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BORN ACCESSIBLE
A11Y FROM THE START
A11Y FROM THE START
A11Y FROM THE START
Accessible Publishing Is Good Publishing
A11Y FROM THE START
WHY MAKE BOOKS ACCESSIBLE?
Use
▸ For readers with print disabilities
▸ For readers who are situational...
A11Y FROM THE START
WHY MAKES BOOKS ACCESSIBLE?
Business
▸ Reuse of books/archival access
▸ Marketing: Content that is mor...
A11Y FROM THE START
WHY MAKES BOOKS ACCESSIBLE?
Philosophical
▸ Democratic
▸ Make books as rich as possible
▸ Enhanced exp...
A11Y FROM THE START
COLLABORATION
How can workflow participants collaborate?
▸ Business
▸ Organization
▸ Supply Chain
A11Y FROM THE START
AREAS OF A11Y CONCERN
▸ What a11y features should your book include?
▸ Structure
▸ Images
▸ Navigation...
A11Y FROM THE START
DEFINE STRUCTURE
▸ When designing for print, designer should remember that
structure is on an equal fo...
A11Y FROM THE START
▸ If design element conveys meaning for print, adapt for e.
▸ <i> vs <em> vs <cite>: editor to indicat...
A11Y FROM THE START
EPUB:TYPE
▸ Editorial indicates in ms while marking for
typesetting (establish house style guide)
▸ De...
A11Y FROM THE START
LANGUAGE
▸ What is the dominant language
▸ Are there exceptions?
▸ Editor marks in manuscript + develo...
A11Y FROM THE START
NAVIGATION
▸ Inside-the-book TOC needed even if not included in print edition.
▸ How many levels to us...
A11Y FROM THE START
NAVIGATION
▸ Extra nav lists
▸ Tables
▸ Illustrations
▸ Audio
▸ Video
▸ Page List
▸ When ebook corresp...
A11Y FROM THE START
IMAGES
▸ Is an image decoration or meaningful? 

For a decorative instance:
▸ Developer: use empty alt...
A11Y FROM THE START
IMAGES: CAPTION + ALT TEXT
▸ Meaningful images
▸ Is the image thoroughly described in text or caption?...
A11Y FROM THE START
IMAGES: WHAT MAKES A GOOD ALT TAG?
▸ Helpful geographical description:
The estuary scenery is a mix of...
A11Y FROM THE START
IMAGES: TEXT AS ART
▸ Text as art (e.g., illustrated pie chart):
▸ alt=“pie chart showing 30% apples, ...
A11Y FROM THE START
TABLES
▸ Rework for ebook use if feasible.
▸ Mark up correctly in XHTML.
▸ If using an image for tabul...
A11Y FROM THE START
MATH ML
▸ Math symbols are often expressed as images in
digital content rendering them inaccessible
▸ ...
A11Y FROM THE START
DESIGN
▸ Ebook design does not need to mirror print design
▸ It’s possible to create unaccessible EPUB...
A11Y FROM THE START
DESIGN
▸ Color:
▸ Must not convey meaning.
▸ Contrast must be high enough to be visible on all
screens...
A11Y FROM THE START
DESIGN
▸ Designer must use tools appropriately
▸ style sheets
▸ master pages
▸ text flow
▸ image manage...
A11Y FROM THE START
SPECIAL E-ONLY FEATURES
▸ Media Overlays
▸ Different from TTS (text-to-speech)
▸ Read-aloud materials
...
A11Y FROM THE START
SPECIAL E-ONLY FEATURES
Audio/video
▸ Provide fallback description for video.
▸ Use native HTML5 for c...
A11Y FROM THE START
SCRIPTING
▸ All content must be available with or without script.
▸ Accessibility concerns
▸ And, many...
A11Y FROM THE START
EXTRA CONTENT
▸ Richer backmatter
▸ Appendices
▸ Bibliography
▸ Annotations
▸ Indexes
▸ Hyperlinked ba...
A11Y FROM THE START
METADATA
▸ ebooks with accessibility metadata are discoverable.
▸ Include a11y metadata for any elemen...
A11Y FROM THE START
RESOURCES
Books
EPUB3 Best Practices by Matt Garrish & Markus Gylling
http://shop.oreilly.com/product/...
A11Y FROM THE START
RESOURCES
W3C
http://w3.org/accessibility
Images, alt text
http://diagramcenter.org/59-image-guideline...
A11Y FROM THE START
CONTACT US
Sarah Hilderley
shilderley@gmail.com
@quarrypress
Kevin Callahan
www.BNGOBooks.com

kevin@B...
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A11y from the Start: How to produce born accessible ebooks in a collaborative workflow - Kevin Callahan & Sarah Hilderley - ebookcraft 2017

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With the expanded use of EPUB3 these last couple of years, accessibility can and should be built into every ebook from the planning stages to final delivery.

This practical workshop will demonstrate how you as editors and designers can ensure your books are on target to meet accessibility guidelines, while actively adding value to your digital content and taking responsibility for enhancing the reading experience.

March 22, 2017

Published in: Design
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A11y from the Start: How to produce born accessible ebooks in a collaborative workflow - Kevin Callahan & Sarah Hilderley - ebookcraft 2017

  1. 1. BORN ACCESSIBLE A11Y FROM THE START
  2. 2. A11Y FROM THE START A11Y FROM THE START Accessible Publishing Is Good Publishing
  3. 3. A11Y FROM THE START WHY MAKE BOOKS ACCESSIBLE? Use ▸ For readers with print disabilities ▸ For readers who are situationally disabled ▸ But, what a11y features are supported by reading systems?
  4. 4. A11Y FROM THE START WHY MAKES BOOKS ACCESSIBLE? Business ▸ Reuse of books/archival access ▸ Marketing: Content that is more usable 
 is more valuable ▸ Futureproofing ▸ Financial ▸ Legal requirements
  5. 5. A11Y FROM THE START WHY MAKES BOOKS ACCESSIBLE? Philosophical ▸ Democratic ▸ Make books as rich as possible ▸ Enhanced experience ▸ Streamlined Workflow
  6. 6. A11Y FROM THE START COLLABORATION How can workflow participants collaborate? ▸ Business ▸ Organization ▸ Supply Chain
  7. 7. A11Y FROM THE START AREAS OF A11Y CONCERN ▸ What a11y features should your book include? ▸ Structure ▸ Images ▸ Navigation ▸ Print design adaptation ▸ Special Features
  8. 8. A11Y FROM THE START DEFINE STRUCTURE ▸ When designing for print, designer should remember that structure is on an equal footing with aesthetics in digital. ▸ Internal head structure (h1–h6) ▸ Text must be in natural reading order ▸ Identify sidebars/pullquotes: aside ▸ Identify footnotes/endnotes: aside ▸ Semantic markup of all elements: fig, figcaption; glossary
  9. 9. A11Y FROM THE START ▸ If design element conveys meaning for print, adapt for e. ▸ <i> vs <em> vs <cite>: editor to indicate ▸ <i> Eloise planned to travel on the Queen Mary. ▸ <em> She had to sail on Monday. ▸ <cite> As they left port, she thought of the movie Titanic. ▸ <b> vs <strong>: editor to indicate ▸ <b>The ship’s log<b>. The captain of the ship maintains the log. ▸ <strong> Warning</strong>: The ship will capsize at 0200 hours. STRUCTURE: DESIGN + EDITORIAL
  10. 10. A11Y FROM THE START EPUB:TYPE ▸ Editorial indicates in ms while marking for typesetting (establish house style guide) ▸ Designer/typesetter apply to mechanical, or ▸ Developer apply based on editorial guidance ▸ from within InDesign ▸ in XHTML
  11. 11. A11Y FROM THE START LANGUAGE ▸ What is the dominant language ▸ Are there exceptions? ▸ Editor marks in manuscript + developer executes ▸ Special pronunciations (from Garrish; SSML) ▸ Record or record? ▸ Editor marks in manuscript + developer executes ▸ Not supported yet, but will they be?
  12. 12. A11Y FROM THE START NAVIGATION ▸ Inside-the-book TOC needed even if not included in print edition. ▸ How many levels to use in the in-book TOC? 
 (use ‘hidden’ to remove unwanted levels) ▸ Consider UX for in-book TOC: multi levels on smart phone 
 are ugly and hard to use ▸ Remember, all will be available in device TOC ▸ Landmarks ▸ As many as possible
  13. 13. A11Y FROM THE START NAVIGATION ▸ Extra nav lists ▸ Tables ▸ Illustrations ▸ Audio ▸ Video ▸ Page List ▸ When ebook corresponds to print volume ▸ When ebook will be used in classroom along with print edition
  14. 14. A11Y FROM THE START IMAGES ▸ Is an image decoration or meaningful? 
 For a decorative instance: ▸ Developer: use empty alt tag; 
 role: presentation)
  15. 15. A11Y FROM THE START IMAGES: CAPTION + ALT TEXT ▸ Meaningful images ▸ Is the image thoroughly described in text or caption? ▸ Mention text reference in alt tag. ▸ If brief additional content helpful, supply alt tag. ▸ Developer: pull alt text (from Structure in ID; from Bridge; from image metadata) ▸ Developer: include aria-describedby for lengthy, complicated descriptions
  16. 16. A11Y FROM THE START IMAGES: WHAT MAKES A GOOD ALT TAG? ▸ Helpful geographical description: The estuary scenery is a mix of salt marsh and tidal creeks flanked by industrial complexes. ▸ Less helpful: Power lines in the morning sun. ▸ Helpful environmental description: The large pylon lines tower over woodland and are visible for many miles around ▸ Less helpful: Pylons in a field.
  17. 17. A11Y FROM THE START IMAGES: TEXT AS ART ▸ Text as art (e.g., illustrated pie chart): ▸ alt=“pie chart showing 30% apples, 
 30% oranges, 40% plums” ▸ Title Page, e.g. Use ▸ epub:type:frontmatter title page ▸ alt=“book title, author, publisher”
  18. 18. A11Y FROM THE START TABLES ▸ Rework for ebook use if feasible. ▸ Mark up correctly in XHTML. ▸ If using an image for tabular matter, 
 provide fallback (link to nonlinear content 
 or to website)
  19. 19. A11Y FROM THE START MATH ML ▸ Math symbols are often expressed as images in digital content rendering them inaccessible ▸ If expressed as MathML the symbols can be accessed by a screenreader ▸ MathML consists of a number of XML tags for marking up equations in terms of presentation and semantics
  20. 20. A11Y FROM THE START DESIGN ▸ Ebook design does not need to mirror print design ▸ It’s possible to create unaccessible EPUBs, so it’s important to spend the time getting it right ▸ Design adaptation considerations ▸ Account for design and semantic elements not needed in print (TOC; narrative pause; extra content) ▸ Move elements (e.g., copyright to back)
  21. 21. A11Y FROM THE START DESIGN ▸ Color: ▸ Must not convey meaning. ▸ Contrast must be high enough to be visible on all screens. ▸ e-ink ▸ night mode ▸ media queries to target devices/modes
  22. 22. A11Y FROM THE START DESIGN ▸ Designer must use tools appropriately ▸ style sheets ▸ master pages ▸ text flow ▸ image management ▸ color management
  23. 23. A11Y FROM THE START SPECIAL E-ONLY FEATURES ▸ Media Overlays ▸ Different from TTS (text-to-speech) ▸ Read-aloud materials ▸ Record audio: synchronized audio narration ▸ Implement in EPUB (using SMIL markup: 
 sync audio with text)
  24. 24. A11Y FROM THE START SPECIAL E-ONLY FEATURES Audio/video ▸ Provide fallback description for video. ▸ Use native HTML5 for controls if possible. ▸ Plan and design interface in advance. If custom controls are necessary (image as button, e.g.) use ARIA roles, states, and properties. ▸ Subtitles + captions: ▸ Editor creates in manuscript ▸ Developer executes
  25. 25. A11Y FROM THE START SCRIPTING ▸ All content must be available with or without script. ▸ Accessibility concerns ▸ And, many reading systems don’t currently 
 allow scripting (hello, Kindle) ▸ From EPUB3 Best Practices (Garrish/Gylling): ▸ Does scripted content include useful information, 
 or is it only diversionary. ▸ Can content be made accessible in a usable way, and can you build a fallback to provide the same or similar experience?
  26. 26. A11Y FROM THE START EXTRA CONTENT ▸ Richer backmatter ▸ Appendices ▸ Bibliography ▸ Annotations ▸ Indexes ▸ Hyperlinked backmatter (good or bad—what’s the link life?) ▸ Extra front matter ▸ TOCs ▸ Introductory material
  27. 27. A11Y FROM THE START METADATA ▸ ebooks with accessibility metadata are discoverable. ▸ Include a11y metadata for any elements present. ▸ ONIX 3, Codelist 196 includes 23 a11y description codes. Some are: ▸ table of contents and Index navigation ▸ Reading order ▸ Short and Full alternative descriptions
  28. 28. A11Y FROM THE START RESOURCES Books EPUB3 Best Practices by Matt Garrish & Markus Gylling http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920024897.do BISG Quick Start Guide to Accessible Publishing http://bisg.org/news/297929/The-BISG-Quick-Start-Guide-to-Accessible-Publishing-Moving-Inclusion-Forward.htm Accessible EPUB3, by Matt Garrish http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920025283.do HTML5 & CSS3 Visual QuickStart Guide, 7th Edition, Elizabeth Castro & Bruce Hyslop http://www.peachpit.com/store/html5-css3-visual-quickstart-guide-9780321719614 Reading System Support http://epubtest.org/ Participate https://www.w3.org/community/epub3/ Color webaim.org
  29. 29. A11Y FROM THE START RESOURCES W3C http://w3.org/accessibility Images, alt text http://diagramcenter.org/59-image-guidelines-for-epub-3.html http://diagramcenter.org/standards-and-practices/accessible-image-sample-book.html http://diagramcenter.org/poet.html epub:type ▸ https://idpf.github.io/a11y-guidelines/content/semantics/epub-type.html
  30. 30. A11Y FROM THE START CONTACT US Sarah Hilderley shilderley@gmail.com @quarrypress Kevin Callahan www.BNGOBooks.com
 kevin@BNGOBooks.com @BNGOBooks

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