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My Base Oil And Fundamentals Basic


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My Base Oil And Fundamentals Basic

  1. 1. Petro-Canada We Make Tough Lubricants
  2. 2. Lubrication Fundamentals & Base Oils Training Module
  3. 3. <ul><li>Lubrication Fundamentals: </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Lubrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key Lubricant Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose, Effects, Considerations & Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base Oil Refining: </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Lubricants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distillation of Crude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Stock Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>API Base Stock Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Oil Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refining Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent Refining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro-Treated & Hydro-Cracked Refining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petro-Canada Base Stocks </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Base Stocks & Overview </li></ul>Table of Contents
  4. 4. Importance of Lubrication
  5. 5. <ul><li>Lubrication is key when sliding (area) contact is present. </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricants are used to reduce friction and wear by preventing metal to metal contact. </li></ul>No Lubricant: High Friction Full Film (Hydrodynamic) Lubrication: Low Friction Thin Film (Boundary) Lubrication: Moderate Friction Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Air Oil Film Why Lubricate?
  6. 6. Key Lubricant Properties
  7. 7. <ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Index </li></ul><ul><li>Pour Point </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Point / Fire Point </li></ul><ul><li>Demulsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Foaming Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Rust Protection & Corrosion Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Tackiness </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Wear Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Pressure Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Detergency / Dispersancy </li></ul>Key Lubricant Properties
  8. 8. <ul><li>Viscosity is a measure of an oil's resistance to flow at one temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Is it “thick” or “thin”? “heavy” or “light”?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viscosity varies inversely with temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It thickens up when colder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It thins out when hotter (think of melting honey or butter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viscosity is always measured at a fixed temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial oils @ 40°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive oils @ 100°C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Units of viscosity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CentiStokes (cSt): is the modern unit used to characterize most lubricants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS,SSU) or Saybolt Universal Viscosity (SU V) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CentiPoise (cP): is the unit of dynamic (moving) viscosity. It is used to describe cold temperature fluidity. </li></ul></ul>Lubricant Properties: VISCOSITY
  9. 9. <ul><li>Viscosity Grade Classification Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO – Industrial Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cSt @ 40°C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AGMA – Industrial Gear Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cSt @ 40°C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAE – Engine Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cSt @100°C, cP @150°C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cP @ -10°C to -40°C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAE – Gear Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cSt @100°C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cP @ -12°C to -55°C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For more information see TechData – Viscosity Equivalents (IM-6501) </li></ul></ul>Lubricant Properties: VISCOSITY
  10. 10. <ul><li>While Viscosity is a measurement of resistance to flow at one temperature, Viscosity Index (VI) is a measurement of the rate of change of viscosity over a range of temperatures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In simple terms, it measures how fast the oil thickens up as it gets colder or how fast it thins out as it gets hotter. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Viscosity Index is calculated from viscosity measured at two reference temperatures, usually 40°C and 100°C </li></ul><ul><li>With most lubricants, the higher the VI the better </li></ul><ul><li>High VI is a term which means that the oil is usable over a wider temperature range. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VHVI = Very High Viscosity Index </li></ul></ul>Lubricant Properties: Viscosity Index (VI) Synthetic PAO(PolyAlphaOlefin) -130 Mineral Oil - 95 to 100 HydroTreated Oil - 100 to 110
  11. 11. <ul><li>V iscosity I ndex is an inherent property of the base oil used to blend a lubricant. </li></ul><ul><li>VI can be improved significantly by blending soluble additives called VI Improvers into the oil. </li></ul><ul><li>These additives are long polymer molecules which uncoil at high temperatures to increase viscosity, while at low temperatures they form tight “balls” which no longer contribute much to viscosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: VI improvers do not last for ever in a blend. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be chopped up or “sheared down” by constant mechanical motion in the oil. </li></ul></ul>Lubricant Properties: Viscosity Index (VI)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Small amounts of dissolved wax are usually present in petroleum lube oils. They come from the original crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>As temperature decreases, wax crystals start to appear, initially forming a cloud (the Cloud Point) . </li></ul><ul><li>Oil may still be mobile but eventually solidifying the oil at a lower temperature (the Pour Point ). </li></ul><ul><li>If Pour Point is not low enough, engine oils will not pump round an engine, and high rates of wear occur. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarly, an industrial oil will not slump to the gear or bearing surface and lubricate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The above are properties of oil under static conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other parameters are used to measure critical low temperature flow under dynamic (moving) conditions. </li></ul></ul>Lubricant Properties: Pour Point/Cloud Point
  13. 13. <ul><li>Oxidation is a reaction between oxygen in the air and the components of the oil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the temperature, the worse it becomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different Oils vary considerably in their Resistance to Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Oxidation bad? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It degrades the oil into sludge, gums, varnish and acids, which interfere with its function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It increases the viscosity to the point where it is too thick to lubricate, and the acids formed will promote corrosion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxidation increases the viscosity and alters the composition of the oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation is accelerated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminants such as metals, dust, water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen from any air in contact with the oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperature (thermal degradation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxidation can be greatly reduced with the right additives </li></ul>Lubricant Properties: Oxidation Resistance
  14. 14. “ Rule of Thumb” Every 10°C rise in temperature over 80°C decreases the life of the oil by about half. Lubricant Properties: Oxidation Resistance Oxidation Rate increases with Temperature E.g. Oil Life of Premium R & O: Temperature °C Hours Days 80 10000 416 90 5000 208 100 2500 104 110 1250 52 120 625 26 130 313 13
  15. 15. <ul><li>By providing a slippery film between metal surfaces, lubricating oils greatly reduce wear without the assistance of additives. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear protection can be greatly improved by blending specific additives with the oil . </li></ul><ul><li>When surfaces begin to rub, heat is created. At those elevated temperatures, “anti-wear” additives create a molecular layer on the metal surface which protects that metal from scuffing and abrasion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly based on Zinc and Phosphorous additives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZDDP – Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate </li></ul></ul></ul>Lubricant Properties: Wear Protection
  16. 16. Lubricant Properties: Extreme Pressure Properties <ul><li>Prevent welding and excessive wear of contacting metal parts under high load (shock) conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>EP properties generally provided by additives containing Sulphur, Chlorine, and/or Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only become active at temperatures greater than 180°C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosive to yellow metals at temperatures greater than 90°C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat generated at points of metal-to-metal contact causes additive to react with the metal surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The new compound forms a slick layer between metal surfaces and reduces friction. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Viscosity Index Improver - Functions over a wider temperature range </li></ul><ul><li>Pour Point Depressant - Functions at colder temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Oxidant - Longer operating life </li></ul><ul><li>Demulsifier - Better/faster separation from water </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Foam - Reduces undesirable foaming </li></ul><ul><li>Deaeration (Air Release) Agent - Fewer air bubbles trapped in oil to disrupt the lubricating film </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Rust - Rust Protection (Iron & Steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corrosion – Protects non-ferrous metals against attack (e.g. by sulphur) </li></ul><ul><li>Tackifier - Oil adheres better to metal </li></ul><ul><li>Detergent and Dispersant - Keeps contaminants from depositing on lubricated surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Wear - Protect metal parts from wear </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes - Colour identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Friction Modifiers – Improves fuel economy by lowering friction </li></ul><ul><li>EP (Extreme Pressure) - Protect metal surfaces against sudden or prolonged heavy loads </li></ul>Additive Type & Effect on Lubricant
  18. 18. <ul><li>Depending on the function required of the lubricant, the finished blend may be relatively simple in terms of the additives it contains, or quite complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Additives can sometimes counteract each other. Each finished lube is a finely balanced blend of additives whose proportions should not be disturbed by adding after-market “miracle” additives. </li></ul><ul><li>The following slide illustrates the complexities of different lube oils. </li></ul>Additive Considerations
  19. 19. Use of Additives Detergents Dispersants Anti-Oxidants Rust Inhibitors Anti-Wear E.P. Agents VI Improvers Pour Point Depressants Anti-Foam Engine Oils ATF General R&O Oil AW Hydraulic Industrial Gear Oil HVI Some Automotive Gear Oil Some ADDITIVE                                     Dyes Friction Modifiers    Grease      
  20. 20. Base Oil Refining A Simple introduction
  21. 21. Origin of Lubricants - Distillation of Crude - Creation of Base Stocks
  22. 22. <ul><li>By far, the bulk of lubricants are blended from petroleum base-stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>The starting point is Crude Oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude oil or petroleum is the term for &quot;unprocessed&quot; oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude oil is a fossil fuel, meaning that it was naturally made from decaying animals & plants living in ancient seas millions of years ago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anywhere you find crude oil was once a sea bed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude Oil colour varies from clear to tar-black & it ranges from water-like to almost solid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TYPICAL COMPOSITION (weight %) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon 84% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen 14% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphur 1- 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other (Nitrogen, Oxygen, Metals, Salts) <.2% </li></ul></ul>Where do Lubricants come from?
  23. 23. The value of crude oil can only be realized once it has been cleaned up (de-watered and de-salted) and separated into various fractions of similar hydrocarbons. Rising vapours condense and are drawn off <ul><li>A refinery process known as Atmospheric Distillation boils off all the low-boiling materials which are then condensed and used as fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>A second distillation process, Vacuum Distillation , under reduced pressure produces high boiling fractions -vacuum gas oils - known as “Feeds”. </li></ul>Distillation of Crude
  24. 24. <ul><li>The Average North American production from a barrel of crude oil is: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline 44% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distillate (home heat, diesel) 21% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kerosene-type jet fuel 9% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other (e.g., residual fuel oil, coke, asphalt) 25% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricant feedstock 1% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>So-called “Lube Crudes” will yield higher amounts of the vacuum distillates that go to make up lubricant Feedstocks, or “Feeds”. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds are the starting point for producing Base Stock </li></ul>Crude Yields
  25. 25. <ul><li>Base-Stocks of different viscosities are the fundamental building blocks of finished lubricants . </li></ul><ul><li>The processes to make base-stocks can be relatively mild, simple & straightforward as in the case of older style Solvent Refined (API Group 1) base-stocks, or: </li></ul><ul><li>They may be quite complex and severe in terms of their process conditions, as is the case with Petro-Canada’s H ydro- T reated and H ydro- C racked base-stocks (API Groups 2 and 3) </li></ul>What are Base Stocks? <ul><li>Base Stocks are the refined oils (derived from crude oil) which are blended together with additives to produce a finished lubricant. </li></ul><ul><li>Base Oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>The actual composition is influenced by the refining technology used </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Viscosity: The major defining property </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Index: Temperature/Viscosity relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Pour Point: Low temperature operation </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Point : High temperature operation </li></ul><ul><li>S, N content: Corrosive potential </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon type: Impacts solvency, stability </li></ul><ul><li>Color: Can indicate high aromatics </li></ul>Key Base Oil Properties
  27. 27. API Base Stock Groups -Base Oil Quality
  28. 28. <ul><li>The American Petroleum Institute (API) has developed numerical classifications ( API Base Stock Groups ) for lubricant base stocks, based on Sulphur content, composition, and VI. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we “slot” base stocks into API groups? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that base stock is a key building block of the final lubricant . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group designations are a guideline to applications and formulation requirements </li></ul></ul>IV Synthetic PAOs V Other Synthetics (diesters, PAGs, etc.) API Base Stock Groups Group Weight % Sulfur Weight % Saturates VI I > 0.03 < 90 80 - 119 II < 0.03 > 90 80 - 119 III < 0.03 > 90 120+
  29. 29. <ul><li>Group I: Is the lowest quality level with viscosity indexes (VIs) in the range 80-100+, but usually below 100. Solvent refined base stocks fall into this category. Petro-Canada does not manufacture these. </li></ul><ul><li>Group II: Applies to base stocks with low impurity levels, and VIs from 80 to 119. Petro-Canada HT base stocks are Group II and have typical VIs of 95-105. Products with VIs in the 110 to 119 range are sometimes referred to as Group II+ to distinguish them from other Group II products. Most Petro-Canada HC/IDW base stocks are Group II+ , with the remainder being Group III. </li></ul><ul><li>Group III: Applies to base stocks of saturated hydrocarbon composition, very low impurity levels, and very high VI (VHVI) , above 120. Lubricants formulated from Group III base stocks can be referred to as synthetic. Select Petro-Canada HC/IDW base stocks fall into this category. </li></ul><ul><li>Group IV: Refers to fully synthetic base stocks, (e.g. PAOs ). </li></ul>API Base Stock Groups Group II/III Producers North America: Share by Volume
  30. 30. Purity (% saturate level) 80 90 100 Viscosity Index 90 100 110 120 130 Group II (Hydroprocessed) Group I (Solvent Refined) Group III (Hydroprocessed) Petro-Canada Group II & VHVI Group III Group IV (PAO) Base Oil Quality
  31. 31. Advanced Mineral Base Oils Intensity of Processing Group I (Solvent Refining) Group II (Hydrogenation) Group III (wax conversion) Increased Performance Group II+ (Hydrogenation)
  32. 32. Lubricants World Product of the Year
  33. 33. Oxidative stability is a key measure of a hydraulic fluid’s ability to retain the protective properties it had as “fresh oil” HYDREX resists oxidative attack better than the leading competitor Better Than Conventional Hydraulic Oil TOTAL WEAR PROTECTION *
  34. 34. Refining Methods -Solvent Refining -Hydro-Treated & Hydro-Cracked Refining
  35. 35. <ul><li>The older refining processes involved little or no chemical alteration of the crude oil components. </li></ul><ul><li>They involved removal by distillation the light and heavy portions of the crude oil which are not of any use for lubes, and then removing the impurities and undesirable wax from the remainder by a process called “ Solvent Refining” (SR). </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent was percolated through the oil to remove impurities, and the oil then chilled to low temperature with a second solvent to remove wax as an insoluble solid which could be filtered off. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting oils still contain significant amounts of coloured impurities, as well as dissolved waxes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These oils are only moderately stable by modern standards, suffer from poorer physical properties (e.g.low-temperature viscosity, high temperature volatility) and VI values were modest. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This process produced API Group I base oils </li></ul>Solvent Refined Base Stocks
  36. 36. <ul><li>Petro-Canada manufactures what are called API Group II & Group III base stocks , by means of processes called severe H ydro- T reating (HT) & H ydro- C racking (HC) . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our HT base stocks fall under the definition of API Group II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our Hydro-Cracked /IDW base stocks are API Group II+/III. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After the initial separation of the crude oil by distillation, the above two processes are used to chemically alter and improve the base-stock molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Both processes subject the oil fractions to hydrogen gas under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions over a catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting lube oils still contain undesirable wax at this stage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be removed either by typical solvent dewaxing, or by a modern process known as Iso dewaxing (IDW) or Hydro-Isomerisation, which is highly effective. </li></ul></ul>Hydro-Treated & Hydro-Cracked Base Stocks
  37. 37. <ul><li>The resulting oils from these processes are water-white, and over 99% pure in terms of hydrocarbon content. </li></ul><ul><li>Undesirable impurities , such as Sulphur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen compounds, are either completely absent, or are present in trace amounts (parts per million/billion). </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of I so- D e W axed (IDW) oils, the wax has been chemically converted to very useful lubricant with excellent low temperature properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, for both HT and HC/IDW, the basestocks produced are much more stable with lower wax content, good low temp properties, and improved volatility characteristics. VI values for HT tend to be High. For HC/IDW, they are Very High- hence VHVI. </li></ul>Hydro-Treated & Hydro-Cracked Processes
  38. 38. <ul><li>Viscosity Index (VI) </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to a Group I Base Stock: VI of HT or HC base stocks are higher therefore need less viscosity modifiers (i.e. VI improvers) and this means potential savings in additive costs </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to a Group I Base Oil: Inherent oxidative stability is lower and has a better additive response. The implicit higher purity of our hydrocarbons makes it easier to select the right additive and can realize synthetic-like performance in many of our systems </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>The process ensures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low toxicity: virtually no aromatics-, sulphur-, oxygen- or nitrogen-containing compounds and therefore are relatively benign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermatological Safety: Many of our base stocks are made to meet medicinal credentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental soundness: These base stocks have “good” to “excellent” biodegradability in standard tests </li></ul></ul>Impact on Properties
  39. 39. <ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Superior response to anti-oxidants </li></ul><ul><li>High viscosity index (VI) </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent water separation (demusilbity) </li></ul><ul><li>Low carbon residue formation </li></ul><ul><li>Almost zero aromatics </li></ul><ul><li>99.9% PURE </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent low temperature properties </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Readily biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Look and Performance </li></ul>HT / HC Base Stock Features & Benefits
  40. 40. Petro-Canada Base Stocks - Synthetic Base Stocks
  41. 41. <ul><li>In each of the HT and HC/IDW processes base stocks of various viscosities are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>The various viscosity grades can then be blended in different combinations to produce end-products or lubricants with specific characteristics/properties (e.g. viscosity, volatility, low temp fluidity, flash point, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Each base-stock receives a number which is loosely based on its viscosity in SUS @100F. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the number, the more viscous the oil, e.g: 60N, 100N, 325N etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The “N” refers to the word Neutral, and is a throw-back to the early days of refining when residual acidity from the process had to be neutralized. </li></ul>Petro-Canada Group II/III Base Stocks
  42. 42. <ul><li>Group II HT Base Oils: </li></ul><ul><li>40N: Drill Mud, Process Oil, Mineral Seal Oil </li></ul><ul><li>50N: Technical Oil, Process Oil </li></ul><ul><li>60N: White Oils, Animal Feed, Spray, Dust Suppression </li></ul><ul><li>100N: White Oils, Spray, Fluids, C&I Products </li></ul><ul><li>160N: Virtually all product lines, not a key White Oil </li></ul><ul><li>200N: White Oil, Fluids </li></ul><ul><li>350N: White Oil, principally polystyrene oil </li></ul><ul><li>650N: Virtually all product lines, key White Oil Grade too </li></ul><ul><li>Group II+/III HC Base stock: </li></ul><ul><li>40N: Technical White Oil, Drill Mud </li></ul><ul><li>65N: Process Oil, ATF, Spray, Diluent, Dust Suppression </li></ul><ul><li>100N: Core to Motor Oils, for “GF4” quality level </li></ul><ul><li>325N: VI Improver offset, higher viscosity component for Heavy Duty Engine Oils </li></ul>Petro-Canada Group II/III Base Stocks & Uses
  43. 43. Synthetic Base Stocks and Overview
  44. 44. <ul><li>What is a Synthetic Base Stock? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A synthetic base stock is man-made; manufactured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group III base stocks are considered synthetic due to their high degree of refining and unique properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why use a Synthetic? </li></ul><ul><li>They have Real Performance Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility, VI, Pour Point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer Oil Life - Less Maintenance, Less Down-Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfies Specific Performance Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Oil Consumption - Less Top-Ups, Less Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer Operation - High Flash Point, Low Toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposability - Lower Volume, Biodegradability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE that not all Synthetics offer these advantages </li></ul></ul>Synthetic Base Stocks