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Faceted Navigation of User-Generated Metadata (Calit2 Rescue Seminar Series 2006)


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Faceted Navigation of User-Generated Metadata (Calit2 Rescue Seminar Series 2006)

  1. 1. Faceted Navigation of User-Generated Metadata Bradley P. Allen Founder & CTO Siderean Software, Inc. Calit2 2006 Rescue Seminar Series, UC Irvine, July 28 th 2006
  2. 2. When search fails RAWLSTON Here's a man who might have been President. He's been loved and hated and talked about as much as any man in our time - but when he comes to die, he's got something on his mind called "Rosebud." What does that mean? GIRL What about Rosebud? Don't you think that explains anything? THOMPSON No, I don't. Not much anyway. Charles Foster Kane was a man who got everything he wanted, and then lost it. Maybe Rosebud was something he couldn't get or lost. No, I don't think it explains anything. I don't think any word explains a man's life. No - I guess Rosebud is just a piece in a jigsaw puzzle - a missing piece. RAYMOND Throw that junk in, too. Camera travels to the pile that he has indicated. It is mostly bits of broken packing cases, excelsior, etc. The sled is on top of the pile. As camera comes close, it shows the faded rosebud and, though the letters are faded, unmistakably the word "ROSEBUD" across it. The laborer drops his shovel, takes the sled in his hand and throws it into the furnace. The flames start to devour it.
  3. 3. When search fails
  4. 4. Navigation vs. search <ul><li>Navigation answers two key questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where am I? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I get to where I want to go from here? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search doesn’t </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Facets tell you where you are </li></ul><ul><li>Tags tell you how to move forward </li></ul>Facets and tags: the basis of faceted navigation <ul><li>Tags are metadata describing asset, subject, usage and relational properties of digital assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title: “Bleak House” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creator: “Dickens, Charles” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facets are metadata attribute whose values form a near-orthogonal set of controlled vocabularies, together forming a coordinate system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject: Arsenic, Antimony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: World > U.S. > California > Pasadena </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rooted in classification research in library science </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering implementations by Marti Hearst at Berkeley </li></ul>
  6. 6. Faceted navigation in the enterprise Intelligence analysts, systems engineers Commitment to RDF/OWL as solution for cross-agency interoperability, actively using RSS Scads of all types, with unstructured information often preprocessed to boot Search, analyze and monitor complex, dynamic intelligence, project and problem information across organizations and projects (Columbia, Iraq, 9/11) Federal Government Traders, industry analysts, investment bankers Adoption of RSS for market intelligence and content delivery emerging News feeds, financial DBs, market data, client data Search, analyze and monitor dynamic financial and market data, 360-degree view of clients Financial Services Consumers, marketers Pervasive adoption of XML standards for moving product and customer data across value chains Product catalogs, customer reviews, customer service data, advertising Search and browse catalogs of products and services, consumer-generated information E-Commerce Business users Adopting metadata technologies Metadata Strong identified application fit Vertical
  7. 7. Building a faceted navigation application (in Seamark) Transformed into a unified information architecture expressed in RDF/OWL Term Event Person Place Text Analyzed to generate an application profile for faceted navigation of the aggregated metadata Presented as an end-user navigation application Metadata about data and content is aggregated
  8. 8. Case study: Environmental Health News (EHN) <ul><li>Aggregating content from hundreds of Web pages daily </li></ul><ul><li>Adding value at the metadata level to the Web at large for a focused community of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Case study: NASA JPL <ul><li>Aggregating multiple content repositories and structured trouble ticket databases </li></ul><ul><li>Using corporate vocabulary for high precision access </li></ul><ul><li>Providing access and discovery across all project information for managers and engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented in weeks </li></ul>
  10. 10. Faceted navigation requires metadata <ul><li>Faceted navigation depends on metadata </li></ul><ul><li>This metadata has traditionally come from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor-intensive manual processes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Users can be a source of metadata <ul><li>Faceted navigation creates a framework to bridge the gap between metadata and the user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit implicit (usage) and explicit (subject) user-generated metadata to reduce labor costs of the repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage the metadata which is at hand in increasing amounts on the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RSS, FOAF, SKOS, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Example: user tagging <ul><li>User tagging is massively collaborative subject indexing with uncontrolled vocabularies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new point on the metadata cost/value continuum pioneered by, Flickr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can this play with traditional subject indexing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomies can make taxonomies more responsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomies can make folksonomies more responsible </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Aggregating feeds from social bookmarking site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 5 Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 4 tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 4 contributors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 4 originating sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combining user tagging with faceted navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In 3 clicks, I drilled down through 9700+ sites, to a more specific set of 98 things, down to one I found useful.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… the most comprehensive tool for searching the database of” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Faceted navigation + tagging
  16. 16. Faceted navigation + tagging
  17. 17. Bridging the gap between folksonomies and taxonomies <ul><li>Reduce/eliminate lexical variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merge variants into a single concept using skos:prefLabel and skos:altLabel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relate tags to terms and other tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag the tags with categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place tags in time and space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags are related to other tags through shared skos:subjectOf relationships with items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compensate for ambiguous tags with term indexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index items tagged with ambiguous tags with unambiguous terms based on context (e.g. the tag “SF”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allow users to exploit tags and terms concurrently </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reduce/eliminate lexical variation (before) ConceptScheme1 (Folksonomy) Resources skos:subject skos:subject skos:prefLabel skos:prefLabel “ Blogs” “ Blog”
  19. 19. Reduce/eliminate lexical variation (after) ConceptScheme1 (Folksonomy) Resources skos:subject skos:subject skos:subject skos:prefLabel skos:altLabel “ Blog” “ Blogs”
  20. 20. Relate tags to terms ConceptScheme2 (Taxonomy) skos:exactMatch “ Weblog” ConceptScheme1 (Folksonomy) Resources skos:subject skos:subject skos:prefLabel skos:altLabel “ Blog” “ Blogs” ConceptScheme2 (Taxonomy)
  21. 21. Compensate for ambiguous tags with term indexing ConceptScheme2 (Taxonomy) skos:exactMatch “ Weblog” skos:subject skos:subject ConceptScheme1 (Folksonomy) Resources skos:subject skos:subject skos:prefLabel skos:altLabel “ Blog” “ Blogs” ConceptScheme2 (Taxonomy)
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  23. 23.
  24. 24. User-generated metadata: the value chain <ul><li>Publishers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-generated metadata increases the value of core content and data offerings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributors (enthusiasts, editors, remixers, librarians) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for remixing, tagging, annotating and playlisting content and data enhance value at the metadata level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More navigable rich data and content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advertisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher-yield ads based on paid navigation rather than paid search </li></ul></ul>Publishers Contributors Advertisers Consumers Tags, attention Ads and links Tags and leads Tags, facets and remixes Digital assets Tags and facets Tags, attention Digital assets
  25. 25. Questions <ul><li>Where else can we end up on the user metadata creation cost/value continuum? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we get more value by filling out a few more fields? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Current work: Poptonic <ul><li>A prototype consumer site for user-contributed celebrity gossip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refining the EHN approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key idea: user tagging mashed up with case frames </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce ambiguity by creating tags as role fillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase information content by creating rich relationships between objects named by tags </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Poptonic faceted navigation
  28. 28. Poptonic event entry
  29. 29. Modeling events in RDF <Manifestation> <Entity> 1 <Entity> 2 <Entity> n <Event> <Text> skos:broaderInstantive skos:subjectOf <Role> 2 <Role> 3 <Role> 1 <Role> 1 <Role> 2 <Role> 3 jup:hasRole jup:hasRole jup:hasRole skos:related rdfs:subPropertyOf Jup:Agent Jup:Instrument Jup:Object rdfs:subPropertyOf rdfs:subPropertyOf rdfs:subPropertyOf
  30. 30. Example event Wearing MISCHA BARTON JIMMY CHOO SHOES 2006-05-18T01:32:03-07:00 MISCHA BARTON JIMMY CHOO SHOES Wearing http:// / search/news?... skos:broaderInstantive skos:subjectOf jup:Wearer jup:WornItem jup:Wearer jup:WornItem jup:hasRole jup:hasRole skos:related rdfs:subPropertyOf jup:Agent jup:Object rdfs:subPropertyOf rdfs:subPropertyOf
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>Faceted navigation depends on metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Users are increasingly a source of rich, dynamic metadata </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated metadata provides opportunities for new and compelling applications of faceted navigation </li></ul>
  32. 32. Siderean Software, Inc. 390 North Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 2070 El Segundo, CA 90245-4475 USA +1 310 647-4266 ballen at siderean dot com