MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY     AND INFLUENCEWeek Three – Contemporary MediaResearch
PreDay: Let‟s look at yourModels        Media Psychology and Influence                   SPICE 2012 (Erfurt)           ND ...
Day One: The Bad Things       Media Psychology and Influence                  SPICE 2012 (Erfurt)          ND Bowman PhD, ...
Outline   “The Bad”     Sex  In Media     Violence in Media     Body Image in Media     Racism in Media
Sex in the Media   Why should we care?       Kaiser Family Fund reports that        sex is learned from:         Friend...
What sort of Sex?                  Lots of labels, including                   erotic, pornographic, X-                  ...
What sort of Sex?   Importantly, it‟s not all porn and it‟s not all video     Sex in literature goes back to Classics   ...
Effects of sexual media   Arousal effects, much    greater on males     What   explains this?     What has been      fo...
Effects of sexual media   Attitudinal Effects     Less  satisfaction with      own partners     More support of rape   ...
Effects of sexual media   Behavioral Effects      Learning  new behaviors      Disinhibiting effects   What Theory Migh...
Sex in the Media   Why should we care?     750K  (40-50 per 1000) annual US teen      pregnancies (highest in modern wor...
Defining Pornography                   I shall not today attempt                   further to define the kinds of         ...
Sex in the Media – They‟reaffectedGeneral Public                Hollywood Elite   76% feel that TV             37% feel ...
Sex in the Media – They‟reaffected   Why the    disagreement?    A Third Person Effect     could be at play here      G...
Violence, or Aggression?   As much as we study media‟s effect on violent    actions, we see fewer acts of widespread    v...
General Aggression Model   What is Aggression?     Evolutionary:mate selection, protection, survival     As society dev...
General Aggression Model   Main components    1.   Person and         Situation Inputs    2.   Present Internal         S...
General Aggression Model   Violence influences:     Short-term  –      aggressive thoughts      primed     Long-term – ...
Body Image and the Media             Internalization of Thin               Body Ideal (Hour-                     Glass)  M...
Body Image and the Media   Harrison and Hefner (2005) argue that these    mediating effects might be happening as    youn...
Body Image and the Media  Self-ConceptAgeMediaExposure         Thin                 Body                 IdealPeer Pressur...
Body Image and the Media   Body Images are not just in “adult” media
Body Image and the Media      Current body image, or future body image?More likely to see older “thin” women in media, so...
Body Image and the Media              Food for Thought: How was the              proposed mediator (internalization of    ...
Minorities in the Mass Media   In mid-2011, a story on minority optimism in    the face of US economic downturn received ...
Minorities in the Mass Media   Greenberg and colleagues wrote on the topic    in three sections:    1.   Content analysis...
Minorities in the Mass Media                               Real-World DemographicsPrime-Time Television (2000)            ...
Minorities in the Mass Media1.   Absent2.   Comic Relief3.   Justice and Stability4.   Normal
Minorities in the Mass Media   Usage Patterns     Overall,   Blacks watch far more television than      Whites     Lati...
Day Two: Bad Content, GoodEffect       Media Psychology and Influence                  SPICE 2012 (Erfurt)          ND Bow...
Outline   “spill-over from yesterday”   Appreciation as Media Effect   Disinterest in Media Portrayals   Media as Emot...
Appreciation for Media   Enjoyment has been a central (almost myopic)    focus in entertainment research   Enjoyment ten...
Appreciation for Media
Appreciation for Media   Why does entertainment media have to be    enjoyable?     Seems   short-sighted, given the plet...
Appreciation for Media   Eudaimonic motivations for media    consumption also exist to drive    meaningfulness and insigh...
Appreciation for MediaHedonic Happiness         Eudianomic Happiness   Pleasure                 Self-expression   Arous...
Appreciation for Media   Media can result in the satisfaction of needs    that are not self-gratifications…   …but in fa...
Appreciation for Media                         These data show                         consistent                         ...
Appreciation for Media
Disinterest in Action
Disinterest in Action   Do we always enact what we see on screen?   No, and perhaps we are turned away from it          ...
Disinterest in Action   Consider NRA Gun Club                            What does our                            game “r...
Disinterest in Action   Disinterest likely    requires:    1.   Exposure to script    2.   Retention of script           ...
Gaming and Control   Video games provide us with “virtual realities”    …   …which might provide escapes and    experien...
Gaming and Control   Unlike films, video games require us to be in    the perceptual (violent?) space, which might    pro...
Presence   A sense of “being there”   Characteristics     Continuum, not categorical     Psychological, not technologi...
Flow   Flow     Understood   as “being in the moment”     Skills vs. Challenge – a balance                             ...
Coping in video games   Consider our daily lives, which Grodal argues    involve (among others):     Empathy     Cooper...
Importance of Context
Emotions, Real and Mediated   Emotional responses – good or bad – require    a meaningful stimulus + response   Emotions...
Video games vs. films   Some differences might be:     Attention controls perception     Mental maps of virtual space  ...
Video games vs. films
Gaming and Control1.   Interaction between player and game     transforms coping reactions to coping     procedures; video...
Day Three: Media asFunctional      Media Psychology and Influence                 SPICE 2012 (Erfurt)         ND Bowman Ph...
Outline   Selective Exposure and Mood Management   Media and Need Satisfaction   Vitality and Restoration
Selective Exposure Theory   People select media to:     Dissipate   noxious mood      states     Ruminate pleasant mood...
SET and the Big Four   Media Factors     Arousal   regulation       Motivated  to sustain        an optimal level of   ...
SET and the Big Four   Content Factors     Hedonic   valence       Theoverall       pleasant/unpleasant       form of t...
BoredStressed
Self-Determination Theory
Self-Determination Theory   These are not hedonic needs (the “other 51%”)   Media usage is functional (satisfies our    ...
Self-Determination Theory   Can media provide for these feelings?   Enjoyment then might be the result of this    need s...
Evidence of SDT?
Evidence of SDT?
Media and Vitality Media use is often  considered distracting(displacementhypothesis) Particularly in the  workplace:   ...
Media and Vitality   But, is there more going on here?   Distraction is not always a bad    thing, particularly as it ca...
Media and Vitality   Studies show play can help with recovery     Play in general enhances all four recovery      experi...
Media and Vitality
BONUS: Moral FoundationsTheory   Morality is intuitive, not cognitive     In   line with cognitive miser ideal   Five m...
Support for MFT   Conservatives and Liberals             – harm/care and fairness     Liberals     Conservatives – equa...
Support for MFT   Conservatives and Liberals             – harm/care and fairness     Liberals     Conservatives – equa...
Digital Natives   Digital Natives = born into technology   Adjusted to social mores of Internet, gaming   Morality is “...
Digital Immigrants   Digital Immigrants = still adopting technology   Still learning customs of technology   Well-estab...
Week Three: Contemporary Media Research
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Week Three: Contemporary Media Research

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Week Three – “Contemporary Media Research”, which will bring our understanding of media psychology into the domain of Zillmann and Bryant – the pioneers of the modern study of media influence – and take us to the current state of the field. Here, we will discuss research on media violence, aggression, sexuality and racism in the media to understand how we currently see the relationship between media, the individual, and society. Notably, we will study the influence of this early scholarship on the specific study of entertainment and society.

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Week Three: Contemporary Media Research

  1. 1. MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY AND INFLUENCEWeek Three – Contemporary MediaResearch
  2. 2. PreDay: Let‟s look at yourModels Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  3. 3. Day One: The Bad Things Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  4. 4. Outline “The Bad”  Sex In Media  Violence in Media  Body Image in Media  Racism in Media
  5. 5. Sex in the Media Why should we care?  Kaiser Family Fund reports that sex is learned from:  Friends (64%)  TV or Movies (61%)  School and Teachers (44%)  Internet searches (40%)  Mothers and family (38%)  Other studies show teens learning sexual behavior from [violent] pornographic media (magazines, videos)
  6. 6. What sort of Sex?  Lots of labels, including erotic, pornographic, X- rated and sexually explicit  Big. Business. (also drives tech innovation)  Distinctions made between violence and nonviolent  But, nonviolence can have other effects (submission)
  7. 7. What sort of Sex? Importantly, it‟s not all porn and it‟s not all video  Sex in literature goes back to Classics  Overall, broadcast media has been far more conservative in portraying sex, even cross-culturally (WHY?)  Televised representations:  56% contain some form of sex content  54% contain talk about sex  23% contain sexual behavior  6:1 ratio of affairs to married sex (as high as 24:1 in soaps)  In general, trends to increased sex over time
  8. 8. Effects of sexual media Arousal effects, much greater on males  What explains this?  What has been found to moderate this (suppression)? The Catharsis Legend
  9. 9. Effects of sexual media Attitudinal Effects  Less satisfaction with own partners  More support of rape myth  Viewing of “out of context” women as sexual persons  Increased salience of „nasty heuristics‟  Effects not necessarily tied to explicit material
  10. 10. Effects of sexual media Behavioral Effects  Learning new behaviors  Disinhibiting effects What Theory Might Explain This?  Enactment of sex; crimes Sexual Violence: More than sum of parts Gender (Sex?) Media Content Sexual Thoughts Context Else?
  11. 11. Sex in the Media Why should we care?  750K (40-50 per 1000) annual US teen pregnancies (highest in modern world); rate lower in Germany (10 per 1000) [birth rates]  Germany and US, over 80% of teenagers have had intercourse  In US, 1:5 chance that your partner has an STD  an estimated 10M new STD cases among 15-24  Every hour, 2 Americans under 20 are infected with HIV  Rates much lower in Germany WHY?
  12. 12. Defining Pornography I shall not today attempt further to define the kinds of material I understand to be embraced within that shorthand description ["hard- core pornography"]; and perhaps I could never succeed in intelligibly doing so. But I know it when I see it, and the motion picture involved in this case is not that.
  13. 13. Sex in the Media – They‟reaffectedGeneral Public Hollywood Elite 76% feel that TV  37% feel that TV contributes to teen contributes to teen pregnancy pregnancy 84% see link to affairs  43% see link to affairs 83% link to  56% link to promiscuity promiscuity 90% link to teen sex  63% link to teen sex 84% link to violence  61% link to violence against women against women
  14. 14. Sex in the Media – They‟reaffected Why the disagreement? A Third Person Effect could be at play here  General notion that others are affected by mass messages more than we are  Davison, W. (1983). "The third-person effect in communication". Public Opinion Quarterly 47 (1): 1-15.
  15. 15. Violence, or Aggression? As much as we study media‟s effect on violent actions, we see fewer acts of widespread violence… …but, we might argue that aggressive thought is the media effect!
  16. 16. General Aggression Model What is Aggression?  Evolutionary:mate selection, protection, survival  As society developed, aggression becomes (became) increasingly maladaptive…  …yet, may be primed from our (media) environment
  17. 17. General Aggression Model Main components 1. Person and Situation Inputs 2. Present Internal States 3. Outcomes qua appraisal and decision
  18. 18. General Aggression Model Violence influences:  Short-term – aggressive thoughts primed  Long-term – overall desensitization to violence; accessibility of violent scripts
  19. 19. Body Image and the Media Internalization of Thin Body Ideal (Hour- Glass) Media Exposure  Eating Disorders
  20. 20. Body Image and the Media Harrison and Hefner (2005) argue that these mediating effects might be happening as young as pre-adolescent girls… …in fact, given few counterfactuals, effects might be stronger! Internalization of Thin Body Ideal (Hour- Glass) Media Exposure  Eating Disorders Counterfactuals (real-world
  21. 21. Body Image and the Media Self-ConceptAgeMediaExposure Thin Body IdealPeer Pressure Maternal Pressure
  22. 22. Body Image and the Media Body Images are not just in “adult” media
  23. 23. Body Image and the Media  Current body image, or future body image?More likely to see older “thin” women in media, so we might study “Grown Up Ideal”
  24. 24. Body Image and the Media Food for Thought: How was the proposed mediator (internalization of thin body ideal) assessed in this model?
  25. 25. Minorities in the Mass Media In mid-2011, a story on minority optimism in the face of US economic downturn received little press, angering many including Fox News‟ Juan Williams If there is a story about black poverty, police brutality or a drug-related shooting spree in a Hispanic neighborhood, the big papers will feature it with Page One coverage. Those stories fit old racial stereotypes. But when there is good news on race relations and refreshing evidence of blacks and Latinos leading the way by showing faith in America‟s future, the big media is just not that into it.
  26. 26. Minorities in the Mass Media Greenberg and colleagues wrote on the topic in three sections: 1. Content analysis 2. Usage patterns What Perspective Does This Sound Like? 3. Observed effects
  27. 27. Minorities in the Mass Media Real-World DemographicsPrime-Time Television (2000) (2010) 76% White  72% White 18% African-  13% African- American American 2% Latino  16% Latino 2% Asian-American  5% Asian-American 0.2% Native  1% Native
  28. 28. Minorities in the Mass Media1. Absent2. Comic Relief3. Justice and Stability4. Normal
  29. 29. Minorities in the Mass Media Usage Patterns  Overall, Blacks watch far more television than Whites  Latino youth seem to „look up‟ to same-race portrayals and use targeted media; Latino elders are more negative  Little research on Asian- and Native-American specific media usage  FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Concerns about Cultural Proximity and political/social involvement? Effects largely rooted in Cultivation Theory
  30. 30. Day Two: Bad Content, GoodEffect Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  31. 31. Outline “spill-over from yesterday” Appreciation as Media Effect Disinterest in Media Portrayals Media as Emotional Control
  32. 32. Appreciation for Media Enjoyment has been a central (almost myopic) focus in entertainment research Enjoyment tends to focus on:  Positive feelings  Arousal (rooted in hedonism)  Maximizing pleasure  Distraction from reality
  33. 33. Appreciation for Media
  34. 34. Appreciation for Media Why does entertainment media have to be enjoyable?  Seems short-sighted, given the plethora of motivations for media usage  Enjoyment is not always adaptive  Negative emotion can lead to empathy, perspective- taking, etc.  Does not explain the paradox of sad film (Oliver, 1993)
  35. 35. Appreciation for Media Eudaimonic motivations for media consumption also exist to drive meaningfulness and insight Where do we think Eudaimonia fits in Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs?
  36. 36. Appreciation for MediaHedonic Happiness Eudianomic Happiness Pleasure  Self-expression Arousal  Self-realization Positive feeling  Personal Maximizing pleasure development  Contemplation
  37. 37. Appreciation for Media Media can result in the satisfaction of needs that are not self-gratifications… …but in fact, more “meaning-of-life” questions  Inspiration  Compassion  Introspection Note that hedonism and eudianomia are orthogonal, but can occur concurrently!
  38. 38. Appreciation for Media These data show consistent patterns that distinguish hedonism from eudianomia, but what are some limitations to this study? • Student Sample • US Sample • Trait-Based • OTHERS?
  39. 39. Appreciation for Media
  40. 40. Disinterest in Action
  41. 41. Disinterest in Action Do we always enact what we see on screen? No, and perhaps we are turned away from it A murder simulator ought to revile us, the more the better. If anything, trivializing death and torture through abstraction is far more troublesome What is Bogost than attenuating it through ghastly referring to here? representation.
  42. 42. Disinterest in Action Consider NRA Gun Club What does our game “reviewer” think of the game?
  43. 43. Disinterest in Action Disinterest likely requires: 1. Exposure to script 2. Retention of script What Theory Might Explain 3. Learning of script This? 4. (de)motivation to enact script You need 1-3 + [what] in order to get 4!
  44. 44. Gaming and Control Video games provide us with “virtual realities” … …which might provide escapes and experiences far beyond that of „traditional media‟
  45. 45. Gaming and Control Unlike films, video games require us to be in the perceptual (violent?) space, which might provide a different sort of perspective Video games instill a sense of:  Presence (vividness + interactivity)  Narrative transportation  Flow
  46. 46. Presence A sense of “being there” Characteristics  Continuum, not categorical  Psychological, not technological  Dynamic, not static Combination of  Content  Channel  User
  47. 47. Flow Flow  Understood as “being in the moment”  Skills vs. Challenge – a balance Flow results in: • Clarity of goal • Concentration • Loss of awareness • Distorted sense of time • Feedback • Balance • Control • Autotelic * • absorption
  48. 48. Coping in video games Consider our daily lives, which Grodal argues involve (among others):  Empathy  Cooperation  Compromise These are all adaptive!  Aversion  Assertiveness  Confrontation
  49. 49. Importance of Context
  50. 50. Emotions, Real and Mediated Emotional responses – good or bad – require a meaningful stimulus + response Emotions are “modes of relational action readiness”(Fridja, 1986) In a video game, your reaction here might be more “real”…why?
  51. 51. Video games vs. films Some differences might be:  Attention controls perception  Mental maps of virtual space  Coordination of visual attention and motor action  Emotional significance of in- game events  (continual) satisfaction  Player-driven, not game- driven
  52. 52. Video games vs. films
  53. 53. Gaming and Control1. Interaction between player and game transforms coping reactions to coping procedures; video games are output- driven, so players need to master the inputs2. Games provide mastery over emotions; serve as our mood managers3. Point-of-View activations go beyond mere perspective; allow us to internalize4. Game violence is similar (enacted) to real- world violence; but takes place in a fantasy
  54. 54. Day Three: Media asFunctional Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  55. 55. Outline Selective Exposure and Mood Management Media and Need Satisfaction Vitality and Restoration
  56. 56. Selective Exposure Theory People select media to:  Dissipate noxious mood states  Ruminate pleasant mood states Media selection determined by mood Not a (necessarily) cognitive process
  57. 57. SET and the Big Four Media Factors  Arousal regulation  Motivated to sustain an optimal level of arousal  Excitatory Homeostasis  Some media more arousing than others  Intervention potential  Some media more absorbing than
  58. 58. SET and the Big Four Content Factors  Hedonic valence  Theoverall pleasant/unpleasant form of the narrative  Behavioral affinity  How similar the media narrative is to the cause of one‟s current mood
  59. 59. BoredStressed
  60. 60. Self-Determination Theory
  61. 61. Self-Determination Theory These are not hedonic needs (the “other 51%”) Media usage is functional (satisfies our needs)… But our needs are not always hedonic!  Autonomy – sense of volition and willingness  Competence – sense of challenge and effectiveness  Relatedness – sense of connection with others Each of the above are needed for psychological growth and happiness
  62. 62. Self-Determination Theory Can media provide for these feelings? Enjoyment then might be the result of this need satisfaction Autotelism
  63. 63. Evidence of SDT?
  64. 64. Evidence of SDT?
  65. 65. Media and Vitality Media use is often considered distracting(displacementhypothesis) Particularly in the workplace:  $175M “lost” for each March Madness weekend  $1.5B “lost” by employees playing
  66. 66. Media and Vitality But, is there more going on here? Distraction is not always a bad thing, particularly as it can aid in recovery (restoration of vitality)  Psychological detachment What Theory Might Explain  Relocation This?  Mastery experiences  Control
  67. 67. Media and Vitality Studies show play can help with recovery  Play in general enhances all four recovery experiences, but digital games play might be easier to do at work  Video games are:  Easy to access via computer  Immersive  Absorbing  Transporting  Provide for control  OTHERS?
  68. 68. Media and Vitality
  69. 69. BONUS: Moral FoundationsTheory Morality is intuitive, not cognitive  In line with cognitive miser ideal Five moral foundations 1. Harm/care 2. Fairness/reciprocity Enjoyment 3. In-group/loyalty comes from the satisfaction of 4. Authority/respect salient moral 5. Purity/sanctity foundations
  70. 70. Support for MFT Conservatives and Liberals – harm/care and fairness  Liberals  Conservatives – equal weight Heroes and villains  dispositions toward characters can be determined by how they (characters) violate or uphold moral foundations
  71. 71. Support for MFT Conservatives and Liberals – harm/care and fairness  Liberals  Conservatives – equal weight Heroes and villains  dispositions toward characters can be determined by how they (characters) violate or uphold moral foundations
  72. 72. Digital Natives Digital Natives = born into technology Adjusted to social mores of Internet, gaming Morality is “under (social) construction” Germany US Salience % Violation Salience % Violation Harm/ care 4.44 (.98) 30% 4.47 (.99) 64% Fairness/ reciprocity 4.37 (.95) 12% 4.36 (.91) 24% Authority/ respect 3.89 (.96) 57% 4.27 (.95) 63% In-group/ loyalty 3.88 (.85) 38% 4.33 (.94) 48% Purity/ sanctity 3.61 (.92) 54% 3.97 (.99) 40%
  73. 73. Digital Immigrants Digital Immigrants = still adopting technology Still learning customs of technology Well-established sense of mores and customs Germany US Salience % Violation Salience % ViolationHarm/ care 5.2 (.6) 25% 4.9 (.7) 10%Fairness/ reciprocity 5.0 (.6) 9% 4.7 (.6) 5%Authority/ respect 3.7 (.9) 72% 4.5 (.8) 34%In-group/ loyalty 4.1 (.8) 67% 4.3 (.9) 45%Purity/ sanctity 3.8 (1.0) 65% 4.0 (1.2) 32%

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