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Analyzing Networks of Issue Reports
Markus Borg
Dietmar Pfahl
Per Runeson
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Markus Borg
Dietmar Pfahl Per Runeson
University of Tartu
Es...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Agenda
• Background and Context
– Information management
– S...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Background and Context
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Information management
• Large projects, much information
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Challenges
• A state of information overload
– Engineers can...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Intensified in safety development
• Safety standards mandate...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Mandated documents in IEC 26262
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Work task: Impact Analysis (IA)
• Required by IEC 61508 befo...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Work task: Impact Analysis (2)
• Formal template
• Impact on...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Supporting the impact analysis?
Work task
?
Reqs. DB
Code
Re...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Reuse knowledge from previous IAs
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Information in networks, so what?
• Search in hyperlinked st...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Networks of issue reports
• What type of networks can we fin...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Method
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Issue databases under study
• Safety IMS (2000-2012)
– Indus...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Link mining in the issue databases
• Safety IMS
– ”Related c...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Results
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Extracted network - Overview
• Safety IMS
– 26,120 issue rep...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Extracted network – Close-up
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Extracted network - Overview
• Android IMS
– 20,176 issue re...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Example of sub-network
Bug star
One central issue
report poi...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Example of sub-network
Dense ring
Most issue reports are
con...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Extracted networks
What do developers signal by
creating HTM...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Link semantics
• Indicate relationships with different certa...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
More recent results
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Contents of IA reports in the Safety IMS
Code
HW description...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Mining IA reports in the Safety IMS
• ~ 5,000 impact analysi...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Extracted semantic network
• 27,958 nodes
– ~26,000 issue re...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Extracted semantic network –
Circle layout
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Future work
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
How can the networks be exploited?
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Neighbourhood search
Application 1:
Search for
connected
art...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Centrality measures
Application 2: Identification of key art...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Goal: Impact Recommender
1. Identify similar issues
2. Ident...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Summary
• Link mining in IMSs can discover complex issue net...
Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson
Thanks!
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Analyzing networks of issue reports

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Conference presentation from CSMR 2013, Genova, Italy.

Abstract: Completely analyzed and closed issue reports in
software development projects, particularly in the development of safety-critical systems, often carry important information about issue-related change locations. These locations may be in the source code, as well as traces to test cases affected by the issue, and related design and requirements documents. In order
to help developers analyze new issues, knowledge about issue clones and duplicates, as well as other relations between the new issue and existing issue reports would be useful. This paper analyses, in an exploratory study, issue reports contained in two Issue Management Systems (IMS) containing approximately 20.000 issue reports. The purpose of the analysis is to gain a better understanding of relationships between issue reports
in IMSs. We found that link-mining explicit references can
reveal complex networks of issue reports. Furthermore, we
found that textual similarity analysis might have the potential to complement the explicitly signaled links by recommending additional relations. In line with work in other fields, links between software artifacts have a potential to improve search and navigation in large software engineering projects.

Published in: Science, Technology, Education
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Analyzing networks of issue reports

  1. 1. Analyzing Networks of Issue Reports Markus Borg Dietmar Pfahl Per Runeson
  2. 2. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Markus Borg Dietmar Pfahl Per Runeson University of Tartu Estonia Lund University Sweden • Third year PhD student • MSc CS and engineering • Software developer (2007-2010) • Empirical research group
  3. 3. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Agenda • Background and Context – Information management – Safety-critical development – Impact analysis • Goal and method of this study • Results • Future work
  4. 4. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Background and Context
  5. 5. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Information management • Large projects, much information
  6. 6. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Challenges • A state of information overload – Engineers cannot process all information – Causes stress – Obstructs decision making • Poor findability – More effort to navigate information landscape
  7. 7. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Intensified in safety development • Safety standards mandate documentation Railroad Nuclear Process Machinery Automotive Industry
  8. 8. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Mandated documents in IEC 26262
  9. 9. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Work task: Impact Analysis (IA) • Required by IEC 61508 before changes to production code • Studied an industrial case – Documented – Reviewed during safety audits Requirements Tests
  10. 10. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Work task: Impact Analysis (2) • Formal template • Impact on code and non-code specified as traceability links • Manual work IMS
  11. 11. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Supporting the impact analysis? Work task ? Reqs. DB Code Repo Test DB
  12. 12. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Reuse knowledge from previous IAs
  13. 13. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Information in networks, so what? • Search in hyperlinked structures well researched – Also applied in software engineering (Karabatis et al. (2009)) HITS algorithm Page et al. (1999) Kleinberg (1999)
  14. 14. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Networks of issue reports • What type of networks can we find in issue databases? ?
  15. 15. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Method
  16. 16. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Issue databases under study • Safety IMS (2000-2012) – Industrial control system – Mandated by strict processes – Issues submitted by engineers • Android IMS (2007-2012) – OS for handheld devices – Open source software – Issues submitted to public database
  17. 17. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Link mining in the issue databases • Safety IMS – ”Related cases” field in database • Android IMS – No separate field for linking issues – Communication using comments (100,000+) – Developers refer to other issues, stored as HTML hyperlinks • Extracted using regular expressions
  18. 18. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Results
  19. 19. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Extracted network - Overview • Safety IMS – 26,120 issue reports – 18,000 links – 15,000 components – 13,000 isolated issue reports
  20. 20. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Extracted network – Close-up
  21. 21. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Extracted network - Overview • Android IMS – 20,176 issue reports – 3,500 links – 18,000 components – 17,000 isolated issue reports
  22. 22. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Example of sub-network Bug star One central issue report pointing at several others Caused by duplicates
  23. 23. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Example of sub-network Dense ring Most issue reports are connected. Caused by copy- paste comments
  24. 24. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Extracted networks What do developers signal by creating HTML hyperlinks?
  25. 25. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Link semantics • Indicate relationships with different certainty – Related issue report (possibly  probably  definetely) – Duplicate issue report (possibly  probably  definetely) – Cloned issue report • Misc. links – Raising awareness of issue reports – Release planning – Links with the wrong target • Links appear to carry meaning
  26. 26. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson More recent results
  27. 27. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Contents of IA reports in the Safety IMS Code HW description Misc. documents Test case User manual Test case
  28. 28. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Mining IA reports in the Safety IMS • ~ 5,000 impact analysis reports Node types • Issue reports • Requirements • Test specifications • Hardware descriptions Link types • Related issue • Specified by • Verified by • Needs update • Impacted HW
  29. 29. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Extracted semantic network • 27,958 nodes – ~26,000 issue reports – ~3,000 other artifacts • 28,230 links – ~18,000 related issue – ~4,000 specified by – ~2,300 verified by
  30. 30. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Extracted semantic network – Circle layout
  31. 31. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Future work
  32. 32. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson How can the networks be exploited?
  33. 33. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Neighbourhood search Application 1: Search for connected artifacts
  34. 34. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Centrality measures Application 2: Identification of key artifacts (ranking)
  35. 35. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Goal: Impact Recommender 1. Identify similar issues 2. Identify neighbours 3. Rank candidates Far awayTextual sim. High cent.
  36. 36. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Summary • Link mining in IMSs can discover complex issue networks – The process-heavy IMS contains more links – Links among issue reports, created in comments by Android developers, typically signal relations • Networks of issue reports can be extended by other artifacts • Networked information enables better navigation - Broaden search (following links) - Sharpen search (better ranking)
  37. 37. Analyzing networks of issue reports| Borg, Pfahl, and Runeson Thanks! ?

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