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  • Google video: Thorndike- Law of effect 2:22.
  • Google: Thorndike behavior & fear conditioning 6:20
  • Founder
  • Social change has not often been a focus- except eugenics
  • Zeitgeist!
  • Is this true?
  • Google: Little Albert 2:07
  • Disliked MC hammer’s music as well. Article makes good case that Skinnerian conditioning might have occurred
  • Farthing 1992: college students- 73% of thinking was talking to themselves.
  • History ch10

    1. 1. Chapter 10 Behaviorism: The Beginnings
    2. 2. The Psychologist, the Baby, and the Hammer: Description of Little Albert study
    3. 3. <ul><li>Steel rod hung behind Albert </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson struck the rod with a hammer in the presence of the rat, startling the baby who reacted fearfully and cried </li></ul><ul><li>Rosalie Raynor also was there as an assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Albert had been chosen because he was “emotionally stable” </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Prior to the conditioning, Albert showed little fear response to a variety of objects </li></ul><ul><li>After the conditioning, Albert shows fear in reaction to a variety of stimuli that were similar to the rat is some way (furry, white) </li></ul><ul><li>Watson and Raynor show that fears can be conditioned, argued that adults’ fears are result of conditioning </li></ul>
    5. 5. John B. Watson (1878-1958)
    6. 6. Overview <ul><ul><li>Watson credited the work of others as originators of behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saw himself as bringing together the emergent ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to found a new school </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Watson’s life <ul><ul><li>delinquent behavior in youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determined to be a minister to fulfill mother’s wish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enrolled at Furman University (S.Carolina): studied philosophy, math, Latin, Greek. Earned master’s degree at Furman </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Watson <ul><ul><li>1900: enrolled at the University of Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planned to pursue graduate degree in philosophy with Dewey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attracted to psychology through work with Angell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>studied biology and physiology with Loeb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1903: at age 25 earned Psychology PhD from University of Chicago </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Watson <ul><ul><li>dissertation published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neurological and psychological maturation of the white rat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not successful at introspection & felt much more of a preference working with animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1908: offered professorship at Johns Hopkins University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reluctant to leave University of Chicago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new job offered promotion, salary raise, and opportunity to direct the psychology laboratory </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) <ul><ul><ul><li>James Baldwin offered the John Hopkins’s job to Watson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a founder with Cattell of Psychological Review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1909: forced by the university president to resign after caught in a police raid on a brothel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 years later Watson forced to resign by the same president after he had affair with graduate student that led to a scandal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. John Watson <ul><ul><li>1909: chair of Hopkins psychology department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1909: editor of Psychological Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1912: presented ideas for a more objective psychology in lectures at Columbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1913: “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” (launched behaviorism) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>1914 Book : Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>argued for acceptance of animal psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>described advantages of animal subjects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discussed importance of ridding psychology of the remnants of philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>desired practical applications </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Watson <ul><ul><li>1920: forced resignation from Johns Hopkins University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>marriage deteriorated and led to divorce due to his infidelities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fell in love with Rosalie Rayner, graduate assistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>half his age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from family of wealthy donors to the university </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>wife found his passionate but rather scientific love letters to Rosalie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>excerpts published in Baltimore Sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>astonished when forced to resign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>married Rosalie but still banished from academia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Titchener one of the few academics who reached out to comfort him </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Watson <ul><ul><li>second career: applied psychology in advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mechanistic view of humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proposed experimental (lab) study of consumer behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced positive publicity for psychology in the popular media. Wrote articles in popular magazines, gave public lectures, spoke on radio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: Behaviorism; introduced plan to perfect the social order </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><li>1928: Psychological Care of the Infant and Child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong environmentalist position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recommended perfect objectivity in child-rearing practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>had the greatest impact of all his work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1935: when his wife Rosalie died; he became a recluse </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><ul><li>1957: at age 79 awarded APA citation for his vital and fruitful work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refused to go inside to receive award </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watson afraid that he would show his emotions and cry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>son accepted it in his place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>burned all of his papers prior to his death </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Original Source Material: from “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” (1913) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the definition and goal of behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>criticisms of structuralism and functionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the role of heredity and habit in adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applied psychology is truly scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>importance of standardized or uniform experimental procedures </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The Reaction to Watson’s Program
    20. 20. His major points <ul><ul><li>the science of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a purely objective experimental branch of natural science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both animal and human behavior are studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discard all mentalistic concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use only behavior concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goal: prediction and control of behavior </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Initial reactions <ul><ul><li>behaviorism was not embraced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>his 1919 book Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist hastened the movement’s impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calkins: disputed Watson; adhered to introspection as the sole method for studying some processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washburn: called Watson an enemy of psychology </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 1920’s <ul><ul><li>university courses in behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the word “behaviorist” appeared in journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McDougall: issued a public warning against behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Titchener: complained of its force and extent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other forms of behaviorism emerging </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Methods of Behaviorism <ul><li>Only accepted objective methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observation, with and without instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal report method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditioned reflex method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test results are samples of behavior, not indices of mental qualities </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Verbal reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legitimate in psychophysics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speech reactions are objectively observable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinking is speaking covertly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>admitted the lack of precision and limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited it to situations where it could be verified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>came under attack (sounded like introspection) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Conditioned reflex method (Pavlov & Bekhterev) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adopted in 1915 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson responsible for its widespread use in U.S. research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditioning is stimulus substitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selected because it is an objective method of behavior analysis </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><ul><li>reflected reductionism and mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human subject: the observed rather than the observer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>designation changed from “observer” to “subject” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experimenter became the observer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. The Subject Matter of Behaviorism
    28. 28. Items or elements of behavior <ul><ul><li>goal: understand overall behavior of the total organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act= more complex behaviors (eating, writing…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>response or act accomplishes some result </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But capable of being reduced to simple, lower-level motor or glandular responses </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Watson <ul><ul><li>explicit versus implicit responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explicit is overtly observable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>implicit happen inside organism (ex., glandular secretions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must be potentially observable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must be observable through the use of instruments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><ul><li>simple versus complex stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>complex stimulus situation can be reduced to simple, component stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example of simple stimuli: light waves striking retina </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Watson <ul><ul><li>specific laws of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identified through analysis of S-R complexes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must find elementary S-R units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major topics: instinct, emotion, thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all areas of behavior: must use objective S-R terms </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Instincts <ul><ul><li>1914: Watson described 11 instincts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: eliminated the concept of instinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an extreme environmentalist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>denied inherited capacities, temperaments, talents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>children can become anything one desires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a factor in his popularity with the American lay public </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Watson <ul><li>&quot;Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select–doctor, lawyer, artist–regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors&quot; </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><ul><li>Watson admitted that 100% environmental impact was an exaggeration, but claimed that those believing in hereditary control exaggerated their side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seemingly instinctive behavior is actually a socially conditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychology can only be applied if behavior can be modified, which is not consistent with hereditary control. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Emotions <ul><ul><li>Watson defined as bodily responses to specific stimuli, no different than salivating to food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>denied conscious perception of emotion or sensations from internal stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each emotion = specific configuration of physiological changes, a form of implicit behavior: internal responses are evident in overt physical signs such as blushing </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Emotions <ul><ul><li>critical of James ’ more complex position involving initial conscious perception , bodily response and later a feeling state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson: emotions completely described by three things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>objective stimulus situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overt bodily response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal physiological changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Emotions <ul><ul><li>fear, love, and rage are not learned emotional response patterns to stimuli. Inborn emotions shown by infants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loud noises or sudden lack of support lead to fear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restriction of bodily movements leads to rage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caressing, rocking, patting lead to love </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Albert, Peter, and the rabbits <ul><ul><li>Little Albert (8 months old) study demonstrated conditioned (learned) emotional responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson: adult fears are learned, do not arise from Freud’s unconscious conflicts. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Little Albert Study: Watson & Rayner <ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Loud bang of hammer against metal bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response (UCR): Natural fear response. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral/Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Rat </li></ul><ul><li>After 7 pairings, previously neutral rat stimulates fear response. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Little Albert Experiment <ul><li>Generalization: Fear response to stimuli similar to rat= rabbit, cotton balls. </li></ul><ul><li>Harris, B. What ever happened to Little Albert?, Amer Psych, 1979, 34(2), 151-160. </li></ul><ul><li>Many texts have incorrect info or omit info: </li></ul><ul><li>Not all hairy objects induced fear, some nonwhite objects did induce fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Watson knew he would not get to treat Albert’s induced fears. </li></ul><ul><li>Some difficulties in replication. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Peter’s Rabbit <ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Cover Jones worked with 3-year Peter who came to her with a rabbit phobia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Mary Cover Jones (1896-1987) <ul><ul><ul><li>worked with 3-year Peter who came to her with a rabbit phobia (1924) (little Albert study published 1920) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>treatment method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involve Peter in eating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bring in rabbit at a distance that does not produce crying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each day, decrease the distance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>after a few months, Peter could touch the rabbit without exhibiting fear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this approach is a forerunner of behavior therapy. (a type of exposure therapy, foreshadowing systematic desensitization) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><ul><ul><li>generalized fear responses also eliminated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1968: Jones given G. Stanley Hall award for her outstanding work in developmental psychology </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Watson: Thought processes <ul><ul><li>traditional view: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thinking occurs in the absence of muscle movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not accessible to observation and experimentation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Watson’s Behaviorism <ul><ul><ul><li>thinking is implicit sensorimotor behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involves implicit speech reactions or movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reduced it to potentially measurable subvocal talking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>same muscular habits as used for overt speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>others warn us not to talk aloud to ourselves, so we become unaware of the muscular habits used while thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thinking = silent talking to oneself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Farthing 1992: college students- 73% of thinking was talking to themselves. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Behaviorism’s Popular Appeal
    47. 47. <ul><li>Watson called for a society based on scientifically shaped and controlled behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free of myths, customs, and convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Religion Called Behaviorism (Berman, 1927): read by & influenced Skinner </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Watson & Behaviorists <ul><li>Emphasis on childhood environment and minimization of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned reflex experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implied emotional disturbances in adulthood due to conditioned responses during earlier years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implies proper childhood conditioning precludes adult disorders </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. <ul><li>Behaviorism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be part of a plan to improve society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a framework for research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was further elaborated by Skinner </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. An Outbreak of Psychology <ul><li>Product of a public already attentive to and receptive of psychology and Watson’s considerable charm and vision of hope for behavioral change and the betterment of society </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>Exemplified by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological advice columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Jastrow’s popularization of psychology through magazine articles, newspaper column “Keeping Mentally Fit,” radio program, and pop psychology book, Piloting Your life: the Psychologist as Helmsman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Wiggam’s column “Exploring Your Mind” </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Criticisms of Watson’s Behaviorism
    53. 53. Edwin B. Holt (1873-1946) <ul><ul><li>Received Ph.D. under William James at Harvard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Harvard works at Princeton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consciousness should not be rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning can occur in response to internal needs and drives (precursor to motivation theories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on larger behaviors that had some purpose for the organism (precursor to Tolman) </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Karl Lashley (1890-1958) <ul><ul><li>student of Watson at Johns Hopkins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a physiological psychologist </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Lashley <ul><ul><li>1929: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence. Performed extirpation of brain areas in rats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>law of mass action: “The efficiency of learning is a function of the total mass of cortical tissue.” Larger areas of brain used in learning than localizationists would suggest. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>principle of equipotentiality: “The idea that one part of the cerebral cortex is essentially equal to another in its contribution to learning.” (“searching for the engram”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Lashley <ul><ul><li>Expected his work to support Watson, but instead challenged Watson’s notion of a point-to-point connection in reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>brain more active in learning than Watson accepted, not a simple/passive switching station between sensory input & behavioral output. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disputed the notion that behavior is a mechanical compounding of conditioned reflexes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But confirmed the value of objective methods in psychology research </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. William McDougall (1871-1938)
    58. 58. McDougall: An Opponent of Watson & Behaviorism <ul><ul><li>English psychologist, affiliated with Harvard and Duke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noted for his instinct theory of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>human behavior results from innate tendencies to thought and action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noteworthy book on social psychology spurred that field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supported free will, Nordic superiority, psychic research </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><ul><li>1924: debate with Watson (McDougall judged as winner by most) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agreed data of behavior are a proper focus for psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>argued data of consciousness also necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>questioned Watson’s tenet that human behavior is fully determined, no free will </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>critical of Watson’s use of the verbal report method= speech behavior, without questioning meaning or accuracy of such speech. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watson approach missing daydreams, fantasies, aesthetic experiences. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Contributions of Watson’s Behaviorism <ul><li>Made psychology more objective in methods and terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulated a great deal of research </li></ul><ul><li>Surmounted earlier positions and schools </li></ul><ul><li>Objective methods and language became part of the mainstream </li></ul>