Afro-Brazilian Musical Traditions
Conceptualizing Afro-Brazilian Musical Culture <ul><li>Contested Terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Sites of Resistance </li></ul><...
Defining African Heritage in Afro-Brazilian Traditions <ul><li>Common Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplanted African tra...
African Identity and  Afro-Brazilian Religion   <ul><li>Candomblé as Matrix of Africanness </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Afr...
Candombl é <ul><li>Orix ás and Voduns </li></ul><ul><li>African Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketu (Yoruba) </li></ul></ul...
Candomblé Aesthetics of Participation <ul><li>Participatory religious experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singing, Dancing, D...
Abassa Igibale  Candomblé House in Recife <ul><li>Festa/Toque (public celebration)   </li></ul><ul><li>Lula de Oiy á (Baba...
Festa/Toque de Candomblé
Lula de Oiy á Babalorixá
Ogan  Drummers Agbe Atabaque
Spirit  Possession
Music of Candomblé  Canon of Africanness <ul><li>Acoustic Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drums and percussion </li></ul></u...
Candomblé Song
Afox é and Maracatu <ul><li>Two Afro-Brazilian Carnival Traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afox é (Salvador da Bahia) </li><...
Afox és in Bahia <ul><li>1890s--Small and Large Parading Groups </li></ul><ul><li>1900s--Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>193...
Filhos de Gandhi <ul><li>Founded 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>From bloco to afox é </li></ul><ul><li>Ijexá rhythm </li></ul>WebS...
Ijex á Rhythm YouTube
Maracatus in Recife Our queen has been crowned Our king came from Mina
Maracatu’s Historical Outline <ul><li>Crowning Black Kings Rei de Congo/Angola (colonial) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Cath...
Maracatu and Carnival <ul><li>Linked to Candomblé houses </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualized as African Nations </li></ul><ul...
Maracatu’s Royal Entourage <ul><li>King/Queen </li></ul><ul><li>Prince/Princess </li></ul><ul><li>Duke/Dutchess </li></ul>...
King and Queen
Dama do Paço Calunga
Batuqueiros Alfaia Gongu ê
Naç ão Porto Rico Carnival 2001   YouTube WebPage
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  • Photo: Dancing during a festa de Candombl é at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • Photo: Lula de Oiy á opens a festa at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • Photo: Four Ogans performa at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • Photo: Spirit possession by Xang ô at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • YouTube Rum de Ogum http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0c0InITt_lk. This YouTube example shows a Candombl é festa featuring the dance, drumming, and singing characteristic of Candomblé participatory aesthetics. Oxossi no Rum http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4vbifOeDGA&amp;feature=related. This one has dancing and possession. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GKYgjckRhRE&amp;feature=related Another good YouTube showing Candomblé
  • A field recording made by Gerard B éhague of this piece can be found on Side 2/Band 1 of Afro-Brazilian Religious Songs: Cantigas de Candomblé/Candomblé Songs from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (Lyrichord Stereo LLST 7315). The recording is available for download (track 7) at &lt;http://lyrichorddownloads.downloadcentric.net/app?page=Product&amp;service=external&amp;sp=SD06036E80FLTBLH9146F3&gt;.
  • Website: for information on Filhos de Gandhi (also commonly spelled Gandhy): &lt;http://www.bahia-online.net/filhosdegandhy.htm&gt; This website dedicated to Filhos de Gandhi is in English and has a short video clip of the group. Website2: Photo of the group’s “Gandhi”figure. &lt; http://www.ciranda.net/spip/IMG/jpg/CA0LIRWX.jpg&gt;
  • YouTube: &lt;http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tt_6we01qiA&gt; This is a p review for a documentary titled Filhos de Gandhy Documentary - Sounds of Wisdom Amidst the Cacophony of Carnaval. The sound track begins with the Ijex á rhythm notated in the slide with trumpets layered on top. At approximately 1:13 drummers of the Filho de Gandhi areseen followed by beaded gourds. At about 1:38 the images and sound track switch to an unidentified Bloco Afro group followed by several scenes of Carnival in Bahia. At 2:45 the sound track and images are of the Filhos de Gandhi group. The final scenes show the group in the streets of Salvador.
  • Photo: King and Queen of the maracatu Naç ão Porto Rico do Oriente during Carnival in Recife, 2001. Photo by Larry Crook
  • These are some of the main characters that make up the royal entourage of a Maracatu
  • Photo: King and Queen of the Naç ã o Porto Rico do Oriente during Carnival in Recife, 2001. Photo by Larry Crook. This is Dona Elder, Queen of Porto Rico.
  • Photo: A Dama do Paço (Palace Lady) of the maracatu Naç ã o Sol Nascente carrying a calunga (wooden doll) representing an ancestor of the group. Recife Carnival. Photo by Larry Crook.
  • Photo: Batuqueiros from the Naç ão Elefante performing in Recife, 1987. Photo by Sylvia Crook.
  • YouTube: Naç ão Porto Rico performing for Carnival in Recife, 2002. &lt; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhb7d9JKNcE&gt; While the video and audio quality are not the best, this is a good example of the the maracatu de baque virado. WebPage: Page dedicated Naç ã o Porto Rico is at &lt;http://nacaoportorico.art.br/blog/?page_id=7&gt; It contains several videos and information about the group.
  • Ch3

    1. 1. Afro-Brazilian Musical Traditions
    2. 2. Conceptualizing Afro-Brazilian Musical Culture <ul><li>Contested Terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Sites of Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriation and Nationalization </li></ul>
    3. 3. Defining African Heritage in Afro-Brazilian Traditions <ul><li>Common Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplanted African traditions (without modification) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Neo-African Brazilian traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture of African and European elements create new hybrid Brazilian forms </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. African Identity and Afro-Brazilian Religion <ul><li>Candomblé as Matrix of Africanness </li></ul><ul><li>Universal African Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Competency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drumming </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Candombl é <ul><li>Orix ás and Voduns </li></ul><ul><li>African Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketu (Yoruba) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ijex á (Yoruba) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nagô (Yoruba) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gêge (Ewe-Fon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congo-Angola (Bantu) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Candomblé Aesthetics of Participation <ul><li>Participatory religious experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singing, Dancing, Drumming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit possession </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universalist African identity </li></ul>
    7. 7. Abassa Igibale Candomblé House in Recife <ul><li>Festa/Toque (public celebration) </li></ul><ul><li>Lula de Oiy á (Babalorixá) </li></ul><ul><li>Ogans (Drummers) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit Possession </li></ul>
    8. 8. Festa/Toque de Candomblé
    9. 9. Lula de Oiy á Babalorixá
    10. 10. Ogan Drummers Agbe Atabaque
    11. 11. Spirit Possession
    12. 12. Music of Candomblé Canon of Africanness <ul><li>Acoustic Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drums and percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solo and responsorial chorus singing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dancing </li></ul>
    13. 13. Candomblé Song
    14. 14. Afox é and Maracatu <ul><li>Two Afro-Brazilian Carnival Traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afox é (Salvador da Bahia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maracatu (Recife, Pernambuco) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>State Intervention and Repression </li></ul>
    15. 15. Afox és in Bahia <ul><li>1890s--Small and Large Parading Groups </li></ul><ul><li>1900s--Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>1930s--Resurgence </li></ul><ul><li>1949--Filhos de Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>1970s--Revitalization </li></ul>
    16. 16. Filhos de Gandhi <ul><li>Founded 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>From bloco to afox é </li></ul><ul><li>Ijexá rhythm </li></ul>WebSite WebSite2
    17. 17. Ijex á Rhythm YouTube
    18. 18. Maracatus in Recife Our queen has been crowned Our king came from Mina
    19. 19. Maracatu’s Historical Outline <ul><li>Crowning Black Kings Rei de Congo/Angola (colonial) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Catholic Brotherhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processions and Festivities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African and European cultural mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afro-Brazilian Religious Houses and Naç ões (Nations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maracatu (19th century) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful gathering of blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorderly conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loud “African” drumming and singing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maracatu in Carnival (1890s-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codified as African Carnival Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentation, musical style, structure set </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Maracatu and Carnival <ul><li>Linked to Candomblé houses </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualized as African Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Codified in structure and musical style by about 1900 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Maracatu’s Royal Entourage <ul><li>King/Queen </li></ul><ul><li>Prince/Princess </li></ul><ul><li>Duke/Dutchess </li></ul><ul><li>Damas do Paço (Palace Ladies) </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Caboclos (Indians) </li></ul><ul><li>Baianas (Female initiates of Candomblé) </li></ul><ul><li>Batuqueiros (Percussionists) </li></ul>
    22. 22. King and Queen
    23. 23. Dama do Paço Calunga
    24. 24. Batuqueiros Alfaia Gongu ê
    25. 25. Naç ão Porto Rico Carnival 2001 YouTube WebPage

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