Picasso's and Braque's Cubist works. But whereas those elements often float independently from objects in their paintings and collages, Gris reasserted the connection between the pattern and the table to which it adheres. The word "journal," elongated to rhyme with the faceted striations on a water jug, is but one indicator of the elasticity of signs and objects in the picture. The flat, repeating arabesque pattern of the balustrade links the plane of the still life and that of the building facade, railing, and streetlight. The blue light bathing this distant scene suffuses its taut formal dynamics and visual compression with a dreamy softness, as does the inclusion of an unexpected natural element, a canopy of trees, to frame the composition. Twentieth Century Painting and Sculpture in the Philadelphia Museum of Art (2000), p. 34.http://www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/51704.html?mulR=17950|12
The bookStill life piecehttp://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=13469
The open book
The bunch of grapes
Table overlooking the seaStill Life piece
Portrait of the artist’s mother
CUBISMRaji Arunachalam and Brent Piligian
“ The Cubist painters rejected the inherited concept that art should copy nature, or that they should adopt the traditional techniques of perspective, modeling, and foreshortening. They wanted instead to emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas Metmuseum.net ”
Alfred H. Barr, Jr.Made the terms “Analytic” and “Synthetic” Cubism popular, through his books on Cubism and Picasso
Analytic Cubism pre-1912• “the early phase of cubism, chiefly characterized by a pronounced use of geometric shapes and by a tendency toward a monochromatic use of color.”• Monochromatic scheme – color was almost nonexistent• Natural forms were reduced into basic geometric parts on a two- dimensional plane
Synthetic Cubism post-1912• “the late phase of cubism, characterized chiefly by an increased use of color and the imitation or introduction of a wide range of textures and material into painting”• Collage – mix in signs and fragments of ‘real’ things• Integration of ‘high’ and ‘low’ art, i.e. art made by an artist combined with art made for commercial purposes
Douglas Cooper• English Art historian• Proposes another way to divide up the time of the Cubists• Three sections • Early Cubism (1906-1908) – Cubism is developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque • High Cubism (1909-1914) – Gris emerges as an important player • Late Cubism (1914-1921) – the last phase of Cubism; “radical avant-garde movement”
Influences• African Art• Spanish Art • El Greco• Iberian culture • Paul Gauguin• Art of Oceania
KEY PLAYERS IN THE FIELD• Braque – French painter and sculptor• Picasso – Spanish painter, sculptor, ceramicist, stage designer, printmaker• Leger – French painter, sculptor and filmmaker• Gris – Spanish painter and sculptor
PABLO PICASSO• Born 1881 in Málaga, Southern Spain, died 1973• Did you know that Picasso’s acquaintances stopped inviting him to view their artworks and such because he incorporated their ideas into his own artwork better than they could?
Reservoir at Horta, Horta de Ebro Summer 1909 Oil on canvas Analytic Cubism
Still life with a bottle of rumPainted in 1911 in Céret , a small town in the FrenchPyrenees that was popular with many Cubists. It was called the “spiritual home of Cubism”. Analytic Cubism
Still Life with Chair Caning 1912 Synthetic Cubism Oil on oil cloth overcanvas edged with rope
Bottle and Wine Glass on a Table 1912Charcoal, ink, cut and pastednewspaper, and graphite on paper
Picasso’s Guernica1937, made in response to the Spanish civil War
Picasso’s GuitarSculpture made out of sheet metal 1912
Picasso – Self portrait During his cubism phaseDid other self portraits as well in different styles
“ We were like two mountain climbers roped together ” History of Modern Art, Sixth Edition Braque’s take on his works with Picasso Referring to their collaboration with one another and the birth of Cubism Worked face to face and shared their ideas
GEORGE BRAQUE• Born in 1882 in Argenteuil, Val-dOise, died 1963• Did you know that Braque spent a year and a half in a lot of military hospitals, and was recommended for receiving the Legion of Honor?
Candlestick and Playing Cards on a Table Oil on canvas Analytic Cubism
Violin and Jug 1910 Analytic Cubism Oil on canvas
Violin and Candlestick 1910 Analytic Cubism Oil on canvas
Violin and Newspaper 1913Graphite, charcoal, and oil on canvas
Still Life of Bach 1912Pasted paper and charcoal on paper
Fruitdish and Glass 1912Pasted paper and charcoals on paper
Still Life before an OpenWindow, Place Ravignan 1915 Oil on canvas Synthetic Cubism
Guitar, Bottle and Glass 1914Pasted papers, gouache and crayon on canvas Synthetic Cubism
Violin and Checkerboard 1913 Oil on canvas Synthetic Cubism
Portrait of Pablo Picasso 1912 Oil on canvas Analytic Cubism
The Book 1913Oil and papier collé on canvas Synthetic Cubism
The Open Book 1925 Oil on canvas Synthetic Cubism
The Bunchof Grapes 1924 Oil on canvasSynthetic Cubism
Table Overlooking the Sea 1925 Oil on canvas Synthetic Cubism
Portrait of the Artist’s Mother 1912 Oil on canvas Analytic Cubism
FERNAND LÉGER• Born 1881 in Argentan, France, died 1955 in Gif-sur-Yvette, France• Rather than following in the footsteps of the founders of Cubism (manipulating planes and forms), Léger concentrated more on color and shape
La femme en bleu(The woman in blue) 1912 Oil on canvas
Contrast of Forms 1913 Oil on burlapOne of the series Contrast of Forms