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Pesticide Formulations


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Pesticide Formulations

  1. 1. Pesticide Formulations
  2. 2. What’s Up With The Names? <ul><li>Trade name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example - Roundup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common name of active ingredient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the chemistry </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What’s In That Jug or Bag? <ul><li>Active ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Diluents </li></ul><ul><li>Adjuvants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spray additive that enhances the performance, safety, or handling characteristics of a pesticide </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why Formulate? <ul><li>Allow for easier mixing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More dilute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extend stability & shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance pesticide activity </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for convenient packaging </li></ul>
  5. 5. Liquid Formulations <ul><li>Active ingredient dissolved or suspended in a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in “pounds of active ingredient per gallon” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., 4# a.i. per gallon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically high concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No dust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Aerosols - A <ul><li>Solvent plus a.i. </li></ul><ul><li>Low percentage of a.i. </li></ul><ul><li>RTU – no mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes with own applicator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispose of applicator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhalation hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Drift </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous if punctured or near flame </li></ul>
  7. 7. Emulsifiable Concentrate - EC <ul><li>Emulsifier helps water-insoluble a.i. stay suspended in water </li></ul><ul><li>Emusifier forms a “bubble” around a.i. </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration (2 to 8 pounds per gallon) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to handle and use </li></ul><ul><li>Little agitation </li></ul><ul><li>Little visible residue </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration – mixing & calibration errors </li></ul><ul><li>Phytotoxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Easily absorbed through skin </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents may harm rubber & plastic sprayer parts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Flowable Suspensions – FL or F <ul><li>Water-insoluble solid a.i. suspended in a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to handle & use </li></ul><ul><li>Requires moderate agitation </li></ul><ul><li>May leave a visible residue </li></ul>
  9. 9. Solutions - S <ul><li>Active ingredient is water-soluble </li></ul><ul><li>No agitation required </li></ul><ul><li>Very few water-soluble active ingredients </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fumigants <ul><li>Form a gas when applied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasses under pressure – liquid in container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids that form gas under high humidity or in the presence of water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural pest control, soil fumigants, greenhouses, soil, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic to wide range of pests </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrate cracks & crevices </li></ul><ul><li>Target area must be enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>Usually highly toxic to humans </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dry Formulations <ul><li>Active ingredient is a solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finely ground water-insoluble solid a.i. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finely ground water-insoluble solid a.i. coated on to a clay particle, chalk, nut shell, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finely ground water-soluble solid a.i. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measured as a percent by weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., 75% by weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some applications are easier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually require agitation (spray applications) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Baits - B <ul><li>Active ingredient mixed with food or other attractant </li></ul><ul><li>Usually low concentration (<5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Ready to use </li></ul><ul><li>Put in specific places – not broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lasting </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive to kids, pets, and non-target wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Dead pests can smell! </li></ul><ul><li>Typically very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lasting </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dusts - D <ul><li>Water-insoluble solid coated on to finely ground carrier – clay, chalk, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast or spot applications </li></ul><ul><li>Low % a.i. (1 – 10%) </li></ul><ul><li>RTU – no mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Simple equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Good for hard-to-reach places </li></ul><ul><li>Drift </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive – low % a.i. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Granules - G <ul><li>Similar to dusts except the particles are larger </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly higher % a.i. (1 – 20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually soil applied </li></ul><ul><li>RTU – no mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Low drift hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Little danger of inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Simple application equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Does not stick to foliage </li></ul><ul><li>May need to incorporate in to soil </li></ul><ul><li>May need moisture to activate </li></ul><ul><li>Expense – low % a.i. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wettable Powder - WP <ul><li>Finely-ground water-insoluble solid </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed with water for application – spray </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration (5 – 95%) </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Storage & transport </li></ul><ul><li>Lower phytotoxicirty </li></ul><ul><li>Less skin absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation hazard while mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Require constant agitation </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasive to pumps & nozzles </li></ul><ul><li>Residue may be visible </li></ul>
  16. 16. Water-Soluble Packet - WSP <ul><li>Wettable powder in a water-soluble packet </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-measured amount </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to handle – no dust </li></ul><ul><li>No measuring </li></ul><ul><li>Packets sensitive to moisture during storage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Water Dispersable Granules - WDG <ul><li>Granule size particles made from a WP </li></ul><ul><li>Less inhalation hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to handle </li></ul><ul><li>Require constant agitation </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasive to pumps & nozzles </li></ul><ul><li>Residue may be visible </li></ul>
  18. 18. Soluble Powder - S <ul><li>Active ingredient is water-soluble </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration (5 – 95%) </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Storage & transport </li></ul><ul><li>Lower phytotoxicirty </li></ul><ul><li>Less skin absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Less agitation required </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation hazard while mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Few formulations available </li></ul>