Chapter 12     TheCardiovascularand Lymphatic   SystemsLecture Presentation       Mark ManteuffelSt. Louis Community College
The Cardiovascular and LymphaticSystems    Cardiovascular system    Blood vessels    Heart    Blood pressure  Lymphat...
The Cardiovascular System: MovingBlood through the Body The cardiovascular system (or circulatory  system) is built to ra...
The Heart and Blood Vessels Make up  the Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular system 1) Heart 2) Blood vessels     • Ar...
The Heart and Blood Vessels Make Upthe Cardiovascular System
The Cardiovascular System HelpsMaintain Favorable Operating Conditions
Blood Circulation Is Essential to MaintainHomeostasis Major role in homeostasis Blood brings oxygen, nutrients, and horm...
The Cardiovascular System Is Linked tothe Lymphatic System Lymphatic vessels  • Pick up excess extracellular fluid and us...
The Heart: A Double Pump In a lifetime of 70 years, the human heart beats  some 2.5 billion times This durable pump is t...
The Heart Is Divided into Right andLeft Halves
The Heart Has Two Halves and FourChambers Septum: thick wall divides heart in half Chambers of the heart  • 2 Atria  • 2...
The Heart Itself Is Served by CoronaryArteries and Veins
In a “Heartbeat,” the Heart’s ChambersContract, Then Relax “Heartbeat”: one cycle of contraction and  relaxation of the h...
Blood TravelPulmonary & Systemic Circuits
Each Half of the Heart Pumps Blood in aDifferent Circuit
In the Pulmonary Circuit, Blood Picks UpOxygen in the Lungs Pulmonary Circuit  • Blood from tissue circulates through the...
Heart  The right side of the heart    • Contains blood low in oxygen    • Pumps blood through the pulmonary circuit      ...
In the Systemic Circuit, Blood Travels toand from Tissues Systemic circuit  • Oxygenated blood pumped by left side of hea...
Each Half of the Heart Pumps Blood in aDifferent Circuit
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jznS5psypI 0:30
Shunted through the Liver for Processing Hepatic portal system: the vessels involved in this  detour  • Hepatic portal ve...
Blood from the Digestive Tract Detoursto the Liver
Circulatory system http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3ZDJgFDdk0 2:58
Blood Pressure Heart contractions generate blood pressure,  which changes as blood moves through the  cardiovascular syst...
Blood Exerts Pressure against the Wallsof Blood Vessels Blood pressure: fluid pressure that blood exerts  against vessel ...
Blood Pressure Values (mm of Hg)    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAmLbclSucQ    3:01 High Blood Pressure Impacts
A Variety of Factors May CauseHypertension
 Nearly 1 in 3 adult Americans have it. African Americans are especially at risk. Learn why hypertension is called the ...
Structure and Functions of BloodVessels As with all body parts, structure is key to the  functions of blood vessels All ...
Blood Pressure Changes as Blood Flowsthrough the Cardiovascular System
Arterioles Are Control Points for BloodFlow Wall built of smooth muscle rings over elastic  tissue  • Dilates when smooth...
Capillaries: Where Blood ExchangesSubstances with Tissues Blood enters the systemic circulation moving  swiftly in the ao...
Capillaries Are Specialized for Diffusion Thinnest wall of any blood vessel        • Single layer of endothelium Site of...
Some of the Substances Pass through“Pores” in Capillary Walls Pores  • Filled with water  • Passages for substances that ...
A Vast Network of Capillaries BringsBlood Close to Nearly All Body Cells 40 billion capillaries Every cell is a diffusib...
Blood in Capillaries Flows Onward toVenules Capillaries  branch into  capillary beds
Blood Vessels  Venules   • Capillaries merge to form venules, the     smallest kind of vein   • Venules join to form larg...
Venules and Veins Return Blood to the Heart Venules  • Function somewhat like capillaries Veins  • Large diameters and l...
 Varicose veins are gnarled, enlarged veins that most  commonly affect legs and feet. The reason for this is gravity. W...
The Structure of a Blood Vessel MatchesIts Function
Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular Disease Major risk factors   • Genetics   • High levels of blood lipids, e.g., cholesterol and trans     f...
Major Risk Factors for CardiovascularDisease
Arteries Can Clog or Weaken: Arteriosclerosis(hardening of the arteries) (1) Atherosclerosis  • Lipids build up in the ar...
Plaques and Blood Clots May ClogArteries
Arteries Can Clog or Weaken (2) Coronary arteries  •   Narrow and vulnerable to clogging by plaques  •   Angina pectoris ...
Plaques and Blood Clots May ClogArteries
Heart Damage Can Lead to Heart Attackand Heart Failure Heart attack  • Damage or death to cardiac muscle  • Warning signs...
Arrhythmias Are Abnormal HeartRhythms Electrocardiogram (ECG)  • Recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac    c...
A Heart-Healthy Lifestyle May HelpPrevent Cardiovascular Disease Benefit of a diet that is moderate in fats Regular exer...
Infections, Cancer, and Heart Defects (1) Infections may seriously damage the heart Streptococcus bacteria: Rheumatic fe...
Infections, Cancer, and Heart Defects (2) Myocarditis: Heart inflammation; various causes  • Bacterial  • Alcohol abuse  ...
The Lymphatic System       Next…
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
Ch10 or 12 circulatory system
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Ch10 or 12 circulatory system

  1. 1. Chapter 12 TheCardiovascularand Lymphatic SystemsLecture Presentation Mark ManteuffelSt. Louis Community College
  2. 2. The Cardiovascular and LymphaticSystems  Cardiovascular system  Blood vessels  Heart  Blood pressure  Lymphatic system
  3. 3. The Cardiovascular System: MovingBlood through the Body The cardiovascular system (or circulatory system) is built to rapidly transport blood to every living cell in the body Consists of the heart and blood vessels The system helps maintain homeostasis by providing rapid internal transport of substances to and from cells
  4. 4. The Heart and Blood Vessels Make up the Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular system 1) Heart 2) Blood vessels • Arteries: large diameter • Arterioles: smaller & narrower vessels • Capillaries: even narrower • Capillary beds: slow flowing blood moves through these vast numbers of slender capillaries- substances diffuse into and out of these from cells • Venules: blood flows from capillaries into these small vessels • Veins: from venules to larger veins that return blood to heart
  5. 5. The Heart and Blood Vessels Make Upthe Cardiovascular System
  6. 6. The Cardiovascular System HelpsMaintain Favorable Operating Conditions
  7. 7. Blood Circulation Is Essential to MaintainHomeostasis Major role in homeostasis Blood brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells Blood removes waste products from cells and excess heat
  8. 8. The Cardiovascular System Is Linked tothe Lymphatic System Lymphatic vessels • Pick up excess extracellular fluid and usable substances • Return them to the cardiovascular system • More on this later
  9. 9. The Heart: A Double Pump In a lifetime of 70 years, the human heart beats some 2.5 billion times This durable pump is the centerpiece of the cardiovascular system
  10. 10. The Heart Is Divided into Right andLeft Halves
  11. 11. The Heart Has Two Halves and FourChambers Septum: thick wall divides heart in half Chambers of the heart • 2 Atria • 2 Ventricles Coronary arteries: branch off of the aorta, the major artery carrying oxygenated blood away from the heart
  12. 12. The Heart Itself Is Served by CoronaryArteries and Veins
  13. 13. In a “Heartbeat,” the Heart’s ChambersContract, Then Relax “Heartbeat”: one cycle of contraction and relaxation of the heart chambers Cardiac cycle • Systole • Diastole • “Lub-dup” Cardiac output • Every 60 seconds ~5 liters/ventricle
  14. 14. Blood TravelPulmonary & Systemic Circuits
  15. 15. Each Half of the Heart Pumps Blood in aDifferent Circuit
  16. 16. In the Pulmonary Circuit, Blood Picks UpOxygen in the Lungs Pulmonary Circuit • Blood from tissue circulates through the lungs for gas exchange • Role of pulmonary arteries and veins
  17. 17. Heart  The right side of the heart • Contains blood low in oxygen • Pumps blood through the pulmonary circuit • Transports blood to and from the lungs  The left side of the heart • Contains blood rich in oxygen • Pumps blood through the systemic circuit • Transports blood to and from body tissues
  18. 18. In the Systemic Circuit, Blood Travels toand from Tissues Systemic circuit • Oxygenated blood pumped by left side of heart moves through body and returns to left atrium Aorta • Major arteries branch off it
  19. 19. Each Half of the Heart Pumps Blood in aDifferent Circuit
  20. 20. Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jznS5psypI 0:30
  21. 21. Shunted through the Liver for Processing Hepatic portal system: the vessels involved in this detour • Hepatic portal vein: nutrient-laden blood • Hepatic vein: blood leaving the liver’s capillary bed enters the general circulation through this vein • Hepatic artery: the liver receives oxygenated blood via this artery • The liver removes impurities and processes absorbed substances
  22. 22. Blood from the Digestive Tract Detoursto the Liver
  23. 23. Circulatory system http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3ZDJgFDdk0 2:58
  24. 24. Blood Pressure Heart contractions generate blood pressure, which changes as blood moves through the cardiovascular system Blood pressure is highest in the aorta Then it drops along the systemic circuit
  25. 25. Blood Exerts Pressure against the Wallsof Blood Vessels Blood pressure: fluid pressure that blood exerts against vessel walls Systolic and diastolic pressure: 120/80 • Systolic pressure: The peak pressure in the aorta while the left ventricle contracts and pushes blood into the aorta • Diastolic pressure: The lowest blood pressure in the aorta, when blood is flowing out of it and the heart is relaxed Hypertension • Chronically elevated blood pressure Hypotension • Abnormally low blood pressure
  26. 26. Blood Pressure Values (mm of Hg) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAmLbclSucQ 3:01 High Blood Pressure Impacts
  27. 27. A Variety of Factors May CauseHypertension
  28. 28.  Nearly 1 in 3 adult Americans have it. African Americans are especially at risk. Learn why hypertension is called the silent killer. http://www.webmd.com/video/hypertension- silent-killer 3:06
  29. 29. Structure and Functions of BloodVessels As with all body parts, structure is key to the functions of blood vessels All our vessels transport blood, but there are important differences in how different kinds manage blood flow and blood pressure
  30. 30. Blood Pressure Changes as Blood Flowsthrough the Cardiovascular System
  31. 31. Arterioles Are Control Points for BloodFlow Wall built of smooth muscle rings over elastic tissue • Dilates when smooth muscle relaxes • Constricts when smooth muscle contracts Offer more resistance to blood flow than other vessels do
  32. 32. Capillaries: Where Blood ExchangesSubstances with Tissues Blood enters the systemic circulation moving swiftly in the aorta, but this speed has to slow in order for substances to move into and out of the bloodstream
  33. 33. Capillaries Are Specialized for Diffusion Thinnest wall of any blood vessel • Single layer of endothelium Site of diffusion of gases, nutrients, and wastes Extensive • 62,000 miles Blood pressure drops slowly as blood flows through them
  34. 34. Some of the Substances Pass through“Pores” in Capillary Walls Pores • Filled with water • Passages for substances that can dissolve in water Fluid movement in capillaries • “Bulk flow”: water and solutes forced out of the vessel • Lymph vessels return the fluid to the blood
  35. 35. A Vast Network of Capillaries BringsBlood Close to Nearly All Body Cells 40 billion capillaries Every cell is a diffusible distance away from a capillary Blood flow is slowest in the capillaries
  36. 36. Blood in Capillaries Flows Onward toVenules Capillaries branch into capillary beds
  37. 37. Blood Vessels  Venules • Capillaries merge to form venules, the smallest kind of vein • Venules join to form larger veins  Veins • Carry blood back to the heart • Walls have the same three layers as arteries, but they are thinner; also have larger lumens • Serve as reservoirs for blood volume
  38. 38. Venules and Veins Return Blood to the Heart Venules • Function somewhat like capillaries Veins • Large diameters and low-resistance transport of blood back to the heart • Outer layer of connective tissue • Middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic fibers • Inner layer of endothelium • Valves prevent backflow of blood • Varicose veins: overstretched over time due to weak valves
  39. 39.  Varicose veins are gnarled, enlarged veins that most commonly affect legs and feet. The reason for this is gravity. Walking upright increases pressure in the veins in the lower part of the body, which can cause varicose veins. In most cases they are harmless, and simply a cosmetic concern. • However, for others it can be very painful and cause severe discomfort. • In some, rare cases, it can lead to more serious problems, such as severe disorders of the circulatory system.
  40. 40. The Structure of a Blood Vessel MatchesIts Function
  41. 41. Cardiovascular Disease
  42. 42. Cardiovascular Disease Major risk factors • Genetics • High levels of blood lipids, e.g., cholesterol and trans fats • Hypertension • Smoking, obesity, and lack of exercise • Age Infection-related inflammation • Can promote the formation of artery-blocking plaques and C-reactive protein • Produced by the liver in response to above; can lead to heart disease Too much homocysteine: an amino acid that is released as certain proteins break down; too much in the blood may cause damage leading to atheroslerosis
  43. 43. Major Risk Factors for CardiovascularDisease
  44. 44. Arteries Can Clog or Weaken: Arteriosclerosis(hardening of the arteries) (1) Atherosclerosis • Lipids build up in the artery wall • Cholesterol • Trans fats http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRK7-DCDKEA 0:39 Atherosclerotic plaque • Narrowing of artery
  45. 45. Plaques and Blood Clots May ClogArteries
  46. 46. Arteries Can Clog or Weaken (2) Coronary arteries • Narrow and vulnerable to clogging by plaques • Angina pectoris (mild chest pain) • “Plaque-busting” drugs: statins • Ways to repair coronary blockage • Coronary bypass • Laser angioplasty • Balloon angioplasty • Aneurysm • When a weakened artery wall balloons outward, creating a pouchlike weak spot • Could be fatal if it bursts
  47. 47. Plaques and Blood Clots May ClogArteries
  48. 48. Heart Damage Can Lead to Heart Attackand Heart Failure Heart attack • Damage or death to cardiac muscle • Warning signs • Risk factors Heart Failure (HF) • Weak heart and ineffective pump • Even walking can become difficult • May require repeated hospitalization
  49. 49. Arrhythmias Are Abnormal HeartRhythms Electrocardiogram (ECG) • Recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac cycle Arrhythmias: irregular heart rhythms
  50. 50. A Heart-Healthy Lifestyle May HelpPrevent Cardiovascular Disease Benefit of a diet that is moderate in fats Regular exercise Do not smoke
  51. 51. Infections, Cancer, and Heart Defects (1) Infections may seriously damage the heart Streptococcus bacteria: Rheumatic fever Strep in green  Endocarditis • When microbes attack heart valves directly Borrelia burgdorferi: • may cause heart complications (lyme disease pathogen)
  52. 52. Infections, Cancer, and Heart Defects (2) Myocarditis: Heart inflammation; various causes • Bacterial • Alcohol abuse • Drug abuse
  53. 53. The Lymphatic System Next…

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