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SPICE 2012 Media Psychology - Week Two Notes


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Our second week of class will take us into the so-called “The Limited Effects Paradigm”, which will focus our discussion on the social and psychological mediating variables that explain media influence as powerful under specific conditions. By this, we are referring to the individual as well as social structures that might enhance or reduce media content's influence on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Let's go deeper into this.

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SPICE 2012 Media Psychology - Week Two Notes

  1. 1. MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY AND INFLUENCEWeek Two – Limited Effects Paradigm
  2. 2. PreTalk: Mediation andModeration Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  3. 3. Variables – Direct Effect Aggressive Thoughts in Violent Media Content Children IV DV (Cause) (Effect)
  4. 4. Variables – Mediation Effect Aggressive Thoughts inViolent Media Content Co-location Children IV MedV DV
  5. 5. Variables – Moderation Effect Interactivity ModV Violent Media Content Aggressive Thoughts in Children IV DV
  6. 6. Day One:Limited Effects – Vott ist das? Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  7. 7. Outline State of Mass Communication Research – 1962 Mediation and Moderation  Whatis it?  Why we should be doing more of it?
  8. 8. Mass Communication, circa1962 It is possible to study human To study communication without considering mass communication is to communication, but hardly possible to study mass study media; it is communication without part of our ecology taking account many areas of communication research which are not themselves Schramm was an “mass” communication. early pioneer in the scientific study of communication Took a marker of the current state of research affairs
  9. 9. Mass Communication, circa1962 Earliest research out of Columbia looked the relationship between mass communication and personal influence FOCUS: Television and  Information and entertainment  Commercials and children  Shift from audience size (why?)
  10. 10. Mass Communication, circa1962 Audience behaviors  Beyond exposure, what are they exposing to?  12% of newspaper overall  ¼ read 30%  ¼ read less than 4%  Comics (56%) > Photos (51%)  Stories on  War,  Defense  Disaster  Human interest  Weather
  11. 11. Mass Communication, circa1962 Shift to motivations and usage of media  Detroit newspaper strike affects 59% of audience  News > sports, features, comics, editorials  Personality‟s influence on entertainment/information  News predicted by perceived usefulness, interest (TAM?)  Perceived high- or low- brow motivation to use TV  Education level drives information-viewing
  12. 12. Mass Communication, circa1962 Content and “indexing” by contextualizing:  Headlines  Captions Aesthetics?  Colors  Theme music
  13. 13. Mass Communication, circa1962 Channel effects (the “media” effect?)  Recall highest from TV, least from print information  Both in the short-term and the long-term (eight months)  Debates polarized rather than converged opinions  Audiences „insert‟ emotion into speech
  14. 14. Mass Communication, circa1962 Two-Step Flow model
  15. 15. Mass Communication, circa1962 Two-Step Flow modelWho are these (leading) people? • Evenly-distributed across SES; variance based on content • Used more media • Were more socially- connected
  16. 16. Mass Communication, circa1962 Two-Step Flow model
  17. 17. Schramm to Klapper One of Klapper‟s more famous arguments was that media reinforces rather than challenges (cultural- moral) status quos!
  18. 18. What is Moderation? (B&K) Moderators are variables that change the direction or strength of a XY relationship Can be qualitative or quantitative Moderations can interact with predictors to understand an outcome
  19. 19. Moderation – Case 1The simplest case, suggesting that an increasein the moderating variable has a multiplicativeeffect on the relationship between IV and DV(here, positive) [IV X MV = DV]
  20. 20. Moderation – Case 2Here, we see a similar effect, but with adichotomous moderator (i.e., gender). Thissuggests that the influence of an IV on a DV isgreater for one category than another. [Male‟s IV  DV > Female‟s IV  DV]
  21. 21. Moderation – Case 3 A continuous ModV and a categorical IV; good for identifying the conditions for which a moderator‟s influence is realized [Males are influenced more by IV than females]
  22. 22. What is Mediation? (B&K) Mediators account for an observed influence of an IV on a DV Move us from SR to SOR, as they consider the “organism” in the process Sort of like “greedy moderators” as they take all of the effect, no more (c)
  23. 23. Where does this all fit in tomedia?Mediation Moderation Helps us understand  Helps us understand potentially spurious conditions under relationships which media would between content have a larger or and affect smaller affect Implicates the role  Teases out influence of the „organism‟ in channel effects and media output usage motivations Others?  Others?
  24. 24. Importance of Med/Mod Today Holbert and Stephenson argue that understanding mediation is “a necessary but not sufficient condition” for media influence. Specifically, then discuss SEMs and indirect effects
  25. 25. Mediation in Media EffectsResearch Conditional effects model generally argues media‟s limited influence on „CAB‟ We can think of mediators and moderators as “conditions for a media effect to be realized” These conditions exist at all levels  Who is affected  What is being affected  How is this affect happening?
  26. 26. Examples of MediationPolitical Communication Health Communication “media  vote  “media  behavior” result” influenced by: influenced by:  Likelihood to vote  Views on message  Views on behavior  Information levels  Social norms about candidate surrounding behavior issues  Self-efficacy to stop  Voter perceptions behavior about candidate  Trust in message? quality  Trust in message?
  27. 27. Example: Four VariableMediation
  28. 28. Cost-Benefit of Facebook
  29. 29. Cost-Benefit of Twitter
  30. 30. Day Two: Effects onIndividuals Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  31. 31. Outline An overview of individual differences Priming and Exemplification Social Cognitive Theory
  32. 32. Individual Differences in MediaEffects  Media research has evolved to be more subtle in understanding the S  R influence “The idea that media have a  Understanding ∆ in direct or uniform effect on viewers is a position that is individuals between generally understood to be a and within social simplification of the way that researchers in the discipline groups is key to conceptualize media influences” understanding ~Oliver, 2002 observed variance in media effects
  33. 33. Enjoyment and Emotions Individuals differ in…  What they “need” from the media  e.g. need for cognition, sensation-seeking  Their „readiness to respond‟ to media  e.g. emotional contagion qua empathy, coping, anxiety  Personality and other traits  e.g. aggressiveness, neuroticism, extraversion  Evaluative dispositions  e.g. of characters, narrative, show aesthetics
  34. 34. Exposure, Interpretation andMemory Cognitive dissonance strategies imply by definition individual differences Important, as dissonance drives media selection wo könnte es ein Medien-Effekt hier zu sein?
  35. 35. Exposure, Interpretation andMemory Watergate scandal  Interest in coverage was  Highest with McGovern supporters  Lowest with Nixon supporters  Moderate with undecided voters Rush Limbaugh interest  Follows almost identical patterns among Red > Blue interest How do we get folks to „counter-expose‟?  Goals? Availability? Refutability?
  36. 36. Exposure, Interpretation andMemory Interpretation and Perception  Klapper (1960) argues that media is produced to maintain a status quo…  …so it stands to reason that audiences will use and interpret media in line with their status quo  “Archie Bunker effect” (Vidmar & Rokeach, 1974) Family” topped Nielsen “All In The charts from 1971 to 1983.
  37. 37. Exposure, Interpretation andMemory Selective memory  If we differ in what we need from media and how we process it, we likely differ in what we take from it  Memory recall is highest for „congruent information‟ that fits our a priori world view
  38. 38. Media Priming Priming is “the effect of some preceding stimulus or event on how we react…to some subsequent stimulus” Applied to media, we study how media content at T1 might affect a behavior at T2
  39. 39. Media Priming and Violence Trait aggressiveness (+) External violent cues (+) Frustration (+) Passage of time (-) KI__
  40. 40. Media Priming and Politics
  41. 41. Media Priming in other areas Music videos and misogyny “Rape Myth” and sexual media Stereotyping and social judgments
  42. 42. Cognitive Neo-Association Concepts become linked in memory These links can become stronger with  Similarity  Repetition Accessibility of concept a How is this model function of adapted for Political Communication? Health strength of link Communication?
  43. 43. Priming and Mental Models Mental models represent a merging of semantic memory (knowledge of the world) and episodic memory (experience)
  44. 44. Priming and Mental Models Issues with the „network‟ approach?  Effects are fleeting, requiring constant rebuilding of networks (chronic accessibility)  Recall the Cognitive Miser hypothesis? Mental models might serve as readily-available cognitive scripts that are shaped through experience and expectation 1. We can either create a new model or tap and old one 2. Information within a model can be primed, activating our reliance on the model as a whole for that information
  45. 45. Exemplification  In essence, using examples to tell a story  Exemplars vs. base-rate informationAlso, let‟s not forget the role of non-mediated (i.e. personal) experience! *
  46. 46. Exemplification Assumes that:1. Events of consequence attract more of our short- and long- term attentional resources2. Comprehension and storage of We also tend to make concrete events is easier than to major boo-boos by abstract ones relying on failed heuristics related to:3. We make assessments about • Representativene events based on our ability to ss (of the event) retrieve them from memory • Availability (of examples in our mind)
  47. 47. Six exemplification predictions1. Concrete examples relevant influence characteristics aids perceptions more in accuracy of than abstract perception accounts 5. Emotionally-arousing2. Visual (concrete) exemplars foster exemplars are most overestimation effective 6. Increased attention3. Emotional exemplars paid to an event are more effective fosters (when concrete) overestimation4. Variance in event-
  48. 48. Suzie and the Bobo DollIn Bandura‟s famous “Bobl Doll” studies, children who witness (via television)an adult model assault a Bobo Doll without punish were more likely to enactthe behavior, even when no „weapons‟ were included in a room.
  49. 49. Observational Learning @SCT/SLT Basic logic of the theory A person learns by observing the actions of others and the consequences of those actions.  If Action A is rewarded, then Action A is good  If Action A is punished, then Action A is bad  We model those behaviors that are „good‟  Non-punishment = reward
  50. 50. Triadic reciprocal causation
  51. 51. Based on Four Distinctly HumanTraits Symbolizing Capacity  The ability to use symbols to transform experiences into cognitive models for the future (e.g., words) Self-Regulatory Capacity  The ability to evaluate and motivate oneself Self-Reflective Capacity  The ability to verify thoughts to see if they are right Vicarious Capacity  The ability to learn without direct experience
  52. 52. Modeling The reenactment of observed behavior 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor reproduction 4. Motivation Can be either anti-social or pro-social
  53. 53. Modeling
  54. 54. Social Learning Theory (Bandura) We learn through response consequences  Informative  Welearn which responses are appropriate through observation  Motivational  Anticipation that behavior will be rewarded leads to modeling  Reinforcing  Reinforcement of behaviors subsequently performed leads to further learning and motivation
  55. 55. Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Role of Moral Judgments  Violating moral principles is aversive  We learn by experience how to weight moral factors  Transgressions are regulated by two major sanctions  social sanctions  internalized self- sanctions  We can learn to override these judgments!
  56. 56. What motivates us to be bad?
  57. 57. Day Three: Effects on Society Media Psychology and Influence SPICE 2012 (Erfurt) ND Bowman PhD, Instructor
  58. 58. Outline Cultivation Theory and Social Reality Agenda-Setting Theory Third-Person Effects
  59. 59. Cultivation Theory TV is… But giving primary attention to those a centralized aspects and terms of traditional media effects research risks losing sight of storytelling what is most distinctive and system… significant about television as the  …that creates common storyteller of our age. broadly shared images…  …and presents a limited world view…  …that becomes shared by audience members
  60. 60. Cultivation TheoryMainstreaming Resonance Heavy viewing  At times, heavy overrides differences television viewers in perspectives that might experience ordinarily stem from the very content other group they view on screen influences people from different backgrounds develop same social perceptions
  61. 61. Cultural Indicators Project 1967, George Gerbner Investigated the cultivation effect:  For people who watch TV, real world = TV world
  62. 62. Cultural Indicators Project Three steps of the project  InstitutionalProcess Analysis, where we see how messages are created  Message Systems Analysis, where we assess the content in mass-produced messages  Cultivation Analysis, where we examine the influence of these messages on audience thoughts and feelings Cultivation Research looks at long-term effects!
  63. 63. Findings from cultivationresearch TV viewers diverge from reality  Underestimate number of elder  Overestimate chances for being assaulted  General believe in the violent urban areas (and bucolic rural areas)  Tend to know less about their environment  Tend to dream about “the bachelor life”  Label themselves as political moderates
  64. 64. Example: Mean World65 Syndrome How violent is the world? (c) 2010 by N.D. Bowman, YHC
  65. 65. Schrum and the heuristic model TV viewing enhances construct accessibility  Repeated priming causes certain aspects to be salient Shared social perceptions serving as indicators of a cultivation effect are constructed through heuristic processing
  66. 66. Cultivation HypothesisAssumptions1. Messages are relatively uniform2. Viewing of television is non-selective3. Television viewing is habitual **What do you think?**
  67. 67. Cultivation HypothesisAssumptions Is TV still a universal story-teller?  Increase in cable and radio channels  New networks focus on narrowcasting and tailoring  “1000 True Fans” hypothesis eschews large audiences
  68. 68. Cultivation HypothesisAssumptions
  69. 69. Agenda-Setting The press “may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about” (Cohen, 1963, p. 13) Increases salience of an event/idea/concept *
  70. 70. Agenda-Setting McCombs and Shaw (1972) *
  71. 71. Agenda-Setting What increases salience?  Placement of a story  Total time/space devoted  Duration of coverage  Framing? Who sets the agenda today? (c) ND Bowman, 2011 *
  72. 72. Framing Choosing how to package a story to maximize some intended effect Information Effects Persuasion Effects Accompanying a story about abortion Which image is more likely to garner support for Planned Parenthood? Support for * anti-abortion legislation?
  73. 73. Example: Mad Cow
  74. 74. Example: OJ Simpson
  75. 75. Example: Sports CoverageHeisman Trophy ESPN Body Issue Analysis of adjectives  Looking at the used to describe portrayal of nude finalists shows athletes, females reporters to use were more likely to “Brawn” and “Brain” be out of context frames to describe and to engage in Black and White self-touching than athletes‟ success males More here  More here