Botti Peypoch Tourism Symposium

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Tourism symposium in Montréal 2012 UQAM Chaire de tourisme Transat

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Botti Peypoch Tourism Symposium

  1. 1. Dr. BOTTI Laurent Dr. PEYPOCH Nicolas Perpignan University / CAEPEM Symposium sur les mesures de performance et les contributions09/24/2012 économiques du tourisme – Montréal (Québec), Canada, 24 et 25 1 septembre 2012
  2. 2. Tourism destinations (TDs) performance Quantitative approach applied to European countries 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and Discussion 4. Conclusions and Perspectives09/24/20122
  3. 3. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Contextual settings  Europe – 5 of the world’s top 10 TDs - Half of the globe’s tourist traffic – Tourism contributes to 4% of the European Union (EU) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Varying from 2% to 12% – Economic crisis – Tourism is crucial for economic growth,09/24/2012 jobs and welfare for citizens 3
  4. 4. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Performance  Central issue in a competitive environment  Tourism industry not immune  Tools enabling to evaluate and understand performance of TDs is of critical importance09/24/2012  To provide policy makers and DMOs guidelines 4
  5. 5. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Several indicators to measure TDs performance – Efficiency is chosen – Implies notion of resource constraints – TD operates technically efficiently if produces max outputs for given level of inputs09/24/2012  Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method 5
  6. 6. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Literature review (TDs performance frontier analysis) – Bosetti et al. (2006) and Cracolici et al. (2006) on Italian regions – Botti et al. (2009) use a Directional Distance Function frontier model to examine the performance of metropolitan French regions – Barros et al. (2010) test hypothesis regarding tourism attractions using a 2-stage procedure Let’s move to theoretical framework &09/24/2012 methodology 6
  7. 7. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  TD performance model by Ritchie & Crouch (2003) – Comparative advantage (resources endowment) – Competitive advantage (resource deployment)  Geographical tourism system (Cooper & Hall, 2008)  Attractiveness (Leiper, 1990 – Botti et al., 2008)09/24/2012 7
  8. 8. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Tourism mobility factors – People need to overcome constraints – Distance (geographical and cultural)  H1: Air trans infrastructure endowment & efficiency  H2: Being part of the Euro Zone influences efficiency09/24/2012 8
  9. 9. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Tourism attraction factors – Attractiveness based upon a complex set of resources  H3: European sub-region & efficiency  H4: Country size & efficiency09/24/2012 9
  10. 10. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  EU members less Malta (26 countries)  Euro zone = 16 countries  Airport infrastructure categories = number of major airports as a criteria  Superficiy categories = country size as a criteria09/24/2012  Sub-regions according to 10 UNWTO definition
  11. 11. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives Methodology  Charnes et al. (1978) and Banker et al. (1984) first introduced DEA  Linear programming approach for: – construction of production frontiers – measurement of efficiency  Assume that all Decision-Making Units (DMUs) have09/24/2012 the same technology 11
  12. 12. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  DMUs can be (or not) on the frontier  Distance between a given DMU and the frontier represents its inefficiency – Depends on various specifics factors (our hypothesis) – Can be calculated in several ways (radial, directional)09/24/2012  Here, output-oriented DEA VRS index = TDs aim to 12 maximize outputs given their inputs
  13. 13. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Data are derived from Eurostat (2009)  Attractions are sites from the World Heritage List (2009)09/24/2012 13 Let’s move to results
  14. 14. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives09/24/2012 14
  15. 15. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives09/24/2012 15
  16. 16. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Kruskal Wallis test analyzes relation between quantitative and qualitative character with k classes  Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between EU members  For H1, H2 and H4, we fail to reject Ho  For H3, Ho is rejected09/24/2012 16 Let’s move to conclusions
  17. 17. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Propose an evaluation of European countries for rationalisation of their tourism strategies  Consider that performance of TDs can be assessed by ability to transform tourism resources in a maximum level of bed-nights  DEA model allowed the incorporation of multiple inputs and outputs  Benchmarks were provided to improve operations of09/24/2012 17 less performing countries
  18. 18. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Room for adjustment for 14 EU members  Considering standard average = advantage of – Being equipped with several airports – Part of the Euro zone – Being a southern and-or mediterranean country (confirmed by Kruskal-Wallis test) – Being a small sized country  Limitations related to data, homogeneity of sample and VRS DEA model09/24/2012  Extend analysis to others countries – use another 18 methodology
  19. 19. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Framework & Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusions and perspectives  Thank you for attention!  laurent.botti@univ-perp.fr  peypoch@univ-perp.fr09/24/2012 19

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