SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Transcript: The Details of Description Techniques tips and tangents on alternative text - Tech Forum 2023

This presentation explores critical aspects of image descriptions and alt text, including a discussion of the collaborative effort needed to create inclusive digital content. Explore the roles of authors, illustrators, publishers, and AI in this process (hint — AI is not ready for this work!), while staying informed about how to create content that is as accessible and inclusive as possible. Link to presentation video and slides: https://bnctechforum.ca/sessions/the-details-of-description-techniques-tips-and-tangents-on-alternative-text/ Presented by BookNet Canada on November 17, 2023 with support from the Department of Canadian Heritage.

1 of 15
Download to read offline
Adaobi Nnaobi: Hello, everyone. Thank you for joining us for today's Tech Forum session.
I'm Adaobi Nnaobi, the Marketing and Research Associate at BookNet Canada. Welcome to
the Details of Description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative text.
Before we get started, BookNet Canada acknowledges that its operations are remote, and our
colleagues contribute their work on the traditional territories of the Mississaugas of the
Credit, the Ojibwe of Fort William First Nation, the Anishinaabe, the Haudenosaunee, the
Wyandot, and Mi'kmaq, and the Métis, the original nations and peoples of the land we now
call Beeton, Brampton, Guelph, Halifax, Thunder Bay, Toronto, and Vaughan. BookNet
endorses the calls to action from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada and
supports an ongoing shift from gatekeeping to space-making in the book industry.
The book industry has long been an industry of gatekeeping. Anyone who works at any stage
of the book supply chain carries a responsibility to serve readers by publishing, promoting,
and supplying works that represent a wide extent of human experiences and identities and all
of that complicated intersectionality. We at BookNet are committed to working with our
partners in the industry as we move towards a framework that supports space-making, which
ensures that marginalised creators and professionals all have opportunity to contribute, work,
and lead.
For our webinar today, if you are having difficulties with Zoom or have any tech-related
questions, please put your questions in the chat, or you can email
techforum@booknetcanada.ca. We're providing live ASL and closed captioning for this
presentation. To see the captions, please find the Show Subtitle button in the Zoom menu at
the bottom of your screen. If during the presentation you have questions for us, please use the
Q&A panel found in the bottom menu.
Lastly, we'd like to remind attendants of the code of conduct. Please do be kind, be inclusive,
respectful to others, including of their privacy. Be aware of your words and actions, and
please report any violations to techforum@booknetcanada.ca. Do not harass speakers, hosts,
or attendees, or record these sessions. We have a zero-tolerance policy. You can find the
entire code of conduct at bnctechforum.ca/code-of-conduct.
Now let me introduce our speaker. Leah Brochu is the Accessible Publishing and Resources
Coordinator at NNELS, and a passionate advocate for accessibility and inclusive design.
With a background in library and information science and classical studies, Leah combines
her love for books and technology working to ensure that all readers can read what they
want, when they want, in the way they need. In her work with NNELS, Leah has worked
with dozens of publishers and reviewed hundreds of digital books, led and co-led webinars
and workshops on accessibility, and helped coordinate five accessible publishing summits.
She's dedicated to spreading the word that accessibility is not just a concept, but rather a
fundamental right, and she continues to inspire others with her efforts to educate and inform.
Leah, over to you.
Leah Brochu: Thank you so much, Adaobi, and thank you everyone at BookNet for having
me today. I'm really excited to be here to do this presentation. So, you know, as stated, I'm
Leah Brochu from NNELS, and I just, first and foremost, wanted to acknowledge the land
that I am lucky enough to get to live and work on.
I am on Indigenous land in Treaty 6 territory and the homeland of the Métis, for the
Nêhiyawak, the Anishinaabe, the Niitsitapi, the Métis, the Dene, the Nakota Sioux, and other
Indigenous peoples who call this land home. It is a traditional place for meeting and
gathering and has been for millennia. I'm proud to be Métis myself, and I honour all the work
Indigenous peoples have done and continue to do to be stewards of the land we get to live on.
Because we're meeting in this virtual space, this acknowledgement is personal to my own
physical location.
So, I encourage you to share your own in the chat. That's an option. And if you want to, I'd
love to know where folks are from if you're on Indigenous lands, or if you're on, you know,
from Europe or further afield, that's cool too. For Canada and North America, there's a great
website, native-land.ca, that you can use to look up the people, languages, territories, and
treaties unique to your location. So, I encourage you to check that out. And if you're
interested in learning more about where I'm hailing from, you can go to treatysix.org and you
can learn about the Member Nations, the history of Treaty 6, the treaty principles, and more.
So, just one quick thing to note as I go through my slides, just a little bit of housekeeping,
getting started. I'll, of course, be sure to describe any images before discussing them. I just
wanted to flag that. Right now, we're just on the title slide, Details of Description, and with
my name and organization there. And one last thing to make explicit, although, you know,
everyone here is probably already on that page with me. Unless I state otherwise, I'm talking
specifically about books in the publishing world. There's lots of types of digital content, you
know, websites, social media, and while a lot of what I'll talk about today applies to a
broader concept, that I'm focusing on the book world.
And now let's dive in. There we go. So, today I'm gonna talk quite a bit about collaboration,
and I'm diving right in with the elements of collaboration. So, my colleagues and I learned
quite quickly early on that collaboration was a pretty necessary part of image description
work. One of our first major assignments was creating a described version of the first six
issues of the "Walking Dead" comic book. And this turned out to be a huge undertaking that
took us months, and months, and months. But over the course of the work, we did develop a
system that really worked for us. You know, just to say what that was, we would take five
pages of the comic book, we would write descriptions for all five pages, and then pass that to
the other person who would review and edit. And through this process, one of the most
enlightening things we learned was it is easy to miss key components when you're trying to
describe images. And different parts of certain images will stand out to different people.
So, I'm showing a panel here, and I'll give the description in just a moment. So, initially, I
missed something key. So, this panel is of two women speaking in a grassy area with woods
in the background. One woman is talking about how she fell in love. I passed, you know,
this, and my description over to my colleague who quickly flagged that there was a tiny,
silhouetted figure way in the background there, and who I totally missed. And of course, this
is "The Walking Dead," so this figure was almost certainly going to be a zombie.
So, just like the women in this drawing, I was oblivious to this zombie until my colleague did
her pass of the work. And while the consequences wouldn't be as dire for me as it is for the
characters, you know, when missing a zombie, missing a detail like this can nevertheless
really take away from the story for the person who's accessing the descriptions. That's just
one quick example.
The next reason for, you know, the importance of collaboration is particularly for people who
haven't done a ton of work describing images, it's really easy to over-describe or under-
describe or, you know, get the grammar kind of confused. So, having a second person will
almost invariably streamline an image description. So, for my example here, I described this
image years ago when I first started at NNELS, and initially, I described it as a full-page
drawing of a man seen from the side.
The figure has no skin. He is stepping with one foot and has one arm raised up into the air
before him. He is seen standing in a field dotted with foliage and ruins of ancient buildings.
Each muscle is labelled with either a capitalised or lowercase Latin letter, or a capitalised or
lowercase Greek letter. At the top of the page is the Latinised name, Andreae Vesalii
Bruxellensis, and just below that is the diagram's title, Secunda Musculorum Tabula.
So, when I, you know, got some editing and some input onto that, we ended up really being
able to streamline it. So, I kind of bolded the part that really, we cut down on. So, instead of
saying, "Full-page drawing of a man seen from the side, he is stepping with one foot," we
changed to, "illustration of a man as he raises an arm and holds the other out in front of him,
taking a step in a field dotted with foliage and ruins of ancient buildings." So, we cut
down...oops, from three lines to two lines, which is definitely ideal when you're working in
image descriptions, you wanna be as concise as possible. And we wouldn't have got there if it
hadn't been for input from another person.
So, the next reason is a pretty simple one. Image description work can be quite challenging
and maybe even draining or monotonous sometimes, depending on the content. And having a
collaborator means having a support system. There's also times when you might come across
images that are hard to describe because of, you know, the content and your own personal
feelings or relation to it. Maybe something is traumatic, or gory, or hard to describe in some
way. Well, what we say at NNELS is, and I think everyone understands, that every reader
deserves an equitable reading experience. So, if you feel like you're faced with an image that
you can't describe, then having a partner or collaborator can take the pressure off because it
does need to be fully described. Additionally, having a collaborator means that you have a
broader knowledge base available, which will inform the image description writing.
So, I've got an image here that's taken from Graeme Base's alphabet book, "Animalia," and
we see as the text reads, "Kid Kookaburra and Kelly Kangaroo kidnapping Kitty Koala." Just
to complete the image description for everyone's benefit, we see the kookaburra and the
kangaroo holding guns. They're dressed like they're from the '50s, and Kelly Kangaroo is
grabbing Kitty Koala in this kind of street scene.
So, I chose this image to share because it demonstrates a lot of those two aspects I was just
talking about. You know, it's from a kid's book, so it's a loose one. I didn't wanna be, you
know, show anything gruesome in this webinar, but it is technically a potentially challenging
image to describe because, you know, he's grabbing her by the neck. It is a little bit triggering
nature of the content. And there's also a number of items in this image that I didn't have the
names for. So, we're covering the, you know, potentially challenging image and not knowing
what things are. You know, as an example here, like, I didn't know what these guns were.
Interestingly, I think they're actually Tommy guns, but I suspect that maybe the author and
the artist meant to put Kalashnikovs because this is the K page, but that's totally beside the
point. But nevertheless, by working on this image with another person, I was able to gather
all of the necessary terms and describe it fully.
My next piece of the puzzle is who to collaborate with. So, who's responsible, and who's
doing it? So, there's no question that writing image descriptions is time-consuming and
challenging, especially when you're talking about more complex images. And the question of
who should create and write the image descriptions is a really important one, and there's
definitely a few options. So, first, I wanted to discuss in-house options.
Some publishing houses that we worked with have been able to build the capacity to work on
their image descriptions in-house. The ability to do this comes down to a few different
factors, whether, you know, people power, funding, available time, and importantly, how
image-heavy the content is that the publisher puts out. Publishers who have, you know, the
right mix of these variables can take on image descriptions in-house, and they're very
fortunate to be able to do so, because as a team, they have the opportunity to develop a
workflow as well as potentially draft in-house image description writing guidelines, which
I'll come back to. And there's likely already some level of rapport among the team, so this
will help build a better space for this type of collaborative work. Bringing image description
in-house is ideal, although it's certainly not always doable.
Another option which is ideal, but definitely not always doable, is having the author or
illustrator draft image descriptions and submit them, you know, sometime after the
manuscript has been accepted for publication or whatever in the workflow might make sense
to you. So, the reason they're so good at it, or, you know, so potentially good at it, is because
they're so close to the content. So, the person generally in the best position to describe that
content is these content creators. They know what they intend to convey by including a
specific image, which is a meaningful part of describing the image.
So, when you have conversations with authors, we recommend, you know, being sure to talk
about images and image descriptions and let them know that for e-books to be accessible to
everyone, they need to have accurate and meaningful descriptions which the author is well-
positioned to write and provide. Having authors write the descriptions also ensures,
depending on how things go, that they might be able to be built into the workflow at an early
stage.
And while descriptions require editing and copy editing, it will likely take less time than it
would for someone totally unfamiliar with the content to describe an image from scratch.
While we've definitely heard from some publishers that authors are hesitant to provide image
descriptions, we're actually hearing more and more that many are open to the idea when they
learn that it means their books will be more accessible. The more accessible a book, the more
likely it is to be understood and enjoyed by the widest possible audience. So, knowledge and
awareness of accessibility, what it means and what it takes is increasing. So, having these
conversations can be really valuable.
Also a quick note on the idea of requiring image descriptions from the authors or illustrators,
I have indeed heard of some publishers starting to contractually require the authors to
provide image descriptions for their books. And this, you know, might seem a little bit of a
strong approach, but with things like the European Accessibility Act coming into play where
all, you know, digital materials need to be accessible by 2025, and so, books sold in
European markets need to be accessible, doing something like this requirement is not totally
out of left field.
Still in the vein of working with the content creators, the authors and illustrators, if they're
not open to drafting image descriptions for one reason or another, like they don't feel
qualified because they're unfamiliar with the concept, or they're too busy, or maybe even just
don't want to, I'd nevertheless recommend trying to involve them in the process, meaning
sharing drafts of an image description either from in-house folks or otherwise with them for
review.
To the screen reader user, image descriptions become part of the text, part of the content, just
as images are, so involving the author should almost be a requirement. They may find that
the intent of the image was totally missed, like the wrong element was given the main focus,
and they could provide valuable insight on improving descriptions. Sharing image
descriptions with them also has the added benefit of raising awareness and normalizing the
concept of image descriptions and accessibility, and this is one of the most important things
we can be doing.
Now, another option, of course, is to outsource the work. You can work with Canadian or
overseas conversion houses. You can search out subject specialists if the book's topic and
images are more complex or scientific. Or you can search out freelancers who may take on
this sort of work. Just, you know, for a factual side of things, as far as I've seen, these
services can range from around $2 to around $30 per image, depending on the images and
the level of detail required. Having talked to a few publishers about this, there's a wide range
of quality out there. So, if you're going to go down this road, be mindful that a careful review
of the draft descriptions will likely need to be conducted regardless of the source.
And finally, an up and coming, you know, potential collaborator is artificial intelligence like
ChatGPT, and we'll talk more in-depth about this later on in the presentation. For now, we
can suffice to say that it is a potential option that publishers and authors can consider,
although, as we'll see soon, I do have some examples, it's not quite there yet, particularly for
complex images or images that have key contextual information in the surrounding text. So,
regardless of who drafts the descriptions, collaboration and teamwork will help make them as
strong, concise, and useful as possible. I can't stress enough, if you want to have great image
descriptions, drafts need to go through some back-and-forth work, some conversation, some
discussion, and some editing. It'll help make them, yeah, concise and useful.
Now that we've gone over the who and the kind of why of collaboration, I wanna talk a little
bit about the how. So, one approach we recommend is working to build a sort of in-house
style guide that can be used as a learning and reference document by anyone who's taking on
image description work. While there's a lot of existing guidelines out there, some of which
I'll discuss in a moment, creating something that reflects your take on some of the, you know,
greyer areas can be really useful. Whether you're sharing this with people on your team who
are taking on image description work, providing this to, you know, an author who's getting
started or using it as a checking document for descriptions provided by a third party, it can
help maintain a standard across your books.
Because this is such an important thing to consider doing, I wanna take a moment to point to
some documents, webinars and resources you can use to help develop this kind of working
document. So, first step is the "Literary Image Description Best Practices Guide." This really
new months-old guide was funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage and led by
eBOUND Canada with collaboration from a lot of organizations, you know, including
NNELS, we give a lot of feedback.
So, the purpose of the project and the guide was to act as a standalone reference for service
providers and content creators wishing to produce born accessible picture books and graphic
novels specifically. And in the course of the work, they came up with this rich guide full of
thoughtful discussion and really useful examples. So, if you create graphic novels or heavily
illustrated picture books, you know, generally kids' picture books, then you'll definitely
wanna read this guide from cover to cover. And as you do, you'll get to see a variety of styles
of illustrations aimed at a wide range of age groups from a diverse group of writers. And all
this information should begin to help you form an approach.
Then, of course, there's some more basic ones out there. There's, you know, the "Guide to
Image Descriptions," published by NNELS. It's being hosted on accessiblepublishing.ca. We
have English and French versions. This document breaks down the basic guidelines of image
description, giving examples throughout, and it provides discussion of the impact of different
approaches.
Also, from NNELS, we have our "Guide to Writing Long Descriptions," English and French.
A great feature of this document is the discussion of some technical approaches for long
description and tips on how to draft long descriptions for different types of complex images.
It can be really hard to get started on a description sometimes, like, when you're looking at a
complex map or diagram or chart. So, in this document as well as this next one, you'll find
really useful guidance on long description writing.
So, the last one I've listed here is from Benetech, their project called the Diagram Centre.
They have a set of image description guidelines. They have guidance on all levels of
description. They have really clear examples, and it's a really useful document for, you know,
short and long descriptions. So, these are just a few pieces that you can start referring to if
you wanna build an in-house kind of image description style guide. I've shared a list of
webinars here, but I'm not gonna go through them, but they're just... You can get the slides
later and you can definitely check all these out. These are all from Daisy and they're from a
variety of hosts, and they are all really excellent and have a lot of information in them.

Recommended

Transcript: New stores, new views: Booksellers adapting engaging and thriving...
Transcript: New stores, new views: Booksellers adapting engaging and thriving...Transcript: New stores, new views: Booksellers adapting engaging and thriving...
Transcript: New stores, new views: Booksellers adapting engaging and thriving...BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: Future Book(s): Sharing Ideas on Books and (Art) Publishing - Tec...
Transcript: Future Book(s): Sharing Ideas on Books and (Art) Publishing - Tec...Transcript: Future Book(s): Sharing Ideas on Books and (Art) Publishing - Tec...
Transcript: Future Book(s): Sharing Ideas on Books and (Art) Publishing - Tec...BookNet Canada
 
Stories From A Culture Without Borders
 Stories From A Culture Without Borders Stories From A Culture Without Borders
Stories From A Culture Without BordersMariana Porta
 
Essay On Mother In Urdu.pdf
Essay On Mother In Urdu.pdfEssay On Mother In Urdu.pdf
Essay On Mother In Urdu.pdfMary Ballek
 
Transcript: Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can acco...
Transcript: Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can acco...Transcript: Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can acco...
Transcript: Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can acco...BookNet Canada
 
Perfect Sat Essay Template
Perfect Sat Essay TemplatePerfect Sat Essay Template
Perfect Sat Essay TemplateEvelin Santos
 

More Related Content

Similar to Transcript: The Details of Description Techniques tips and tangents on alternative text - Tech Forum 2023

Sadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook Design
Sadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook DesignSadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook Design
Sadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook DesignEric Swenson
 
20 Century Genius Award Essay Example
20 Century Genius Award Essay Example20 Century Genius Award Essay Example
20 Century Genius Award Essay ExampleDiane Allen
 
Working In A Small Business Analysis
Working In A Small Business AnalysisWorking In A Small Business Analysis
Working In A Small Business AnalysisSonia Sanchez
 
The Giver Dialectical Journal
The Giver Dialectical JournalThe Giver Dialectical Journal
The Giver Dialectical JournalLesly Lockwood
 
Persuasive Essay On Porn Hub
Persuasive Essay On Porn HubPersuasive Essay On Porn Hub
Persuasive Essay On Porn HubApril Wbnd
 
Growing Up In A Hostile Environment
Growing Up In A Hostile EnvironmentGrowing Up In A Hostile Environment
Growing Up In A Hostile EnvironmentThesisPapersForSaleM
 
Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013
Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013
Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013Miami University
 
Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.
Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.
Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.Amanda Burkett
 
Database And Data Warehouse
Database And Data WarehouseDatabase And Data Warehouse
Database And Data WarehouseJessica Simms
 
How To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHow
How To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHowHow To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHow
How To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHowVictoria Barraza
 
Creative Writing Essay Prompts
Creative Writing Essay PromptsCreative Writing Essay Prompts
Creative Writing Essay PromptsBeth Hernandez
 
Writing Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, S
Writing Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, SWriting Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, S
Writing Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, SDanielle Davis
 
English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.
English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.
English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.Dianne Aldrian
 
023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My That
023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My  That023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My  That
023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My ThatSarah Morrow
 
History Essay On Arab Israeli Conflict
History Essay On Arab Israeli ConflictHistory Essay On Arab Israeli Conflict
History Essay On Arab Israeli ConflictChristina Roy
 

Similar to Transcript: The Details of Description Techniques tips and tangents on alternative text - Tech Forum 2023 (20)

Sadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook Design
Sadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook DesignSadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook Design
Sadistic Manipulation and Psychic Liberation in eBook Design
 
20 Century Genius Award Essay Example
20 Century Genius Award Essay Example20 Century Genius Award Essay Example
20 Century Genius Award Essay Example
 
Working In A Small Business Analysis
Working In A Small Business AnalysisWorking In A Small Business Analysis
Working In A Small Business Analysis
 
The Giver Dialectical Journal
The Giver Dialectical JournalThe Giver Dialectical Journal
The Giver Dialectical Journal
 
Conference2009
Conference2009Conference2009
Conference2009
 
Persuasive Essay On Porn Hub
Persuasive Essay On Porn HubPersuasive Essay On Porn Hub
Persuasive Essay On Porn Hub
 
Growing Up In A Hostile Environment
Growing Up In A Hostile EnvironmentGrowing Up In A Hostile Environment
Growing Up In A Hostile Environment
 
Tams 2012
Tams 2012Tams 2012
Tams 2012
 
Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013
Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013
Visual Rhetoric, January 28, 2013
 
Online Transcript: RTP 2019-20: Core Series: Media Training - 18th Mar
Online Transcript: RTP 2019-20: Core Series: Media Training - 18th MarOnline Transcript: RTP 2019-20: Core Series: Media Training - 18th Mar
Online Transcript: RTP 2019-20: Core Series: Media Training - 18th Mar
 
Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.
Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.
Essay Writing Games. Online assignment writing service.
 
Database And Data Warehouse
Database And Data WarehouseDatabase And Data Warehouse
Database And Data Warehouse
 
How To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHow
How To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHowHow To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHow
How To Write A Law Essay (With Pictures) - WikiHow
 
Creative Writing Essay Prompts
Creative Writing Essay PromptsCreative Writing Essay Prompts
Creative Writing Essay Prompts
 
Metanomics Transcript Dec 9
Metanomics Transcript Dec 9Metanomics Transcript Dec 9
Metanomics Transcript Dec 9
 
Writing Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, S
Writing Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, SWriting Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, S
Writing Paper For Kids Almost Firsties A Pen Pal, S
 
English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.
English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.
English Speech Essay Example Pmr. Online assignment writing service.
 
023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My That
023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My  That023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My  That
023 Essay Example Maxresdefault Write My That
 
History Essay On Arab Israeli Conflict
History Essay On Arab Israeli ConflictHistory Essay On Arab Israeli Conflict
History Essay On Arab Israeli Conflict
 
Metanomics Transcript Dec 9
Metanomics Transcript Dec 9Metanomics Transcript Dec 9
Metanomics Transcript Dec 9
 

More from BookNet Canada

Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024
Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024
Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...
Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...
Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...BookNet Canada
 
Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...
Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...
Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...BookNet Canada
 
Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023
Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023
Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...
The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...
The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...BookNet Canada
 
Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...
Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...
Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...BookNet Canada
 
#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023
#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023
#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...
Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...
Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...
Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...
Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...BookNet Canada
 
Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023
Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023
Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...BookNet Canada
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...BookNet Canada
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023BookNet Canada
 

More from BookNet Canada (20)

Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024
Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024
Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - Tech Forum 2024
 
Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...
Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...
Transcript: Trending now: Book subjects on the move in the Canadian market - ...
 
Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
 
Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Show and tell: What’s in your tech stack? - Tech Forum 2023
 
Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...
Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...
Transcript: Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tec...
 
Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023
Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023
Redefining the book supply chain: A glimpse into the future - Tech Forum 2023
 
The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...
The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...
The details of description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative tex...
 
Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...
Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...
Give them what they need: A case study of what retailers can accomplish with ...
 
#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023
#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023
#StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech Forum 2023
 
Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...
Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...
Transcript: #StandardsGoals for 2023 Standards & certification roundup - Tech...
 
Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
 
Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
Book industry state of the nation 2023 - Tech Forum 2023
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC BiblioShare - Tech Forum 2023
 
Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...
Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...
Transcript: Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech F...
 
Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023
Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023
Applying content marketing hacks from Tech to Publishing - Tech Forum 2023
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC SalesData and LibraryData - Tech Forum ...
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
New from BookNet Canada for 2023: BNC Catalist - Tech Forum 2023
 

Recently uploaded

CloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlue
CloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlueCloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlue
CloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlueShapeBlue
 
Roundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdf
Roundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdfRoundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdf
Roundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdfMostafa Higazy
 
TrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI Innovations
TrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI InnovationsTrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI Innovations
TrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI InnovationsTrustArc
 
GraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptx
GraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptxGraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptx
GraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptxNeo4j
 
Q4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdf
Q4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdfQ4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdf
Q4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdfTejal81
 
Enterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book Review
Enterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book ReviewEnterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book Review
Enterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book ReviewAshraf Fouad
 
Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...
Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...
Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...DianaGray10
 
PrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5Company
PrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5CompanyPrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5Company
PrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5CompanyMustafa Kuğu
 
Act Like an Owner, Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, Tripadvisor
Act Like an Owner,  Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, TripadvisorAct Like an Owner,  Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, Tripadvisor
Act Like an Owner, Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, TripadvisorProduct School
 
AMER Introduction to ThousandEyes Webinar
AMER Introduction to ThousandEyes WebinarAMER Introduction to ThousandEyes Webinar
AMER Introduction to ThousandEyes WebinarThousandEyes
 
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...MichaelBenis1
 
The Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptx
The Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptxThe Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptx
The Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptxNeo4j
 
Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...
Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...
Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...Product School
 
Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human Justice
Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human JusticeArtificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human Justice
Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human JusticeJosh Gellers
 
Revolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, Monzo
Revolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, MonzoRevolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, Monzo
Revolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, MonzoProduct School
 
Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...
Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...
Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...ShapeBlue
 
Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...
Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...
Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...Product School
 
Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...
Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...
Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...Product School
 
HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...
HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...
HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...htrindia
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlue
CloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlueCloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlue
CloudStack Tooling Ecosystem – Kiran Chavala, ShapeBlue
 
Roundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdf
Roundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdfRoundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdf
Roundtable_-_API_Research__Testing_Tools.pdf
 
TrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI Innovations
TrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI InnovationsTrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI Innovations
TrustArc Webinar - TrustArc's Latest AI Innovations
 
GraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptx
GraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptxGraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptx
GraphSummit London Feb 2024 - ABK - Neo4j Product Vision and Roadmap.pptx
 
Q4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdf
Q4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdfQ4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdf
Q4 2023 Quarterly Investor Presentation - FINAL.pdf
 
Enterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book Review
Enterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book ReviewEnterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book Review
Enterprise Architecture As Strategy - Book Review
 
Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...
Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...
Automation Ops Series: Session 1 - Introduction and setup DevOps for UiPath p...
 
PrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5Company
PrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5CompanyPrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5Company
PrismCRM-RealEstate-SalesCRM_byCode5Company
 
Act Like an Owner, Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, Tripadvisor
Act Like an Owner,  Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, TripadvisorAct Like an Owner,  Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, Tripadvisor
Act Like an Owner, Challenge Like a VC by former CPO, Tripadvisor
 
AMER Introduction to ThousandEyes Webinar
AMER Introduction to ThousandEyes WebinarAMER Introduction to ThousandEyes Webinar
AMER Introduction to ThousandEyes Webinar
 
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework...
 
The Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptx
The Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptxThe Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptx
The Art of the Possible with Graph by Dr Jim Webber Neo4j.pptx
 
Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...
Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...
Harnessing the Power of GenAI for Exceptional Product Outcomes by Booking.com...
 
Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human Justice
Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human JusticeArtificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human Justice
Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human Justice
 
Revolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, Monzo
Revolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, MonzoRevolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, Monzo
Revolutionizing The Banking Industry: The Monzo Way by CPO, Monzo
 
Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...
Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...
Elevating Cloud Infrastructure with Object Storage, DRS, VM Scheduling, and D...
 
Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...
Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...
Synergy in Leadership and Product Excellence: A Blueprint for Growth by CPO, ...
 
Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...
Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...
Cultivating Entrepreneurial Mindset in Product Management: Strategies for Suc...
 
In sharing we trust. Taking advantage of a diverse consortium to build a tran...
In sharing we trust. Taking advantage of a diverse consortium to build a tran...In sharing we trust. Taking advantage of a diverse consortium to build a tran...
In sharing we trust. Taking advantage of a diverse consortium to build a tran...
 
HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...
HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...
HBR SERIES METAL HOUSED RESISTORS POWER ELECTRICAL ABSORBS HIGH CURRENT DURIN...
 

Transcript: The Details of Description Techniques tips and tangents on alternative text - Tech Forum 2023

  • 1. Adaobi Nnaobi: Hello, everyone. Thank you for joining us for today's Tech Forum session. I'm Adaobi Nnaobi, the Marketing and Research Associate at BookNet Canada. Welcome to the Details of Description: Techniques, tips, and tangents on alternative text. Before we get started, BookNet Canada acknowledges that its operations are remote, and our colleagues contribute their work on the traditional territories of the Mississaugas of the Credit, the Ojibwe of Fort William First Nation, the Anishinaabe, the Haudenosaunee, the Wyandot, and Mi'kmaq, and the Métis, the original nations and peoples of the land we now call Beeton, Brampton, Guelph, Halifax, Thunder Bay, Toronto, and Vaughan. BookNet endorses the calls to action from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada and supports an ongoing shift from gatekeeping to space-making in the book industry. The book industry has long been an industry of gatekeeping. Anyone who works at any stage of the book supply chain carries a responsibility to serve readers by publishing, promoting, and supplying works that represent a wide extent of human experiences and identities and all of that complicated intersectionality. We at BookNet are committed to working with our partners in the industry as we move towards a framework that supports space-making, which ensures that marginalised creators and professionals all have opportunity to contribute, work, and lead. For our webinar today, if you are having difficulties with Zoom or have any tech-related questions, please put your questions in the chat, or you can email techforum@booknetcanada.ca. We're providing live ASL and closed captioning for this presentation. To see the captions, please find the Show Subtitle button in the Zoom menu at the bottom of your screen. If during the presentation you have questions for us, please use the Q&A panel found in the bottom menu. Lastly, we'd like to remind attendants of the code of conduct. Please do be kind, be inclusive, respectful to others, including of their privacy. Be aware of your words and actions, and please report any violations to techforum@booknetcanada.ca. Do not harass speakers, hosts, or attendees, or record these sessions. We have a zero-tolerance policy. You can find the entire code of conduct at bnctechforum.ca/code-of-conduct. Now let me introduce our speaker. Leah Brochu is the Accessible Publishing and Resources Coordinator at NNELS, and a passionate advocate for accessibility and inclusive design. With a background in library and information science and classical studies, Leah combines her love for books and technology working to ensure that all readers can read what they want, when they want, in the way they need. In her work with NNELS, Leah has worked with dozens of publishers and reviewed hundreds of digital books, led and co-led webinars and workshops on accessibility, and helped coordinate five accessible publishing summits. She's dedicated to spreading the word that accessibility is not just a concept, but rather a fundamental right, and she continues to inspire others with her efforts to educate and inform. Leah, over to you. Leah Brochu: Thank you so much, Adaobi, and thank you everyone at BookNet for having me today. I'm really excited to be here to do this presentation. So, you know, as stated, I'm
  • 2. Leah Brochu from NNELS, and I just, first and foremost, wanted to acknowledge the land that I am lucky enough to get to live and work on. I am on Indigenous land in Treaty 6 territory and the homeland of the Métis, for the Nêhiyawak, the Anishinaabe, the Niitsitapi, the Métis, the Dene, the Nakota Sioux, and other Indigenous peoples who call this land home. It is a traditional place for meeting and gathering and has been for millennia. I'm proud to be Métis myself, and I honour all the work Indigenous peoples have done and continue to do to be stewards of the land we get to live on. Because we're meeting in this virtual space, this acknowledgement is personal to my own physical location. So, I encourage you to share your own in the chat. That's an option. And if you want to, I'd love to know where folks are from if you're on Indigenous lands, or if you're on, you know, from Europe or further afield, that's cool too. For Canada and North America, there's a great website, native-land.ca, that you can use to look up the people, languages, territories, and treaties unique to your location. So, I encourage you to check that out. And if you're interested in learning more about where I'm hailing from, you can go to treatysix.org and you can learn about the Member Nations, the history of Treaty 6, the treaty principles, and more. So, just one quick thing to note as I go through my slides, just a little bit of housekeeping, getting started. I'll, of course, be sure to describe any images before discussing them. I just wanted to flag that. Right now, we're just on the title slide, Details of Description, and with my name and organization there. And one last thing to make explicit, although, you know, everyone here is probably already on that page with me. Unless I state otherwise, I'm talking specifically about books in the publishing world. There's lots of types of digital content, you know, websites, social media, and while a lot of what I'll talk about today applies to a broader concept, that I'm focusing on the book world. And now let's dive in. There we go. So, today I'm gonna talk quite a bit about collaboration, and I'm diving right in with the elements of collaboration. So, my colleagues and I learned quite quickly early on that collaboration was a pretty necessary part of image description work. One of our first major assignments was creating a described version of the first six issues of the "Walking Dead" comic book. And this turned out to be a huge undertaking that took us months, and months, and months. But over the course of the work, we did develop a system that really worked for us. You know, just to say what that was, we would take five pages of the comic book, we would write descriptions for all five pages, and then pass that to the other person who would review and edit. And through this process, one of the most enlightening things we learned was it is easy to miss key components when you're trying to describe images. And different parts of certain images will stand out to different people. So, I'm showing a panel here, and I'll give the description in just a moment. So, initially, I missed something key. So, this panel is of two women speaking in a grassy area with woods in the background. One woman is talking about how she fell in love. I passed, you know, this, and my description over to my colleague who quickly flagged that there was a tiny, silhouetted figure way in the background there, and who I totally missed. And of course, this is "The Walking Dead," so this figure was almost certainly going to be a zombie.
  • 3. So, just like the women in this drawing, I was oblivious to this zombie until my colleague did her pass of the work. And while the consequences wouldn't be as dire for me as it is for the characters, you know, when missing a zombie, missing a detail like this can nevertheless really take away from the story for the person who's accessing the descriptions. That's just one quick example. The next reason for, you know, the importance of collaboration is particularly for people who haven't done a ton of work describing images, it's really easy to over-describe or under- describe or, you know, get the grammar kind of confused. So, having a second person will almost invariably streamline an image description. So, for my example here, I described this image years ago when I first started at NNELS, and initially, I described it as a full-page drawing of a man seen from the side. The figure has no skin. He is stepping with one foot and has one arm raised up into the air before him. He is seen standing in a field dotted with foliage and ruins of ancient buildings. Each muscle is labelled with either a capitalised or lowercase Latin letter, or a capitalised or lowercase Greek letter. At the top of the page is the Latinised name, Andreae Vesalii Bruxellensis, and just below that is the diagram's title, Secunda Musculorum Tabula. So, when I, you know, got some editing and some input onto that, we ended up really being able to streamline it. So, I kind of bolded the part that really, we cut down on. So, instead of saying, "Full-page drawing of a man seen from the side, he is stepping with one foot," we changed to, "illustration of a man as he raises an arm and holds the other out in front of him, taking a step in a field dotted with foliage and ruins of ancient buildings." So, we cut down...oops, from three lines to two lines, which is definitely ideal when you're working in image descriptions, you wanna be as concise as possible. And we wouldn't have got there if it hadn't been for input from another person. So, the next reason is a pretty simple one. Image description work can be quite challenging and maybe even draining or monotonous sometimes, depending on the content. And having a collaborator means having a support system. There's also times when you might come across images that are hard to describe because of, you know, the content and your own personal feelings or relation to it. Maybe something is traumatic, or gory, or hard to describe in some way. Well, what we say at NNELS is, and I think everyone understands, that every reader deserves an equitable reading experience. So, if you feel like you're faced with an image that you can't describe, then having a partner or collaborator can take the pressure off because it does need to be fully described. Additionally, having a collaborator means that you have a broader knowledge base available, which will inform the image description writing. So, I've got an image here that's taken from Graeme Base's alphabet book, "Animalia," and we see as the text reads, "Kid Kookaburra and Kelly Kangaroo kidnapping Kitty Koala." Just to complete the image description for everyone's benefit, we see the kookaburra and the kangaroo holding guns. They're dressed like they're from the '50s, and Kelly Kangaroo is grabbing Kitty Koala in this kind of street scene. So, I chose this image to share because it demonstrates a lot of those two aspects I was just talking about. You know, it's from a kid's book, so it's a loose one. I didn't wanna be, you
  • 4. know, show anything gruesome in this webinar, but it is technically a potentially challenging image to describe because, you know, he's grabbing her by the neck. It is a little bit triggering nature of the content. And there's also a number of items in this image that I didn't have the names for. So, we're covering the, you know, potentially challenging image and not knowing what things are. You know, as an example here, like, I didn't know what these guns were. Interestingly, I think they're actually Tommy guns, but I suspect that maybe the author and the artist meant to put Kalashnikovs because this is the K page, but that's totally beside the point. But nevertheless, by working on this image with another person, I was able to gather all of the necessary terms and describe it fully. My next piece of the puzzle is who to collaborate with. So, who's responsible, and who's doing it? So, there's no question that writing image descriptions is time-consuming and challenging, especially when you're talking about more complex images. And the question of who should create and write the image descriptions is a really important one, and there's definitely a few options. So, first, I wanted to discuss in-house options. Some publishing houses that we worked with have been able to build the capacity to work on their image descriptions in-house. The ability to do this comes down to a few different factors, whether, you know, people power, funding, available time, and importantly, how image-heavy the content is that the publisher puts out. Publishers who have, you know, the right mix of these variables can take on image descriptions in-house, and they're very fortunate to be able to do so, because as a team, they have the opportunity to develop a workflow as well as potentially draft in-house image description writing guidelines, which I'll come back to. And there's likely already some level of rapport among the team, so this will help build a better space for this type of collaborative work. Bringing image description in-house is ideal, although it's certainly not always doable. Another option which is ideal, but definitely not always doable, is having the author or illustrator draft image descriptions and submit them, you know, sometime after the manuscript has been accepted for publication or whatever in the workflow might make sense to you. So, the reason they're so good at it, or, you know, so potentially good at it, is because they're so close to the content. So, the person generally in the best position to describe that content is these content creators. They know what they intend to convey by including a specific image, which is a meaningful part of describing the image. So, when you have conversations with authors, we recommend, you know, being sure to talk about images and image descriptions and let them know that for e-books to be accessible to everyone, they need to have accurate and meaningful descriptions which the author is well- positioned to write and provide. Having authors write the descriptions also ensures, depending on how things go, that they might be able to be built into the workflow at an early stage. And while descriptions require editing and copy editing, it will likely take less time than it would for someone totally unfamiliar with the content to describe an image from scratch. While we've definitely heard from some publishers that authors are hesitant to provide image descriptions, we're actually hearing more and more that many are open to the idea when they learn that it means their books will be more accessible. The more accessible a book, the more
  • 5. likely it is to be understood and enjoyed by the widest possible audience. So, knowledge and awareness of accessibility, what it means and what it takes is increasing. So, having these conversations can be really valuable. Also a quick note on the idea of requiring image descriptions from the authors or illustrators, I have indeed heard of some publishers starting to contractually require the authors to provide image descriptions for their books. And this, you know, might seem a little bit of a strong approach, but with things like the European Accessibility Act coming into play where all, you know, digital materials need to be accessible by 2025, and so, books sold in European markets need to be accessible, doing something like this requirement is not totally out of left field. Still in the vein of working with the content creators, the authors and illustrators, if they're not open to drafting image descriptions for one reason or another, like they don't feel qualified because they're unfamiliar with the concept, or they're too busy, or maybe even just don't want to, I'd nevertheless recommend trying to involve them in the process, meaning sharing drafts of an image description either from in-house folks or otherwise with them for review. To the screen reader user, image descriptions become part of the text, part of the content, just as images are, so involving the author should almost be a requirement. They may find that the intent of the image was totally missed, like the wrong element was given the main focus, and they could provide valuable insight on improving descriptions. Sharing image descriptions with them also has the added benefit of raising awareness and normalizing the concept of image descriptions and accessibility, and this is one of the most important things we can be doing. Now, another option, of course, is to outsource the work. You can work with Canadian or overseas conversion houses. You can search out subject specialists if the book's topic and images are more complex or scientific. Or you can search out freelancers who may take on this sort of work. Just, you know, for a factual side of things, as far as I've seen, these services can range from around $2 to around $30 per image, depending on the images and the level of detail required. Having talked to a few publishers about this, there's a wide range of quality out there. So, if you're going to go down this road, be mindful that a careful review of the draft descriptions will likely need to be conducted regardless of the source. And finally, an up and coming, you know, potential collaborator is artificial intelligence like ChatGPT, and we'll talk more in-depth about this later on in the presentation. For now, we can suffice to say that it is a potential option that publishers and authors can consider, although, as we'll see soon, I do have some examples, it's not quite there yet, particularly for complex images or images that have key contextual information in the surrounding text. So, regardless of who drafts the descriptions, collaboration and teamwork will help make them as strong, concise, and useful as possible. I can't stress enough, if you want to have great image descriptions, drafts need to go through some back-and-forth work, some conversation, some discussion, and some editing. It'll help make them, yeah, concise and useful.
  • 6. Now that we've gone over the who and the kind of why of collaboration, I wanna talk a little bit about the how. So, one approach we recommend is working to build a sort of in-house style guide that can be used as a learning and reference document by anyone who's taking on image description work. While there's a lot of existing guidelines out there, some of which I'll discuss in a moment, creating something that reflects your take on some of the, you know, greyer areas can be really useful. Whether you're sharing this with people on your team who are taking on image description work, providing this to, you know, an author who's getting started or using it as a checking document for descriptions provided by a third party, it can help maintain a standard across your books. Because this is such an important thing to consider doing, I wanna take a moment to point to some documents, webinars and resources you can use to help develop this kind of working document. So, first step is the "Literary Image Description Best Practices Guide." This really new months-old guide was funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage and led by eBOUND Canada with collaboration from a lot of organizations, you know, including NNELS, we give a lot of feedback. So, the purpose of the project and the guide was to act as a standalone reference for service providers and content creators wishing to produce born accessible picture books and graphic novels specifically. And in the course of the work, they came up with this rich guide full of thoughtful discussion and really useful examples. So, if you create graphic novels or heavily illustrated picture books, you know, generally kids' picture books, then you'll definitely wanna read this guide from cover to cover. And as you do, you'll get to see a variety of styles of illustrations aimed at a wide range of age groups from a diverse group of writers. And all this information should begin to help you form an approach. Then, of course, there's some more basic ones out there. There's, you know, the "Guide to Image Descriptions," published by NNELS. It's being hosted on accessiblepublishing.ca. We have English and French versions. This document breaks down the basic guidelines of image description, giving examples throughout, and it provides discussion of the impact of different approaches. Also, from NNELS, we have our "Guide to Writing Long Descriptions," English and French. A great feature of this document is the discussion of some technical approaches for long description and tips on how to draft long descriptions for different types of complex images. It can be really hard to get started on a description sometimes, like, when you're looking at a complex map or diagram or chart. So, in this document as well as this next one, you'll find really useful guidance on long description writing. So, the last one I've listed here is from Benetech, their project called the Diagram Centre. They have a set of image description guidelines. They have guidance on all levels of description. They have really clear examples, and it's a really useful document for, you know, short and long descriptions. So, these are just a few pieces that you can start referring to if you wanna build an in-house kind of image description style guide. I've shared a list of webinars here, but I'm not gonna go through them, but they're just... You can get the slides later and you can definitely check all these out. These are all from Daisy and they're from a variety of hosts, and they are all really excellent and have a lot of information in them.
  • 7. So, when you start to build that knowledge base, that style guide, I have a few tips about what to include if you're gonna build one. So, the first one is about definitions and the terminology you'll use in your organization. As an example, some people talk about long description while others talk about extended description, and they're referring to the same thing. I've also seen people talk about image description and alt text interchangeably when really image description is more of a...kind of a blanket umbrella term, while alt text is more specific, referring to, you know, the coded text that can be included in the alt attribute. Since you'll likely, you know, hopefully, have more than one team member working in this area, establishing the terms and how they're being defined and how you're using them will be an important step to ensuring everyone is on the same page. Please excuse me while I take one quick sip of water. Thank you. The next thing that we would talk about including in your style guide knowledge base is workflow processes and considerations. So, the way you approach image description work will be unique. Maybe you like spreadsheets, maybe you prefer a text document, maybe you prefer working on paper. Whatever works best for you and your people, build a template or, you know, if you're working with a conversion house that provides a template, include steps about, you know, filling it out. Just write down those workflow steps, "Steps for drafting, reviewing, fine-tuning, and editing alt text will go here." So, outline that process so there's a set standard and path to follow. Next, you'll want to include technical or logistical techniques you employ. This can be as simple as, you know, providing a final document containing all of your polished alt text to the conversion house or freelance e-book creator. Or if the work is done in-house, it can walk the worker through adding the alt text into the EPUB, the alt text or the long descriptions, whether you're using InDesign or a text editor like Sigil or BBEdit once the book is exported. Just have a system for documenting and getting those alt texts in there. Then, and this is really the most important part, using the general guidelines of image descriptions that you've learned about from the existing resources out there, share the guidelines and include examples from your own repertoire because there are a few grey areas, and you'll want to build your own approach. So, I'm going to go through a few examples here from, you know, the general guidelines. I won't cover all of them. This is just a few that I wanted to touch on to kind of, you know, clarify what this knowledge base could look like. So, some general image description guidelines include differentiating between decorative and non-decorative images. This is an important one because defining these and determining what is and isn't decorative can be a little bit tricky to learn. I have an example here from "The Iliad." It is a little decorative dolphin that appears on the first page of each, you know, chapter, each book of "The Iliad." Is it decorative? Yes, generally. So, you can definitely, you know, tell your workers to mark that as decorative. On the other hand, it would also not be incorrect to provide simple alt text like, "Simple black illustration of two dolphins, this image appears at the start of each book," and then you could mark the rest as decorative so screen reader users wouldn't be interrupted by the same text on each
  • 8. chapter. So, this kind of thing is a choice, and developing a consistent approach will save time. Another guideline to give some in-house guidance around is audience. So, including a few examples from the different audiences you have, you know, whether you're putting out scholarly works, children's books, memoirs, you know, kind of all the options. There's a certain voice and tone that a book will be using, and giving some contextual examples will go a long way in helping build the confidence of a new describer. So, I've included an image here from the 1911 version of Peter Pan. Special thanks to Laura Brady. So, it's really dependent on the audience and the context whether you would describe this image as, you know, a woodcut or more simply as a drawn illustration. Just to explain what it is, it is a woodcut illustration of Hook taking a swipe at Peter Pan with a sword while Peter Pan kind of leans back and points his two little swords up toward him. And, you know, there's lots of ship stuff in the background that I would need to turn to my collaborator friends to help me get the wording for. But this is just an example of when you would direct differently at different audiences. The last one I'll mention is around cultural sensitivity and inclusion, and this is probably where you'll most want to start building, you know, in-house guidance around. It is really important to be culturally sensitive and inclusive, but when it comes to image descriptions, you know, there's a lot of room for interpretation. If a book is employing stock photo-style images of people with limited context, it can be hard to know how to approach describing them. Therefore, you'll wanna start people off on the right foot by getting some guidelines in place. You start your describers off on the right foot by getting some guidelines in place. Tell them you use, for example, you know, for skin tone, light skin tone, medium skin tone, dark skin tone, etc., instead of presuming race or ethnicity. Include discussions of gender and age in your guidance document. And most importantly, give examples of descriptions you have used or support using. This isn't a workshop on this very sticky subject, but it comes back to my main point of collaboration. So, talk as a team about what makes sense in your organization and provide some guidelines for people to reference. For this point, for this guideline, I've included a stock image here of some, you know, young adult friends. They're on a picnic on a sunny day with what I believe is a Shih Tzu. So, how much depth would you give this description? It's just something to consider and build guidelines and standards around. So, the reason I went down this road of guidelines is because it ties right into collaboration. Accessibility needs to be a part of everyone's job on the team, and building up in-house guidelines as a team would be a valuable step. And notably, this work all still needs to be very much human-based, which is my very clever segue into talking a little bit about artificial intelligence. So, back when I first started working on this project, the limitations of AI were clear, working on this webinar recently. However, very recently, ChatGPT began to be able to analyse images, and I think it's safe to say that... Sorry, I'm just getting distracted by the chat there. I think it's safe to say that to a certain extent, it could kind of be a bit of a game
  • 9. changer for image description work. But because I only gained access to this feature on Monday, I am not going to go into too great a depth on its capabilities and implications because three days was not really enough time to experiment and gather sufficient data. So, to start, I'll start from my original standpoint which is that AI is not ready to take over the art of image description. So, I'm gonna go through a bit of show and tell here, and I've got a few examples. So, first and foremost, I have a few examples of AI trying to deal with comedy. So, here's a fake screen-grab-type image from a fake news broadcast. The, you know, my alt text for it is a humorous image, you know, designed to look like a screenshot from a news report. A Shiba Inu wears sunglasses and has a bottle of wine beside it. Text on the screen reads, "Live. Breaking news. Local dog cool as heck. He drinks, he smokes, he thinks that you're a joke." The time reads 19:32. When given to Microsoft, they describe this as a dog wearing sunglasses. AltText.ai was, "Local dog, cool as heck." And alttextgenerator.net was, "A dog wearing sunglasses." I feel like the Microsoft one's kind of popped up here and there, so I'm not sure what the generator is there, but it's interesting. So, those are clearly insufficient. And to give the ChatGPT one, they said, "The image is a humorous meme designed to look like a breaking news TV segment, featuring a Shiba Inu dog wearing sunglasses. The caption reads, 'Local dog cool as heck,' with a ticker below stating, 'He drinks, he smokes, he thinks that you're a joke.' The image is staged to present the dog as a comically exaggerated cool character with a beer bottle also visible in the shot. This image is meant for entertainment, parodying the form of a news broadcast." So, it is more robust, and I think there are actually some, you know, things, ways that they described it that I might take from it, but there are issues like straight-up mistakes calling that wine bottle a beer bottle. And perhaps most troublesome, I thought, is how they say, you know, "The image is staged to present the dog as a comically exaggerated cool character." So, to me, this is an example of AI kind of ruining the joke. You know, when you explain a joke, it kind of ruins it. And when you're writing alt text, trying to capture the, like, vibe and the mood of the image is really important, and this really just takes away from it. It makes it really clinical. So, that's my first example. So, I've got a second humour example here. It's a little line-drawn comic. In it, one cowboy says to another, "Which lasso did you use?" A cow standing in front of them is frowning angrily as his head has been separated from his body, and where his head was there's a grey and white grid pattern. So, this is a play on the lasso tool in Photoshop. Now, I'm not saying my description is hilarious, but it's better than Microsoft who said, "A cartoon of two men with a cow." Not helpful at all. AltText.ai, you know, "A drawing of a man and a cowboy talking to each other." I'm not sure how they determined which one's the man or which one's the cowboy, but that's interesting. And then ChatGPT goes into greater depth again, but it doesn't get the joke. You know, it says, "It's a hand-drawn cartoon featuring two cowboys standing next to each other looking towards a cow. The cow is drawn in a simplistic sketch-like manner. They read that, 'Which lasso did you use?' And the cow's midsection is pixelated suggesting that something inappropriate or comical is being covered up. The overall scene appears to be light-hearted,
  • 10. potentially part of a joke or comic strip." So, this kind of description, it could be useful in some scenarios if you're coming across something on a website and you were like, "Oh, what is this?" And you, you know, copy the image and paste it in ChatGPT. But if it's in a book, it's really way over-explaining the concept and it's taking away from the humour, and it's just taking away from the experience. So, the next example I have, it could be taken as art or perhaps funny as well. So, you have a black ink woodcut illustration. There's two skeletons sitting by some barrels in an alley that's kind of overgrown with vines. One skeleton is holding up a glass of wine as it gestures broadly explaining something, and the other sits with a wide-open mouth seeming to laugh and listen. Microsoft said, "A drawing of skeletons sitting on a table, which is wrong." And then AltText.ai said, "A drawing of two skeletons in front of a barrel," which is, you know, has some correctness to it, but is not quite there. And ChatGPT gives a lot of additional information, but it totally misses the mood and the glass of wine, which is a key component. So, they describe it as a pen and ink drawing. The skeleton on the left is speaking or gesturing, and they don't mention the wine there. And they say that the other skeleton is seated at a table, which they're not. And it's holding its head in a pensive or despairing pose, but that's not what he is doing at all, is he's just like wide-open-mouthed. And then, you know, it gives a lot of background kind of on the description of the image, "The style is reminiscent of illustrations found in classic literature or historical anatomy textbook conveying a gothic or macabre aesthetic." So, there is some information here that maybe, you know, could be useful, but it's also...it's just not what I think you would want in a book, for the most part. But moving away from humour and into more simple images, the simple AI did a much better job. I was actually a little surprised to see how well they nailed this image of stools with macaron cookie-shaped seats in a shop window. So, Microsoft said, "A group of stools with colourful macaroons." AltText.ai said, "Colourful macaron stools in a front window." And alttextgenerator.com said, "A group of stools with colourful cushions." They're not perfect. You know, that last one, alttextgenerator.com didn't do a perfect job. It just described them as stools with colourful cushions. And Microsoft missed the setting, you know, the shop window, and used the word macaroon instead of macaron, which is a pet peeve of many macaron lovers. So, still not getting it perfect, although it's improved. Another simple image here is this large, you know, 10 or 12-foot-tall inflatable green dragon with the McEwen logo on its chest. While the descriptions provided by the simple generators are technically correct, it says, "A large inflatable dragon or a large inflatable dragon sitting in the grass." They missed the scale of size and they missed, you know, giving more description for kind of describing how fun this looks. I've included in my description, you know, "A bright red forked tongue hangs out of its mouth and it has white and grey stripes across its torso." You know, we could add, there's a parking lot in the background, just to give more of the scene if we wanted. But yeah, the simple alt text generators just don't catch that.
  • 11. Just two more here. So, next up, we have this image of the United States Capitol building and then nearby greenhouses in Washington against a bright blue sky. While AltText.ai was able to identify the building as the Capitol building, I thought that was impressive, but Microsoft couldn't do it precisely. They just said, "A building with a dome and a white building with a blue sky." ChatGPT actually I found did a pretty good job here, although it adds some unnecessary information. So, ChatGPT says, "The image features the United States Capitol building with its distinctive white dome and the adjoining greenhouse structure of the United States Botanic Garden in Washington, D.C. The sky is clear and blue, indicating that the photo was taken on a day with good weather." So, you know, they really could have stopped at saying the sky was clear and blue. I found it interesting that they often tried to toss in some subjective things, you know, indicating that the photo was taken on a day with good weather. That's just a weird guess and it doesn't seem necessary after saying the sky is clear and blue. But it's doing its best. So, the last image I'll share is the first image we saw this panel from "The Walking Dead" of the two women talking in a field with the forest and a zombie in the background behind them. So, ChatGPT gives quite a lot of information. You know, I'll read this whole thing out and then we can talk about it. They say, "The image is a panel from a black and white comic strip featuring two characters in a conversation outdoors. On the left, one character is partially shown with only their profile visible, while the other character is shown in more detail on the right, facing the viewer with a reflective expression. The character on the right appears to be a woman wearing a checkered shirt, and she is speaking as indicated by the speech bubbles around her. The first speech bubble reads, and I'll skip that part, 'We were falling in love.' Another speech bubble, presumably her continuation says, 'We really hit it off.' The setting appears to be a grassy area with trees in the background suggesting a casual outdoor scene." Now, this is clearly, you know, a bit longer than is desirable. It goes into unnecessary detail, and it doesn't shy away from throwing out guesses using phrases like appears to be, suggesting, and more. And importantly, it also did not catch that zombie in the background. So, it's just, you know, this wouldn't meet those literary image description guidelines that were in that document that I mentioned earlier. It's kind of really taking away from the comic and the story to just give so much information. It doesn't keep things moving. It's just...it's over-described and would need so much editing that doing it yourself might be where it's at. So, just to conclude here, so simple generators like Alt Text Generator, AltText.ai, and Microsoft, they frequently get things wrong, whereas ChatGPT often over-describes, includes guesses, and just can't convey humour. So, while using these tools might be useful, the one thing that they're unable to take into account is tone, mood, voice, and audience. And I know that some experimentation would be useful here, but I just, I didn't have time for that this week. So, it will likely obviously improve in the future, but for the time being and for simple tests, they couldn't account for tone, mood, voice, and audience, which are so key. So, nevertheless, determining an in-house workflow and guidelines that breed collaborative work on image description is also something that if worked on will improve image
  • 12. description work, even if eventually an AI tool is one of your collaborators. For now, though, I'd say be careful with this technology. It might seem like it's cutting down on work, but in my opinion and experience, the level of editing it needs is greater than the level of editing a description from someone who's been trained or is knowledgeable on the content. And particularly for things like graphic novels or illustrated children's books, no AI tool can thoughtfully and lovingly craft descriptions in the way the guide mentioned, the guide that I mentioned before, "Literary Image Descriptions," "Best practice Guide," would recommend. So, for now, I say this work should stay in the realm of the human folk. So, just some final thoughts to tie it up here. At NNELS, we're seeing more and more publishers get on board for and continually improve upon image description work, and this is so exciting. We know because we're always doing it as a part of our production remediation work, you know, on our own things that we're doing. We know it takes a lot of resources and attention to get right, but get it right people are, and it is improving the world for people with sight-based print disabilities. Just to highlight the value of the work, I wanted to close by sharing some stats from a very recent Statistics Canada report Print Material Accessibility in Canada 2023, which was based on the survey on accessible print materials. This report just came out in October, the start of October, last month. So, in the survey, they found that around 5.2 million Canadians had difficulty with print material in 2023, and 77.4% of these people had difficulty seeing words in print. And currently, while the greatest percentage of folks, 63.1%, use large print materials, 36% are using and accessing accessible digital file formats, and 12.7% of folks are using talking books or described video. So, that 12.7% alone is over 660,000 people. So, that is a lot of people just in Canada who are wanting these image descriptions. And I know publishers have wider markets than just Canada. So, I encourage you, keep learning, keep collaborating, keep striving for high-quality descriptions that don't leave anyone behind. The work is undeniably valuable. And that is my presentation. And thank you so much for your time. And I think we'll hop to a Q&A portion now. Adaobi: Thank you, Leah. Let's get into some questions from the chat. So, this one says, "Do you think there's an overlap in the creation of alt text for e-books and the creation of the descriptions of images for audiobooks? Can publishers think of this as killing two birds with one stone?" Leah: I absolutely think so. I think that if you are creating image descriptions for your e- book, then definitely get those into your audiobook. If you're creating them for your audiobook, get those into your e-book. I think that it's...you're just creating an image description so that people who are not seeing the material can take it in. So, that image description shouldn't be...or shouldn't have any difference. Adaobi: Right. And how long should alt text be? I've heard 125 characters before. There's alt text and there's long description. So, when do you know when to use one or the other?
  • 13. Leah: That's yeah, kind of one of those grey areas that you can start to research into. I will say the 125 characters guidance is, I think it's older and it's not really being used anymore. I think that was based on older screen readers that maybe had a weird cutoff, but we've tested it in-house and alt text can be, you know, 1000 characters and the screen reader would keep reading. Now, it shouldn't be 1000 characters. The GCA, the Benetech guidelines recommend around 200 characters, which is, you know, something to shoot for alt text. And I will say at NNELS we generally go longer than that and we say, you know, anywhere from two to five or six sentences at a maximum. And when it starts to get longer than that, that's when you know that you'll wanna link out to a long description, because if it's longer than six sentences, then you probably wanna break that into paragraphs, and alt text can't have paragraphs or lists, or charts, or anything other than just a string of text. So, if you need more than a simple string of text, then that's when you want that long description. But yeah, the 125 characters is out of date. Two hundred characters is the GCA recommendation. And yeah, a few sentences is what we shoot for... Adaobi: Good to know. Leah: ...before we get into long description. Adaobi: Yeah, I see that a lot. I think I was actually taught that in school, but that was a while ago. So, it makes sense it's been updated. This is also a question I have. If an image has a caption and the caption describes the image for the alt text, can you say, "Image captioned?" Or on the other hand, if the image is captioned, but the caption is not a description of the image, should alt text be written for that image? Leah: A hundred percent. Yes, if an image has a caption that fully describes the image, then in the alt text, you can say image described in caption or something. You know, you can come up with the wording, but just don't mark it as decorative, because if you have an image that's marked as decorative, the screen reader will skip it and then the person will just hear caption, and that will be confusing. So, if the caption captures what's in the image, then yeah, just refer people to the caption. And if the caption does not describe the image at all, then give it full alt text. Does that make sense? Adaobi: Yeah. And do you have any recommendations for publishers looking to prepare image description guidelines for copy editors? What should copy editors look out for as common mistakes in poorly prepared alt text? Leah: I think my biggest advice would be going through the kind of image description guidelines and starting to build it in-house because it's so different. But one of the main things and maybe the easiest thing to catch, especially for a copy editor, is the smoothest alt text will use present tense and active voice. So, that's kind of something easy to look out for. When you're not using present tense and active voice, it becomes really clunky. So, that's something that can really quickly and easily cut down. Another thing we see frequently, I think people are using spreadsheets to do alt text, which makes perfect sense, but obviously, spreadsheets don't have, you know, the handy, like, spellchecker that Word is kind of always showing or displaying. So, we see a lot of typos,
  • 14. and that's another, like, big thing to look out for. And then the other things are kind of, you know, they're in-house choices like how much depth are you going to give to describing colour? How much do you want to describe the background as opposed to, you know, the subject of the image? That kind of thing. But yeah, going through the image description guidelines that exist and building those for you is a great way to get started. Adaobi: Someone wants to know if there is proposed or existing Canadian legislature comparable to the European Accessibility Act. Leah: Not that I know of. There is, you know, there's the Ontario...the AODA. I think BC is working on some legislation. I think Manitoba has some, and I think Nova Scotia, but there's nothing federal at this point. But it could happen. Adaobi: Should alt text replace figure captions, and are there cases where people do that already? Leah: I think I might need some clarification on that question. Like, a figure caption is usually... I mean, I can't generalise too much. Generally, they complement each other. You know, the figure shows something and the caption kind of explains it. Maybe it explains the concept of what the image is showing, but the alt text will, you know, describe how the image appears, so they kind of can work together, or they should. But if that's not exactly what the person was asking, please feel free to clarify. Adaobi: Are there any AI alt text generators which have given thought to descriptive coherence? Example, a description of a series of images as in the case of graphic novels or a series of related images? Leah: Not that I know of. And I didn't come across anything like that in my research. And like I said, with GPT, I didn't have the chance to really give it that in-depth look, but I will over the next while, so, you know, maybe call me later. What was I gonna say? Oh, yeah, the ChatGPT thing is very new, and it's a paid thing. So, yeah, on Monday I was like, "Oh, no." I got it on my phone, and dove in as quick as I could. Adaobi: Let's go with one more question. Where can you find alt texts that might have been provided so as not to duplicate work? So, this person is asking if... They're missing a way to access cover art description from online booksellers, so they don't have to do paperwork that is perhaps already done by someone else. Leah: There's not a repository or a database for anything like that right now. You know, if you get the book, you can... If you have the EPUB, you can pop into the code and grab that alt text if that's what you're looking for. And if you wanna follow up, email leah@nnels.ca, I can show you how to bust into the code of a book if that's helpful. But yeah, there's not...other than reaching out to a publisher or something to ask them, there's no place that it's being kept or anything. Adaobi: Thank you so much, Leah, for joining us today. Before we go, we'd love it if you could provide feedback on this session. We'll drop a link to the survey in the chat. Please take a couple minutes to fill that out. We'll also be emailing you a link to a recording of the
  • 15. session as soon as it's available. To our attendees, we invite you to join our upcoming sessions, Redefining the Book Supply Chain: A Glimpse into the Future, on November 30th with Brian O'Leary, and Show and Tell: What's in your Tech Stack? On December 5th with Margaret Bryant, Jason Farrell, Andrew Faulkner, Brendan Flattery, Tamara Mair-Wren, and Lauren Stewart. Secure your spot now by registering through the links we'll be dropping in the chat. You can find all upcoming sessions and recordings of previous sessions on our website, bnctechforum.ca. Lastly, we'd like to thank the Department of Canadian Heritage for their support through the Canada Book Fund. And thanks to you all for attending. Leah: Thank you so much.