Usability & User-Centred Design


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Presentation given during the JISC Usability and User-Centred Design (UCD) day; JISC Usability and Faceted Search day.

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Usability & User-Centred Design

  1. 1. Usability & User-Centred Design<br /><ul><li>Paper & UI Prototyping Practical (pm)Cramond/Swanston Room</li></ul>Usability & faceted search<br /><ul><li>Faceted Search Technology Hacking (pm)StudyPod</li></li></ul><li>User-Centred Design & faceted Search User Interface<br />Boon Low<br />The University of Edinburgh<br />17th May 2011<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />User experience, usability, user-centred design<br />Faceted search user interface<br />Highlights from the JISC UX2 Project: Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries <br />
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  5. 5. Digital Library - Examples<br />World Digital Library<br />12/2/09<br />Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries<br />
  6. 6. Web Environment<br />“Digital library is a resource representing the intellectual substance and services of a traditional library in digital form”<br />Putting in the human contexts, broader roles<br />A place for solving complex problem<br />A place for social interactions<br />A ‘sharium’, active workspace <br />
  7. 7. Contemporary User Experience<br />Web 2.0 - new ways providing user interface/experience<br />User-centric, social networking, e.g. folksonomy<br />New technologies, UI interactions: AJAX and rich application UI<br />Virtual (2D/3D) environment<br />User experience – a broad term<br />Sum of all user interactions<br />Goes beyond giving users what they say they want<br />Objective (e.g. functional, usability) and subjective aspects (e.g. psychology)<br />How a user feels about a system including overall perceptions<br />Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries<br />17/05/11<br />
  8. 8. Implications<br />What are the usability challenges? <br />What are the usefulness challenges?<br /> UX2 Project attempts to answer some of these questions w.r.t. digital libraries<br />A range of user research and usability studies, <br />UI prototypes development<br />23/02/11<br />
  9. 9. Implications<br /><ul><li>Measuring and evaluating user experience
  10. 10. Usability, Usefulness, Appeal (Usability Week 2009)
  11. 11. Usable, Useful and Desirable (Jon Kolko 2010)
  12. 12. User experience goals:</li></ul> Enjoyable, satisfying, engaging, pleasurable, exciting, helpful, motivating, emotionally fulfilling, aesthetically pleasing..<br /> Boring, frustrating, annoying, cutesy..<br />Source: Designing User Interfaces for Interactive Information Retrieval Systems, European Conference on Digital Libraries (2009)<br />
  13. 13. User-Centred Design (UCD)<br />A design process in which “the real users and their goals, not just technology, is the driving force of product development” (Rogers, Sharp, Preece)<br />Characteristics:<br />User research conducted early, throughout the product cycle<br />Empirical measurement<br />Iterative design<br />User research and empirical measurement: personas, usability testing, prototype testing, contextual inquiry, survey, interviews, focus groups<br />
  14. 14. User-Centred Design<br />Similarities between UCD and agile software development methods, e.g. Scrum:<br />“User Stories”<br />
  15. 15. User-Centred Design<br />Integrating UCD and agile software development to produce better quality product<br />Lynn Miller and Desiree Sy approach<br />Adapting Usability Investigation for Agile User-Centred Design,<br />
  16. 16. User-Centred Design<br />The key concepts of the Miller-Sy method:<br />Chunking of UCD tasks (research, design, usability testing), base them around an agile implementation <br />Progressive: low-fi to hi-fi usability testing and contextual inquiry.<br />The Miller-Sy approach is resource intensive in terms of planning and management<br />Two tracks -> two teams<br />
  17. 17. User-Centred Design<br />Fully integrated agile UCD approach:<br /><br />
  18. 18. Prototyping<br />A key user-centred design activity<br />So that users can evaluate and provide feedbacks on design before it gets implemented<br />Various types of prototypes, not all are working software: low-fi (paper, UI wireframes), hi-fi (Ui, working software) <br />
  19. 19. Prototyping<br />UX2 is piloting Balsamiq, a UI prototyping tool for the JISC community, one-year pilot<br />Try it online: <br /><br />Easy to use, collaborative – wiki use context<br />Practical session this afternoon<br />
  20. 20. Faceted Search<br />A better technique for refining, narrowing (expanding) search compared to traditional methods<br />Integrating searching and browsing seamlessly<br />also faceted browsing, faceted navigation, guided navigation<br />
  21. 21. Faceted Search<br />Typical interaction<br /><ul><li>Perform a keyword search
  22. 22. Review a list of categories on a custom map (left of UI)
  23. 23. Use the categories (facets) on to refine and obtain results</li></ul>Essential component: Facets<br />Each facet is advanced search shortcut<br />Enable users to quickly formulate useful queries <br />Support learning and exploration<br />
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  25. 25. Digital Library - Examples<br />breadcrumb trail<br />Europeana<br />facets<br />
  26. 26. Digital Library - Examples<br />WDL<br />12/2/09<br />Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries<br />
  27. 27. Digital Library - Examples<br />AquaBrowser<br />12/2/09<br />Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries<br />
  28. 28. 12/2/09<br />Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries<br />
  29. 29. Facet Analysis & Design<br />Facet design and analysis is a key requirement of faceted search provision<br />Determine what facets are appropriate <br />Facet terms can be mapped from metadata, e.g. library book catalogue<br />
  30. 30. Metadata mapping<br />CERN MARC -> Solr Fields<br />display fields<br />facet fields<br />sort fields<br />text fields (search)<br />Others <br />library_facet<br />technical format (mimetype facet)<br />fulltext (inside document)<br />search-all ‘text’ inc. all above text fields + fulltext<br />23/02/11<br />
  31. 31. Facet Analysis & Design<br />Some sites require research efforts to derive terms (metadata not readily available)<br />Standard user/content research methods: interviews, taxonomies and controlled vocabularies, content analysis, card sorting<br />Types of facet:<br />Hierarchy: continent & country, subject headings<br />List: authors<br />Binary: female|male; colour|black & white<br />Range: date (last 10 years), price ($1-$10), rating (1 to 5) <br />
  32. 32. Faceted Search Technology<br />Two key components<br />Custom application<br />F/OSS:<br />- VuFind, Blacklight<br />Commercial: <br />- AquaBrowser, Summon, Endeca<br />User Interface: faceted search + other services<br />Search infrastructure<br />(Server)<br />Apache Solr<br />Repositories,<br />Content<br />Source: Stanford University, Digital Library Systems (OR10)<br />
  33. 33. Introducing Blacklight<br />Blacklight is a discovery interface for library catalogue, digital repository front-end, single-search interface <br />Front-end for Apache Solr (similar to VuFind)<br />UVA + Solr = UVA radiation = Blacklight!<br />
  34. 34. Blacklight Features<br />Faceted search<br />User services<br />Search history, saved search<br />Bookmarking, folders<br />Exports<br />Basic login<br />Other beta features<br />Advanced search<br />Date range limits<br />
  35. 35. Apache Solr<br />A Java-based search engine/server from Apache<br />Service-oriented web application<br />Built upon Apache Lucene<br />A full-text search library in Java, written by Doug Cutting<br />Versions also in C++, C#, Ruby, Python etc. <br /><ul><li>Deploy on any Java (J2EE) web container: Tomcat, Jetty, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Why Solr?<br /><ul><li>Both Solr and Lucene are open source
  36. 36. Active development communities
  37. 37. F/OSS community: ~1300 emails/month (dev: 800/month)
  38. 38. Commercial support: Sematext, Lucid Imagination</li></ul>Simple and easy for developer to understand and install<br />Fast and scalable: distributed search, index replication<br />Guardian case study:<br />Rich and powerful features: faceted search out of the box <br />
  39. 39. Key Features<br /><ul><li>Advanced full-text search capabilities
  40. 40. Indexing data – export documents via data import handlers
  41. 41. inc. rich document (PDF, Word etc) parsing and indexing</li></ul>Faceted search<br />“Did you mean” spelling suggestion<br />Geospatial search<br />Auto-suggest<br />Highlighting<br />Natural language processing (plugin) engine<br />.. <br />
  42. 42. Thank you<br />Web/blogs: <br />Project wikis: <br />Boon Low Lorraine Paterson <br /><br />@boonious @lorraine_p<br />