Irrigation water management


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Irrigation water management

  2. 2. contents  Introduction  Irrigation in India  Irrigation in planning commission  Irrigation policy & strategy  CONJUCTIVE USE OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER  Case study  conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction  The role of irrigation in India in expanding crop production.  Food production in India will become increasingly dependent upon irrigation.  Over 55% of agricultural output is from irrigated lands and production from rainfed areas is faced with lack of land for expansion and the prevailing risk of drought.
  4. 4. Irrigation in India  The total geographical area of land in India is 329 (exactly 328.762) m.ha. which is 2.45% of the global land area.  The total aerable land ( as per Food and Agriculture Organization estimate) is 165.3 m.ha. which is about 50.2% of total geographical area against the corresponding global figure of 10.2%.  India possesses 4% of the total average annual runoff in the rivers of the world. The per capita water availability of natural runoff is atleast 1,100 cu.m. per year (year 2000 estimates).
  5. 5.  India has about 16% of the world population as compared to only 4% of average annual runoff in the rivers.  With the present population of around 1000 million, the per capita water availability comes to about 1170 m3/person/year.  At present 141 m.ha. are used for cultivation purposes. Between 1970-71 and 1987-88 the average net sown area has been 140.4 m.ha. with a maximum of 143.21 m.ha. in 1983-84 and a minimum of 136.18 m.ha. in 1987-88
  6. 6. Irrigation in planning commission  Irrigation was given the first priority in first,second and third,five year plans.  Share of irrigation in the expenditure was more than 25% during sixth,seventh and eighth five year plans.  During these plan,the irrigated area is increased in 2.4 million ha per year.  The max potential is estimated around 140 million ha which is the target for achievement by the year 2025.
  7. 7. The planning commission broadly classified irrigation schemes into 3 types in the year 1978-79  Major irrigation projects: projects with cultivable command area of 10000 ha and above.  Medium irrigation projects: projects with cultivable command area of 2000 ha to 10000 ha.  Minor irrigation projects: projects with cultivable command area of less than 2000 ha
  8. 8. Irrigation policy & strategy  Considering the urgent need of evolving a national water policy , the irrigation commission has recommended for the creation of national water resource council.  This runs under prime minister’s supervision. It deals about the problems and remedies of irrigation works such as water conservation, water use and inter basin transfer of water.
  9. 9.  In Haryana and Punjab-Drainage and reclamation problems  Madhya pradesh- Large scale sprinkler system  Maharastra- Drip irrigation system  Andhra pradesh- watershed management, desilting tanks, construction of percolation tanks.  In tamilnadu- since paddy requires a huge amount of water, it results in water logging and increase in salinity of the soil.
  10. 10. CONJUCTIVE USE OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER  When well water and canal water are used in accordance with need, such system is called conjunctive use of water.  Large quantity of water is conserved in the reservoir and productivity of water is also enhanced ,but this system for its sustainability ,requires water percolation measures.
  11. 11. METHODS  Sprinkler irrigation system  Drip irrigation system  Tank modernization  Farmers participation  Re-use of waste water  Inter-basin transfers.
  12. 12. Sprinkler irrigation system  This system prevent the seepage losses and to have controlled irrigation.  Many seed farms and nurseries are being successfully raised under this system.  30-40% water is saved under this system.  This system is gaining importance in dry areas of Madhya pradesh, Andhra
  13. 13. Drip irrigation system  In india wells nearly contribute to 30% of the total irrigated area in the country.  In many states the ground water table is fast depleting. As a result many wells have become dry and abandoned.  Drip irrigation system is becoming popular in Madhya pradesh and Maharastra.  Banana,Grapes,Vegtables and sugar cane etc.,are being successfully grown.  40-70% of water is saved and crop yield is increased from 10-100%.
  14. 14. Tank modernization  About 2 lakh tanks in india,but majority of these tanks are associated with problems like encroachment,siltation,poor tank structures and lack of farmers cooperation.  To reduce the conveyance losses, the irrigation strategy must include sluice modification, canal lining,provision of additional wells in ayacut,catchments development and on farm development works. These are imfact the important components of tank modernization.
  15. 15. Farmers participation  Many studies on irrigation development disclose that the farming community must be made active participants in all phases of planning, implementation,operation and maintenance activities.  This can be achieved by creating water users associations to solve the problems of water use.  All the problems like unequal distribution of irrigation water, water logging,salinity ,low productivity and income etc., solved through the associations
  16. 16. Re-use of waste water  The demand for water is continuosly increasing due to the need for increased agricultural production and its ever-increasing demand in industry and urban areas.  Large quantities of industrial waste water and drainage water are not reclaimed at present. Therefore waste water reclamation and reusing the water is an urgent need especially in drought areas.
  17. 17. Inter-basin transfers  An interbasin transfer is a transfer of water from one river basin to another.  The problem of water scarcity can be overcome by inter basin water transfer.  This means the rivers,which carry adequate water should be conected by constructing canals and reserviors.
  18. 18. Case study: Samrat Ashoka Sagar Irrigation Project • Location: vidisha district in Madhya pradesh.The dam itself has been constructed on the Halali River, which is a tributary of Betwa River about 40 km. from Bhopal.  Date Built: commenced the project in 1973-74. The main dam was completed in 1977, while the main canal was completed in 1978.  Command Area: The gross command area of the project is 37419 ha and the culturable command area is 27 924 ha.  Irrigated Area: The Annual irrigated area is as follows: a. Rabi (1st November to 31st March) 25 091 ha. b. Kharif (15th July to 15th October) 12 545 ha
  19. 19. Organization/Institutions involved, including users participation  The Participatory Irrigation Management Act of Madhya Pradesh brought about a total change in the management of irrigation systems though Farmers Organization (FO). The Act envisaged the creation of a three-tier system:  a) Water Users Associations (WUA) at the base level,  b) Distributory Committee (DCs) at the distributory level,  c) Project Committee (PCs) at the Project (main) level.  All minor irrigation schemes in the state have only one tier of FOs (WUA), the medium size irrigation schemes have a two tier structure (WUA and PC) and
  20. 20.  The Samarat Ashok Sagar Project is a major irrigation project and thus it has all the three tier of farmer organizations.  The command area of the Samarat Ashok Sagar Project has been divided into  1 Project Committee (PC) for the entire area.  3 Distributory Committees (DC) at the Distributary level  16 WUA at the base (on-farm) level
  21. 21. Election of WUA o All water users in the area of each WUA is a member of that WUA. o The Act provides with voting rights, to those members who have been registered as owners or tenants in the records. o The WUA has a managing committee, which attends to the day-to-day functioning. This body has a president and executive committee, who are elected directly by all landholders through secret ballot. o The operational area of every WUA is divided into territorial constituencies with equitable representation of voting members in that area. o The president of the WUA or any member of the Executive Committee can be recalled by the members after a period of one year by giving written notice; signed by not less than one third of the members. While direct elections take place for the WUA, election to both the Distributory Committee and the Project Committee are indirect. Only the Presidents of the 16 WUA participate in these.
  22. 22. Co-Ordination with WRD  The officials of the Water Resources Department support the WUA in the following ways.  Provide Technical Assistance  Ensure safety (structural) of system  Help the farmer organization in preparation of estimates for operation and maintenance  Help in prioritizing works
  23. 23. Functions of WUA  To prepare and implement a Warabandi schedule for each irrigation season,  To prepare a plan and carry out the maintenance of the irrigation system  To regulate the use of water among the various pipe-outlets  To monitor water availability for irrigation.  To raise financial resources for system upkeep,  To promote water use efficiency,  To conduct regular water budgeting and periodical social audits.
  24. 24. Functions of the Distributory Committee (DC)  To prepare a plan for the maintenance of both distributaries and corresponding drains; at the end of each cropping seasons,  Execute maintenance works, with committee-assigned funds, as required,  To regulate the use of water among the various water users associations; under its area of influence,  To monitor water availability for irrigation,
  25. 25. Functions of Project Committee (PC)  To approve, at the beginning of each irrigation season, an operational plan (based on itsassigned area, soil type and cropping pattern) prepared by the competent authority for theentire project area,  To approve a plan for the maintenance of irrigation system, including the major drains, at the end of each cropping season,  Execute the maintenance works, with committee-assigned funds, as required,
  26. 26. Syatem performance  Agricultural and water productivity  Equity of water distribution  Farmers’ satisfaction  Water Service Fee Structure
  27. 27. conclusion  It needs to be noted that in India most of the post-independence activities in the irrigation sector have been construction-driven. The focus was on creating more and more irrigation potential and less attention was paid to the management and maintenance of the systems. As a result of this, a huge gap has developed between created and utilized irrigation potential.  The farmer organizations have gladly accepted this new responsibility of and have not allowed the lack of funds to prevent them from undertaking up proper maintenance works, within their financial capacity. They have raised their own resources where ever necessary and have contributed their labor free of charge to help line the canal banks, clean the canals etc.
  28. 28. THANK YOU
  29. 29. Referances  Samrat Ashoka Sagar Irrigation Project Prepared by Ganesh Pangare, Rajat Hooja and Nitin Kaushal;January 2003.  Ministry of water resources.  “Participatory Irrigation Management in Madhya Pradesh” in India