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Cardiovascular disease


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Cardiovascular disease

  1. 1. Cardiovascular Disease<br />
  2. 2. CVD<br />Heart disease or cardiovascular disease are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).<br />Cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the resulting complications, is the main cause of death for both males and females in the world. It usually is in the top five causes of death in many countries. Diseases of the cardiovascular system include those that compromise the pumping ability of the heart, cause failure of the valves, or result in narrowing or hardening of the arteries.<br />
  3. 3. CVD<br />In addition,toxinsand infectious agents may damage the heart and blood vessels. Injury or failure of the cardiovascular system, especially the heart, also will affect the peripheral tissues that depend on the delivery of nutrients and the removal of wastes through the blood vascular system. CVD is a family of diseases that includes hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke.<br />
  4. 4. CVD-Right Median Lateral Cerebral Artery<br />A patient is diagnosed with CVD ischemic stroke/infarction (right frontal lobe) secondary to the occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. He/Shehas the following symptoms: left hand has a weak grip and also felt a slight weakness of his body, left leg, slurred speech, & the left side of his face was drooping/sagging.<br />
  5. 5. Cardiovascular<br />The cardiovascular system comprises the heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries, which carry blood back and forth from the heart to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) and from the heart to the rest of the body (systemic circulation). The heart works on electrical impulses and produces them constantly, unless stress, fear, or danger is involved, in which case the impulses will increase dramatically.<br />
  6. 6. Cardiovascular<br />The body's largest artery is the aorta and the largest vein is the vena cava. Veins are thinner than arteries, which resemble rubber bands in that they expand more easily (depending on the amount of blood passing through them). Smaller blood vessels, or capillaries, channel oxygen and blood to tissues. The process is a cycle in which the capillaries deliver oxygen-rich blood to the body and pick up oxygen-poor blood, which is then taken into the veins and finally to the heart to be "rejuvenated" or cleansed.<br />
  7. 7. Risk Factors<br />Smoking:Smokers' risk of heart attack is more than twice that of nonsmokers', and smokers' risk of sudden cardiac death is two to four times that of nonsmokers'.<br />Unhealthy Diet:An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for chronic cardiac diseases. It is not difficult to figure out the diets that are unhealthy. Fast food and beverages containing colorants and preservatives are harmful for the heart. Fast foods are responsible for obesity of the millions of people.<br />
  8. 8. Risk Factors<br />Family history:Family history is an important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Preventive behaviors, including lifestyle modifications, can attenuate CVD risk.If you have a family history of CVD, that is your father or brother was diagnosed when they were under 55, or your mother or sister when they were under 65, you also have an increased risk of developing the condition.<br />
  9. 9. Risk Factors<br />Alcohol and Drugs:Alcohol addiction can lead to high blood pressure, heart failure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy and strokes. Narcotics such as heroin, cocaine and other similar hard drugs cause contraction in the heart valve and weakens the circulatory system.<br />AgeThe older you are the more likely you are to develop CVD Ethnicity.<br />
  10. 10. Hypertension<br />
  11. 11. Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure<br />Is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. <br />Disease of the vascular regulation in which the mechanism that control arterial pressure within the normal range are altered.<br />
  12. 12. HTN Stage 2<br />(Secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system. Stage 2 hypertension. The most severe hypertension, stage 2 hypertension is a systolic pressure of 160 or higher or a diastolic pressure of 100 or higher.<br />
  13. 13. Hypertension<br />Pathophysiology and Etiology<br />Primary and Essential HPN<br />When the diastolic pressure is 90mmHg or higher and other causes of HPN are absent.<br />Diagnostics: Average of three or more blood pressure readings taken at rest several days apart exceeds the upper limit.<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Cause is idiopathic. <br />Systolic BP elevation in the absence of elevated diastolic BP is termed isolated systolic HPN.<br />
  16. 16. Hypertension<br />Management<br />Lifestyle Modification<br />Weight loss<br />Limit alcohol intake<br />Regular aerobic exercise - 30 mins<br />
  17. 17. Hypertension<br />Cut Na intake – 2.4g or less/day<br />DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) <br />High magnesium and K<br />Fruits and Vegetables<br />Stop smoking<br />Reduce dietary saturated fat and cholesterol<br />
  18. 18. Hypertension<br />Reducing coffee intake (5 cups/day – HPN)<br />Despite lifestyle changes, the BP remains at or above 140/90 mmHg over 3 – 6 months – drug therapy should be initiated.<br />
  19. 19. Urinary Tract Infection<br />
  20. 20. UTI<br />A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. Symptoms include frequent feeling and/or need to urinate, pain during urination, and cloudy urine.The main causal agent is Escherichia coli. Although urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it does not usually have bacteria in it, but when bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, they may cause a UTI.<br />
  21. 21. Risk Factors<br />There are several risk factors for UTI. These factors make a person more likely to develop a UTI and we will explain some of them below:<br />Young sexually active women have a higher risk because sexual activity aids in pushing bacteria into the urethra. Infections are more common if spermicidal creams and diaphragms are used as contraceptives.<br />
  22. 22. Risk Factors<br />Pregnancy predisposes to UTI. The interesting fact is that there may be no symptoms and yet the infection is present. It is a cause of pre term labour.<br />An enlarged prostate gland in a man can cause urinary retention and increase the risk of urinary tract infections due to bacterial colonization.<br />Kidney stones can also cause UTIs because the bacteria grow and multiply on the stones.<br />
  23. 23. Risk Factors<br />Post menopausal women - Due to loss of estrogen the vagina, urethra & bladder base become thinner, more fragile and more susceptible to bacterial infection.<br />Unprotected sex with someone who has a sexually transmitted disease like Gonorrhea.<br />Previous episodes of urinary tract infection increase the risk of getting it again.<br />
  24. 24. Risk Factors<br />HIV Infection because it lowers the immunity.<br />Any medication that can lower immunity e.g. cancer chemotherapy, chronic steroid therapy.<br />Chronic illness that impair immunity e.g. diabetes mellitus.<br />Not drinking enough fluids - Drinking more fluids makes you pass more urine and this reduces the number of bacteria in the urinary tract.<br />
  25. 25. Risk Factors<br />Any structural problem involving the urinary tract. It may be present at birth or be a result of treatment e.g. Improperly treated UTI with scarring.<br />Prolonged use of urethral catheters (artificial tubes for draining urine).<br />On the average, women tend to have more episodes of urinary tract infections than men because the female urethra is shorter than the male urethra and germs don't have to travel far to get to the bladder.<br />
  26. 26. Diagnostics<br /> Urinary tract infections: Diagnostic Tests:<br />Urine tests<br />Urinalysis<br />Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  27. 27. Drug Study<br />
  28. 28. Cardiovascular Drugs<br /> Aspirin- is also used to prevent ischemic strokes (strokes that occur when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain) or mini-strokes (strokes that occur when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked for a short time) in people who have had this type of stroke or mini-stroke in the past.<br />
  29. 29. Cardiovascular Drugs<br />Atorvastatin- is used along with diet, exercise, and weight-loss to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Atorvastatin is also used to decrease the amount of cholesterol (a fat-like substance) and other fatty substances in the blood. This will decrease the risk of stroke, heart attack, and other heart diseases because when there are high levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood, these substances may build up along the walls of the blood vessels and decrease or block blood flow to the heart.<br />
  30. 30. Cardiovascular Drugs<br />Telmisartan- Treatment of essential hypertension.<br />Catapres- Management of hypertension. Prophylactic treatment of migraine or recurrent vascular treatment of migraine.<br />Amlopidine- For chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension.<br />
  31. 31. Gastrointestinal Drugs<br />Lactulose- Habitual constipation, diseases or conditions in which easier bowel movements with soft stools are desirable e.g. anal fissures, hemorrhoids, following rectal or anal surgery.<br />Dulcolax- Habitual constipation, diseases or conditions in which easier bowel movements with soft stools are desirable e.g. anal fissures, hemorrhoids, following rectal or anal surgery.<br />
  32. 32. Anti-Infectives<br />For LRTI, pneumonia, otitis media, skin structure, UTI, uncomplicated gonorrhea, PID, bacteria septicimia, bone and joint infections, meningitis.<br />
  33. 33. CNS Drugs<br />Citicoline- For mild to moderately severe dementia of the Alzheimer type, and symptomatic treatment of mild to moderately severe dementia of the Alzheimer type with relevant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.<br />
  34. 34. Analgesic/Antipyretics & Muscle Relaxants<br />Norgesic- Spastic paralysis in cerebrovascular diseases, control of primary, uncomplicated hyperuricemia, prophylaxis against uric acid nephropathy in secondary hyperurecimia.<br />