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How to Make
Accessible
Ebooks
A workshop for beginners
Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7
MODULE 1
EPUB
Architecture
Accessible HTML
“When ebooks contain only generalized structures, reading
systems are limited to presenting only the basic visual form of the
book. Dumb data makes for dumb reading experiences, as reading
systems cannot play the necessary role of facilitator when given
little-to-nothing to work with. And that’s why not everyone can read
all digital content.
—from Matt Garrish’s Accessible EPUB 3 (O’Reilly)
HTML Bits and Pieces
Common HTML Tags
<h1-6> headings
<p> text
<hr /> editorial breaks
<blockquote>
<figure> images
<figcaption> (nest in above) captions
<aside> sidebar-type content, including footnotes
<section> chapters and subsections
<i> italics for design purposes
<em> emphasis
<cite> citations
<b> bold
<strong> emphasis
<sup> superscript
<sub> subscript
<small> small caps
<u> underline
<abbr> abbreviation
<ol> / <ul> / <li> ordered and unorder lists; list item
HTML Construction
<section>
<h1>Chapter One</h1>
<p>It was a dark and stormy night…</p>
…
<section>
<h2>Subhead</h2>
<p>Very dark and <em>very</em> stormy…</p>
…
</section>
</section>
Headers
<p class=“h1”>Chapter 1</p>
<h1 class=“cn”>Chapter 1</p>
<h1 class="cn">Chapter 1#<br />
<span class="title">Peter Breaks Through</span></h1>
<header>
<h1 class=”ct”><span class=”cn">Chapter 1#</span>
<br />Peter Breaks Through</h1>
<p class="CST">Subtitle goes here</p>
</header>
Emphasis
I am glad you weren't late.
I am glad you weren't late.
This liquid is highly toxic.
I am counting on you. Do not be late!
Language
tags
Belong in three places: the OPF,
the root HTML element in every
HTML files, and marking language
shifts
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" lang="en-US" xml:lang="en-US">
<head>
<title>Chapter 1</title>
<link href="css/idGeneratedStyles.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
</head>
Breakout Room Task
Format a basic chunk of text in validated HTML using Sigil. Using the supplied Peter
Pan ebook, add a third chapter in the shell HTML file. Watch for:
• Emphasis vs italics
• Headers and text
• A short list formatted as a list
• Editorial breaks marked accurately
• HTML 5 employed correctly
• Language shifts marked
• Add the chapter 3 HMTL file to the OPF
How to Make
Accessible
Ebooks
A workshop for beginners
Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7
MODULE 2
PRINCIPLES OF
EBOOK
ACCESSIBILITY
• Separate style and content
• Navigation
• Structure
• Semantics
• Images = picture, not tables or text
• Image Descriptions
• Page List
• Define Languages
• Accessible treatment of Math and
interactive content
• Accessibility metadata
Separation of Style and Content
“Style is just a layer between your markup and the
device that renders it, not an intrinsic quality you can rely
on to say anything about your content.”—Matt Garrish
Navigation
Page List
Structure
Semantics
Testing
Breakout Room Task
Use EPUB-Checker and ACE by Daisy to go through your own
errors with the TA, or test the Module 2 provided EPUB which has
been booby trapped with errors.
How to Make
Accessible
Ebooks
A workshop for beginners
Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7
MODULE 3
Exposed
Metadata
Accessibility
Summary
• Use plain language.
• Avoid jargon.
• Write out acronyms before using the
abbreviation, e.g. Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG).
• Include all accessibility features.
AccessibilitySummary may be the only
piece of metadata that some users read.
• If you decide to use a template, make
sure the AccessibilitySummary is
customized for every book.
accessibilityFeature
• alternativeText
• displayTransformability
• index
• longDescription
• none
• printPageNumbers
• readingOrder
• structuralNavigation
• synchronizedAudioText
• tableOfContents
accessibilityHazard
• flashing
• noFlashingHazard
• motionSimulation
• noMotionSimulationHazard
• sound
• noSoundHazard
• unknown
• none
accessMode
• textual
• visual
• auditory
• tactile
accessModeSufficient
• textual
• visual
• auditory
• tactile
• combinations
Example
<meta property=”schema:accessibilitySummary”>This Publication meets the
requirements of the EPUB Accessibility specification with conformance to WCAG 2.0 Level AA.
The content is screen-reader friendly. Images are described, long descriptions have been
included for complex images, a table of contents is present, and sections are introduced with
correctly-cascading headings. There are short audio clips of music at the start of each chapter
which readers can choose to play – they will not auto-play.</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessMode”>textual</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessMode”>visual</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessModeSufficient”>textual,visual</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessModeSufficient”>textual</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>alternativeText</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>longDescription</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>structuralNavigation</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>tableOfContents</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>alternativeText</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityHazard”>noFlashingHazard</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityHazard”>noMotionSimulationHazard</meta>
<meta property=”schema:accessibilityHazard”>sound</meta>
ONIX
https://onix-codelists.io/codelist/196
Conformance Metadata
<link rel="dcterms:conformsTo"
href="http://www.idpf.org/epub/a11y/accessibil
ity-20170105.html#wcag-aa"/>
<meta property="a11y:certifiedBy">Benetech via
eBOUND Canada</meta>
<meta property="a11y:certifierCredential">
https://bornaccessible.org/certification/gca-credential/</meta>
Breakout Room Task
Write schema.org metadata for the Module 3-supplied ebook.
• Look through the ebook to see what it does and what it doesn’t.
• Use the supplied PDF of what’s required and what’s optional.
• Work as a group to work up a full set of values.
• Write an accessibility summary.
• If time allows, look at Codelist 196 and list out what values you would
include.
How to Make
Accessible
Ebooks
A workshop for beginners
Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7
MODULE 4
Resources
Epub Test.org
https://epubtest.org/about
FlightDeck QA Checklist
https://ebookflightdeck.com/handbook
/checklist
Dogfooding, now known as Ebooking
by Derrick Schultz
https://epubsecrets.com/dogfooding-
now-known-as-ebooking.php
Breakout Room Task
Use the checklists to go through a booby-trapped EPUB.

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How to make accessible ebooks: A workshop for beginners - Tech Forum 2022

  • 1. How to Make Accessible Ebooks A workshop for beginners Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7 MODULE 1
  • 3. Accessible HTML “When ebooks contain only generalized structures, reading systems are limited to presenting only the basic visual form of the book. Dumb data makes for dumb reading experiences, as reading systems cannot play the necessary role of facilitator when given little-to-nothing to work with. And that’s why not everyone can read all digital content. —from Matt Garrish’s Accessible EPUB 3 (O’Reilly)
  • 4. HTML Bits and Pieces
  • 5. Common HTML Tags <h1-6> headings <p> text <hr /> editorial breaks <blockquote> <figure> images <figcaption> (nest in above) captions <aside> sidebar-type content, including footnotes <section> chapters and subsections <i> italics for design purposes <em> emphasis <cite> citations <b> bold <strong> emphasis <sup> superscript <sub> subscript <small> small caps <u> underline <abbr> abbreviation <ol> / <ul> / <li> ordered and unorder lists; list item
  • 6. HTML Construction <section> <h1>Chapter One</h1> <p>It was a dark and stormy night…</p> … <section> <h2>Subhead</h2> <p>Very dark and <em>very</em> stormy…</p> … </section> </section>
  • 7. Headers <p class=“h1”>Chapter 1</p> <h1 class=“cn”>Chapter 1</p> <h1 class="cn">Chapter 1#<br /> <span class="title">Peter Breaks Through</span></h1> <header> <h1 class=”ct”><span class=”cn">Chapter 1#</span> <br />Peter Breaks Through</h1> <p class="CST">Subtitle goes here</p> </header>
  • 8. Emphasis I am glad you weren't late. I am glad you weren't late. This liquid is highly toxic. I am counting on you. Do not be late!
  • 9. Language tags Belong in three places: the OPF, the root HTML element in every HTML files, and marking language shifts <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" lang="en-US" xml:lang="en-US"> <head> <title>Chapter 1</title> <link href="css/idGeneratedStyles.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/> </head>
  • 10. Breakout Room Task Format a basic chunk of text in validated HTML using Sigil. Using the supplied Peter Pan ebook, add a third chapter in the shell HTML file. Watch for: • Emphasis vs italics • Headers and text • A short list formatted as a list • Editorial breaks marked accurately • HTML 5 employed correctly • Language shifts marked • Add the chapter 3 HMTL file to the OPF
  • 11. How to Make Accessible Ebooks A workshop for beginners Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7 MODULE 2
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. PRINCIPLES OF EBOOK ACCESSIBILITY • Separate style and content • Navigation • Structure • Semantics • Images = picture, not tables or text • Image Descriptions • Page List • Define Languages • Accessible treatment of Math and interactive content • Accessibility metadata
  • 15. Separation of Style and Content “Style is just a layer between your markup and the device that renders it, not an intrinsic quality you can rely on to say anything about your content.”—Matt Garrish
  • 18. Breakout Room Task Use EPUB-Checker and ACE by Daisy to go through your own errors with the TA, or test the Module 2 provided EPUB which has been booby trapped with errors.
  • 19. How to Make Accessible Ebooks A workshop for beginners Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7 MODULE 3
  • 21. Accessibility Summary • Use plain language. • Avoid jargon. • Write out acronyms before using the abbreviation, e.g. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). • Include all accessibility features. AccessibilitySummary may be the only piece of metadata that some users read. • If you decide to use a template, make sure the AccessibilitySummary is customized for every book.
  • 22. accessibilityFeature • alternativeText • displayTransformability • index • longDescription • none • printPageNumbers • readingOrder • structuralNavigation • synchronizedAudioText • tableOfContents
  • 23. accessibilityHazard • flashing • noFlashingHazard • motionSimulation • noMotionSimulationHazard • sound • noSoundHazard • unknown • none
  • 25. accessModeSufficient • textual • visual • auditory • tactile • combinations
  • 26. Example <meta property=”schema:accessibilitySummary”>This Publication meets the requirements of the EPUB Accessibility specification with conformance to WCAG 2.0 Level AA. The content is screen-reader friendly. Images are described, long descriptions have been included for complex images, a table of contents is present, and sections are introduced with correctly-cascading headings. There are short audio clips of music at the start of each chapter which readers can choose to play – they will not auto-play.</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessMode”>textual</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessMode”>visual</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessModeSufficient”>textual,visual</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessModeSufficient”>textual</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>alternativeText</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>longDescription</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>structuralNavigation</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>tableOfContents</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityFeature”>alternativeText</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityHazard”>noFlashingHazard</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityHazard”>noMotionSimulationHazard</meta> <meta property=”schema:accessibilityHazard”>sound</meta>
  • 28. Conformance Metadata <link rel="dcterms:conformsTo" href="http://www.idpf.org/epub/a11y/accessibil ity-20170105.html#wcag-aa"/> <meta property="a11y:certifiedBy">Benetech via eBOUND Canada</meta> <meta property="a11y:certifierCredential"> https://bornaccessible.org/certification/gca-credential/</meta>
  • 29. Breakout Room Task Write schema.org metadata for the Module 3-supplied ebook. • Look through the ebook to see what it does and what it doesn’t. • Use the supplied PDF of what’s required and what’s optional. • Work as a group to work up a full set of values. • Write an accessibility summary. • If time allows, look at Codelist 196 and list out what values you would include.
  • 30. How to Make Accessible Ebooks A workshop for beginners Laura Brady | laurabrady.ca | @LauraB7 MODULE 4
  • 31. Resources Epub Test.org https://epubtest.org/about FlightDeck QA Checklist https://ebookflightdeck.com/handbook /checklist Dogfooding, now known as Ebooking by Derrick Schultz https://epubsecrets.com/dogfooding- now-known-as-ebooking.php
  • 32. Breakout Room Task Use the checklists to go through a booby-trapped EPUB.