Managing Your  Hard Disk and  Operating System 23,26 March 2004 2:30pm - 4:00pm
Knowing your Hard Disk and Partition Management
Multiple Operating System
Physical Geometry About Your Disk <ul><li>Side(Head) </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder (Tracks per Side) </li></ul><ul><li>Track ...
Limitations of Your System * The disk capacity limited by the min. values.
To Overcome the Limitations <ul><li>Address Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controller board on hard disk translates the...
Logical Block Addressing (LBA) <ul><li>Suppose a Hard disk with CHS= 2040 / 16 / 63 </li></ul><ul><li>To access a sector o...
Limitation of Logical Block Addressing (LBA) <ul><li>* Most hard disk use 28-bit LBA addressing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Max...
File Systems
Popular file systems for PCs <ul><li>File Allocation Table (FAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT12, FAT16, FAT32 </li></ul></ul>...
Type of FAT system <ul><li>FAT12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12bits cluster addressing    # of cluster = 2 12  =  4K </li></ul>...
File Allocation Table (FAT)  file system Boot Sector FAT (store usage of clusters) Root Directory User data area (addressa...
Partitions
Why Partition? <ul><li>Organize and protect important data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. OS in C:, Data in D: </li></ul></ul>...
Partition Table <ul><li>located in Master Boot Record (MBR) </li></ul><ul><li>Storing information of partitions </li></ul>...
Primary and Extended partitions MBR Extended Win XP Win 98 MSDOS Partition Table F: Extended E: D: Extended Partition Tabl...
A Typical Partition Table Some Typical System Type: 5  Extended Partition 6  DOS FAT-16 7  HPFS/NTFS b  FAT-32 c  FAT-32X(...
Screenshot of DISKEDIT
Screenshot of SPFDISK
Partition Management <ul><li>Create </li></ul><ul><li>Delete </li></ul><ul><li>Re-size </li></ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul><u...
Tools for partition management <ul><li>FDISK (MSDOS, Win 9X, Linux) </li></ul><ul><li>Partition Magic </li></ul><ul><li>Sy...
Why not just use FDISK? <ul><li>Can create only one primary partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple primary partition nee...
Comparison among Some Tools
Installing  Multiple Operating System
Why use multiple OS? <ul><li>Better utilization of large hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Allows OS with  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Ways to run Multiple OS <ul><li>Hard Disk Partitioning </li></ul><ul><li>Running Virtual Machine in Host OS </li></ul><ul>...
Create Multi-boot System by Partitioning <ul><li>Perform system check to make sure no disk error </li></ul><ul><li>Re-size...
How Is Your Computer Boot Up Single OS System Power on Boot sequence BIOSPOST Floppy CD-ROM HD 0 HD 1 Load MBR On HD 1 st ...
How Boot Manager Works  Multiple OS System Power on Boot sequence BIOSPOST Floppy CD-ROM HD 0 HD 1 Load MBR On HD Boot Man...
Some Boot Managers <ul><li>System Commander </li></ul><ul><li>Reborn Card </li></ul><ul><li>Boot Manager Plus (BMP) </li><...
Something to Consider <ul><li>File system type ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT16, FAT32 or NTFS ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parti...
Try it yourself!
Try the following steps: <ul><li>Delete partition using FDISK </li></ul><ul><li>Use SPFDISK to create partitions </li></ul...
The End Thank You!
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Booy Up

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Booy Up

  1. 1. Managing Your Hard Disk and Operating System 23,26 March 2004 2:30pm - 4:00pm
  2. 2. Knowing your Hard Disk and Partition Management
  3. 3. Multiple Operating System
  4. 4. Physical Geometry About Your Disk <ul><li>Side(Head) </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder (Tracks per Side) </li></ul><ul><li>Track </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors/Track </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster </li></ul><ul><li>1 Sector = 512 Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity = Cylinder x Head x Sector x 512 Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. A hard disk with 1023 Cylinders, 6 Heads and 63 Sectors/Track (CHS=1023/6/63) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity = 1023 x 6 x 63 x 512 Bytes = 386694 sectors = 197987328 B = 188.8 MB </li></ul></ul>Side/Head Track Sector
  5. 5. Limitations of Your System * The disk capacity limited by the min. values.
  6. 6. To Overcome the Limitations <ul><li>Address Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controller board on hard disk translates the the CHS values such that the no. will not exceed the max. no. allowed in BIOS and partition table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert the physical values to logical values, e.g. 2000/16/63  1000/32/63 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modify BIOS’s design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For addressing still using traditional CHS values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical Block Addressing (LBA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LINEAR addressing instead of using CHS values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newer OS/file system e.g. FAT32, NTFS </li></ul>
  7. 7. Logical Block Addressing (LBA) <ul><li>Suppose a Hard disk with CHS= 2040 / 16 / 63 </li></ul><ul><li>To access a sector on Cyl: 2000 , Head: 10 , Sect: 60 (CHS= 2000 / 10 / 60 ) </li></ul><ul><li>LBA value = 2000 x 16 x 63 + 10 x 63 + 60 = 2016690 </li></ul>Sect 1 Sect 63 Head 0 Head 1 Sect 126 Head 15 Sect 1008 Cyl. 0 Sect 2016690 C=2000 H=10 S=60
  8. 8. Limitation of Logical Block Addressing (LBA) <ul><li>* Most hard disk use 28-bit LBA addressing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Max. Capacity of 28-bit LBA = 2 28 Sectors = 128GB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Newest hard disk use 48-bit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1 Million times bigger! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. File Systems
  10. 10. Popular file systems for PCs <ul><li>File Allocation Table (FAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT12, FAT16, FAT32 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS, Win9x/Me/NT/2000/XP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Performance File Sys.(HPFS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM’s OS/2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Technology File Sys.(NTFS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win NT/2000/XP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXT 2,3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Type of FAT system <ul><li>FAT12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12bits cluster addressing  # of cluster = 2 12 = 4K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cluster = 1 sector = 512 Bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max. capacity = 2 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly for floppy disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAT16 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16bits cluster addressing  # of cluster = 2 16 = 64K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cluster = 4~64 sectors = 2KB~32KB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity = 128 MB ~ 2 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly for DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAT32 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32bits cluster addressing  # of cluster = 2 32 = 4G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cluster = 8~64 sectors = 4KB~32KB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity = 512 MB ~ 2 TB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly for Win 9X </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. File Allocation Table (FAT) file system Boot Sector FAT (store usage of clusters) Root Directory User data area (addressable by cluster #) Disk Space Clusters #
  13. 13. Partitions
  14. 14. Why Partition? <ul><li>Organize and protect important data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. OS in C:, Data in D: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Run several operating system with one HD </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to large disk (for FAT16 or older file systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize wasted disk space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger disk  Larger Cluster size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> more wastage of space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smaller partition  smaller Cluster size  less wastage </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Partition Table <ul><li>located in Master Boot Record (MBR) </li></ul><ul><li>Storing information of partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Max. 4 partitions in a table </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Extended </li></ul>Disk Space addressable by Sector# MBR/ Partition Table Partitions Win Xp Win 98 Data
  16. 16. Primary and Extended partitions MBR Extended Win XP Win 98 MSDOS Partition Table F: Extended E: D: Extended Partition Table Primary Partitions Extended Partitions Logical drives Linux swap Linux Extended Partition Table Boot Code
  17. 17. A Typical Partition Table Some Typical System Type: 5 Extended Partition 6 DOS FAT-16 7 HPFS/NTFS b FAT-32 c FAT-32X(Cyl > 1024) Sect. Cyl. Side Sect. Cyl. Side Boot System Type No. of Sect. Relative Sect. End Start 4192965 15599115 63 1023 254 1 971 0 00 b 10377990 5221125 63 970 254 1 325 0 00 5 4192965 1028160 63 324 254 1 64 0 00 7 1028097 63 63 63 254 1 0 1 80 6
  18. 18. Screenshot of DISKEDIT
  19. 19. Screenshot of SPFDISK
  20. 20. Partition Management <ul><li>Create </li></ul><ul><li>Delete </li></ul><ul><li>Re-size </li></ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul><ul><li>File system conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Hide/Unhide </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tools for partition management <ul><li>FDISK (MSDOS, Win 9X, Linux) </li></ul><ul><li>Partition Magic </li></ul><ul><li>System Commander </li></ul><ul><li>Norton GHOST </li></ul><ul><li>Many of freeware/shareware from Internet e.g. SPFDISK, EFDISK </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why not just use FDISK? <ul><li>Can create only one primary partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple primary partition needed for multiple OS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destroy data in partition after creation or deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot change system ID (type) which is helpful in preparing multiple boot system </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot hide partition </li></ul>
  23. 23. Comparison among Some Tools
  24. 24. Installing Multiple Operating System
  25. 25. Why use multiple OS? <ul><li>Better utilization of large hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Allows OS with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. WinXP for working, Linux for testing … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. One for me, one for brother,… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. One for software download, one for internet-banking </li></ul></ul></ul>* Be sure you are properly LICENSED!
  26. 26. Ways to run Multiple OS <ul><li>Hard Disk Partitioning </li></ul><ul><li>Running Virtual Machine in Host OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VMware (for Win NT/2000/XP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual PC (for MAC) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Create Multi-boot System by Partitioning <ul><li>Perform system check to make sure no disk error </li></ul><ul><li>Re-size your current partition to free up space for other OS </li></ul><ul><li>Create and format another primary partition </li></ul><ul><li>Install a Boot Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Install another Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful if the OS will destroy the MBR </li></ul>
  28. 28. How Is Your Computer Boot Up Single OS System Power on Boot sequence BIOSPOST Floppy CD-ROM HD 0 HD 1 Load MBR On HD 1 st Pri. Partition
  29. 29. How Boot Manager Works Multiple OS System Power on Boot sequence BIOSPOST Floppy CD-ROM HD 0 HD 1 Load MBR On HD Boot Manager Win XP Win 98 Linux
  30. 30. Some Boot Managers <ul><li>System Commander </li></ul><ul><li>Reborn Card </li></ul><ul><li>Boot Manager Plus (BMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Boot Manager (SMB) </li></ul><ul><li>SPFDISK </li></ul><ul><li>Build in OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Win NT/2000/XP, Linux, OS/2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many many from Internet </li></ul>
  31. 31. Something to Consider <ul><li>File system type ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT16, FAT32 or NTFS ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partition location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some OS cannot boot beyond 2GB boundary(Cyl.>1023) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Win NT/2000, Linux (older ver.) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Try it yourself!
  33. 33. Try the following steps: <ul><li>Delete partition using FDISK </li></ul><ul><li>Use SPFDISK to create partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Use GHOST to restore partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Install a Boot-manager </li></ul><ul><li>Configure the Boot Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Done! </li></ul>
  34. 34. The End Thank You!

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