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persuasive development writing for fundraising staff

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  1. 1. <ul><li>Beyond the Need— </li></ul><ul><li>The Art and Science of </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive Writing </li></ul><ul><li>by Tracey Palmer </li></ul><ul><li>with insights by Jennifer Bowie </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Write down 3-5 adjectives that would describe yourself to a complete stranger: </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly (out going, talkative) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard working (dedicated) </li></ul><ul><li>Sentimental </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Pick a topic and write a poem or short piece using only nouns and verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Door opens, fans cheer, blades slice </li></ul><ul><li>Whistle blows, puck drops, sticks slash </li></ul><ul><li>Left wing cuts, center passes, tape holds </li></ul><ul><li>Stick slaps, shot soars, goalie gloves, </li></ul><ul><li>save? or score? </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>“ Writing is hard…” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~Roger Angell in the forward to Strunk and White’s “The Elements of Style” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The scariest moment is always just before you start …” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~Stephen King in “On Writing” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rules and commonly misused words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a bit about verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sentence patterns (S-V-O/S-LV-PN or PA)* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phrases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clauses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>why I hate adverbs </li></ul></ul></ul>*Burch: “A Writer’s Grammar”
  6. 8. <ul><li>write in a way that comes naturally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read out loud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>revise and rewrite </li></ul><ul><li>don’t explain too much </li></ul><ul><ul><li>show, don’t tell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>be clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>omit needless words ( adverbs !) </li></ul></ul>Strunk and White: “The Elements of Style”
  7. 9. <ul><li>Stephen King’s “On Writing” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read a lot, write a lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>telepathy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ … do not come lightly to the blank page .” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you’re not inventing the idea (project) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recognize the idea (project) and bring it to life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>always expanding/never pretentious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ use the first word that comes to your mind, if it is appropriate and colorful”* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>active vs. passive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarity and brevity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>your voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pace, repetition, parallelism </li></ul></ul>King: “On Writing”
  9. 11. <ul><li>narration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>move from point A to point B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create sensory reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring characters to life </li></ul></ul>King: “On Writing”
  10. 12. <ul><li>get the first draft done quickly </li></ul><ul><li>write with the door closed… rewrite with the door open </li></ul><ul><li>formula for success: 2nd Draft = 1st Draft – 10% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leave out the boring parts </li></ul></ul>King: “On Writing” <ul><ul><li>“ Kill your darlings, kill your darlings, even when it breaks your egocentric little scribbler’s heart… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kill your darlings .” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>1 Introduction: Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 Body: Supporting subtopics, using logic, evidence, stats </li></ul><ul><li>5 Conclusion: Restate the main thesis </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Narration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>move from point A to point B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create sensory reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring characters to life </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Writing that sets out to influence a reader’s thoughts, actions or emotions </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the reader/donor want? </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion bridges the gap </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Two modes of thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic Critical Analysis Logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic Skimming Cues </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Participation  </li></ul><ul><li>Meet people where they’re coming from. </li></ul><ul><li>Build/reinforce relationships. </li></ul>Awareness  Support Loyalty  Comprehension 
  17. 19. <ul><li>Appeal to reason </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to distill the pertinent facts and details of a situation from a wider body of evidence and generalizations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing a problem by working from specific facts and discovering general principles. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><li>Spock </li></ul><ul><li>Homer </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>“ I fail to comprehend your indignation, sir. I have simply made the logical deduction that you are a liar.” </li></ul><ul><li>— Mr. Spock </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>“ To get your audience to do what you want,it has to desire the act. And desire requires emotion.” </li></ul><ul><li>— Jay Heinrichs, author of Thank You for Arguing: What Aristotle, Lincoln and Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>1.Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal concessions (related concept) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>2. Social validation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody’s doing it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling (related concept) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>3. Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You better believe it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are you perceived? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>5. Liking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We tend to say yes to those we like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t want to let you down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Scarcity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare is better </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>7. Consistency/Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot in the door </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Moving the reader to careful consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Don’t try to win. Win over. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concession </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>What is their level of knowledge and interest in your topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their beliefs? </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts v Truths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics v Examples </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>“ More than 5,000 alumni gave $200 in fiscal year 2004-2005, helping us reach 48% of our 3.2 million goal, and we’re only 18 months into the four-year campaign.” </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing v Telling </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>President Bradley is wonderful role model for prospective students. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>A recent New York Times article described President Bradley’s encounter with a student at an inner city high school in Los Angeles: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The 15-year-old sophomore had exchanged phone numbers with the president and vowed to keep in touch. They were two black women whose parents never finished high school, one dreaming of becoming what the other was. “I know I’m going to college. I want to make a change,” Aleshia said. “Maybe I can be president of a college one day. Maybe I can take her place.”’ </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Tell a story </li></ul><ul><li>Forewarn of intent to persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetorical questions </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Mother Simpson: [singing] How many roads must a man walk down before you can call him a man? </li></ul><ul><li>Homer: Seven. </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa: No, dad, it's a rhetorical question . </li></ul><ul><li>Homer: OK, eight. </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa: Dad, do you even know what &quot;rhetorical&quot; means? </li></ul><ul><li>Homer: Do I know what “rhetorical” means? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Present both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Hey, “you” </li></ul><ul><li>Figures of speech </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>“ Son, a woman is a lot like a . . . A refrigerator! They're about six feet tall, 300 pounds. They make ice, and . . . um . . . Oh, wait a minute. Actually, a woman is more like a beer.” </li></ul><ul><li>— Homer Simpson </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Know your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Know your case. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell it well. </li></ul><ul><li>Show relevance. </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Write like you talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the name of the dog. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your mother to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget the Call to Action! </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>How donors would support the charities that communicated with them more effectively: </li></ul><ul><li>93% would definitely or probably give again </li></ul><ul><li>64% would give more </li></ul><ul><li>74% would continue to give indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>70% would increase overall value of their giving </li></ul><ul><li>- Donor-Centered Research, Penelope Burk </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Beyond the Need— </li></ul><ul><li>The Art and Science of </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive Writing </li></ul>