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First look at documentation

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  1. 1. DocumentationHow to include MLA or APA in text and in the references. Prepared by Bonnie Startt 3/22/06 Tidewater Community College
  2. 2. There are several common forms of documentation:MLA, APA, CBE and Chicago(Turabian) are themost commonMLA is what is used APA is used by the theby the humanities– it form used by theis from the Modern psychology divisions-Language Association it is from the American Psychological Association.
  3. 3. There are several common forms of documentation:MLA, APA, CBE and Chicago(Turabian) are themost common.The science oriented The history studies usefields use CBE– the the Chicago StyleCouncil of Biological Manual forEditors, now the documentation. KateCouncil of Science Turabian created aEditors. more simple book for academic research which is used often.
  4. 4. When do we have to document information?The most obvious time we document is when we use anexact quote from someone else’s text.If we use part of someone’s text, we must give credit.If we paraphrase (put in our own words) someone else’swork, we must give credit to the author.If we summarize someone else’s work, we must credit theauthor.
  5. 5. What do we have to document?If we quote from any text written bysomeone else (even if it was notpublished).We must give credit to another person’sideas, or theories.We give credit to art work, radio, t.v. andany other creative work.We give credit to maps, charts, etc createdby another person.
  6. 6. What---continuedWe must be aware that people make theirliving from their ideas, and we must be fair.In the academic setting not following thefair use and documentation rules will resultin an F. In the workplace, that same actioncan cost you your job.
  7. 7. What this is going to do.Please, be aware that I will be demonstrating internaldocumentation. The use of footnotes and endnotes arecumbersome and not used in standard writing. The next pageswill offer several examples of items which must documented.Because MLA and APA are the most common, I willdemonstrate how to do each of these. Make sure you have agood handbook. We are using the Diana Hacker handbook, andshe has an excellent web site to help.
  8. 8. Here is a quote. Do you see where the end punctuation went? MLA APA“ Ask the average man what “ Ask the average man what is more important to him, is more important to him, making money or being making money or being devoted to his family, and devoted to his family, and virtually everyone will virtually everyone will answer family without answer family without hesitation” (Kushner 15). hesitation” (Kushner, 1986, p. 15).
  9. 9. You do not have to use the whole quote. You can use an ellipsis (…)to show information has been left out. Don’t forget to use a comma to introduce or show the end of a quote.Kushner has found, “… virtually everyone will answer familywithout hesitation” (15).Kushner has found, “ Ask the average man …virtuallyeveryone will answer family without hesitation” (15).“ Ask the average man what is more important to him, makingmoney or being devoted to his family… ,” commentedKushner (15).Just an aside– did you ever see this <sic>? It means that therewas an error in your quote, like a misspelled word, but you didnot make the error.You may use [ ] to clarify a point. He[John] was the one.
  10. 10. If the author’s name or the title of the work is included in your text, the format changes slightly.Kushner found that if Kushner (1986) found you, “Ask the that if you, “Ask the average man what is average man what is more important to more important to him, making money or him, making money or being devoted to his being devoted to his family, and virtually family, and virtually everyone will answer everyone will answer family without family without hesitation” (15). hesitation” (p.15).
  11. 11. Long quotes get special care.In the MLA if you have more than 4 lines of text, it must be set off. In APA therequirement is 40 words. The format is the same in both cases. Provide anintroduction followed by a colon(:) move to the next line and indent. If this is anew paragraph you will indent twice. Please note that if there was more room itwould be double spaced. Also note that you do not need quotations –the authorinformation follows the end punctuation.This is an important fact about a new development in the conversation about theminimum wage: Baltimore is at the forefront, however, and the reasons why shed a lot of light on this movement. The city has been going downhill since the 1950s, losing private-sector jobs and population at a steady clip. Since 1990 the fall in private sector employment has become an avalanche--down 17.2%. (84)
  12. 12. What is the difference between online and paper?Today you may be hard-pressed to find a magazine on thebookshelves of your local library. Tidewater CommunityCollege is ordering many of our magazines online. You must beaware that there are different methods of treating thesedifferences. For example magazines have page numberswhereas web pages do not. There are online magazines, butthese differ in treatment from data bases like InfoTrac. Checkyour handbook for details.
  13. 13. Here is a line from an article as it would benoted if it was paper and then web based.Baltimore, Milwaukee Baltimore, Milwaukeeand Santa Clara and Santa ClaraCounty in California County in Californiahave enacted laws have enacted lawsmandating a minimum mandating a minimumwage above the federal wage above the federallevel (Hanke 87). Or level (Hanke, 1996,(Hanke). p.87). Or (Hanke, 1996).
  14. 14. The page where you list your sources that you actually used is called a Works Cited in MLA and References in APA.These pages only list the information you actually used inyour paper. If you are required to list everything you lookedat, you would create a Bibliography. These pages are all listedin alphabetical order by author’s name if the entry does nothave an author, use the title in its place. The heading iscentered and the entry begins at the one inch margin. Thesecond and subsequent lines are indented.
  15. 15. Here is your end page: Works Cited ReferencesHanke, Stephen. “Looks Like Charity, Hanker, S. (1996). “Looks like charity, Smells Like Pork.” Forbes. May 6, smells like pork.” Forbes, 87. 1996: 87. OR--online OR--online Hanke, S. (1996). “Looks like charity,Hanke, Stephen. “Looks Like Charity, smells like pork.” Forbe, 87.Retrieved Smells Like Pork.” Forbes. May 6, March 22, 2006 from InfoTrac. 1996: 87. InfoTrac. Tidewater Kushner, H. (1996). When All You’ve Ever Community Coll. Lib., VA Beach. 22 Wanted Isn’t Enough. New York: Mar. 2006 http://infotrac. Simon &Schuster.Kushner, Harold. When All You’ve Ever Wanted Isn’t Enough. Simon &Schuster, New York, 1996.
  16. 16. Work hard and always doublecheck your handbook! Keep in mind the rulesmay change,so always look it up.Good luck and allowplenty of time. TheWriting Center in the BBuilding will be happy toproofread or help you atany stage of writing.