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  1. 1. Clauses… Sentences…PunctuationPrepared by Bonnie StarttJanuary 28, 2013Tidewater Community CollegeVirginia Beach By
  2. 2. The beginning of writing:The first thing we learn in grammar is all about nouns (namesa person, place, or thing) and verbs (an action or state ofbeing), We start learning to talk with those nouns--Mama, Daddy, CookieBefore long we add a few verbs: Go, WantWant cookie By
  3. 3. •The noun and verb combine to create aclause There are two kinds of clauses. • The first type of clause is the INDEPENDENT clause. I read. • The second type of clause is the DEPENDENT clause. Since I read. • Did your head just tilt? There is a noun and a verb, but it is an incomplete thought. I would mark this as a FRAGMENT. Bonnie Startt
  4. 4. •How do we use the clauses? An independent clause is a simple sentence.• This does not mean if it is just a few words, it is a simple sentence.• A simple sentence can have lots of things added to it.• We add details…..• Here is a 239 word simple sentence:• http://grammar.ccc.commnet .edu/grammar/run-on.htm Bonnie Startt
  5. 5. Start at the beginning: Simple Sentence• I read• I read books• I read funny books .• Adjectives• I read funny books to my students. (Preposition/Prepositional Phrase) Bonnie Startt
  6. 6. Next move Compound Sentences• In spite of the fact that simple sentences dont always need punctuation, we need to move forward in our writing. The next sentence type we are going to look at is the compound sentence.• Simple + Simple= compound• Independent Clause + Independent Clause = Compound Sentence Bonnie Startt
  7. 7. Beware….. Compound Sentences• However, if we just put two simple sentences/ independent clauses together, we can get a run on or fused sentence.• I read a book it was dull. RO• Give your reader a chance to take a breath. There are 3 ways to do this. Bonnie Startt
  8. 8. Method ONE ….. Compound Sentences• The first method only needs one (1) thing/element to make it work correctly. We can put two simple sentences together using a semicolon (;).• I have a dog; she is a Westie Bonnie Startt
  9. 9. Method TWO….. Compound Sentences• This method must have two (2) things/elements in order to make a compound sentence. We join two simple sentences using both a comma (,) and a coordinating conjunction. An acronym for coordinating conjunctions is FANBOYS which stands for FOR AND NOR BUT OR Yet SO.• Our old dog Tony was sad, so we bought Maggie for him. Bonnie Startt
  10. 10. Method THREE….. Compound Sentences• This method must have three (3) things/elements in order to make a compound sentence. We join two• simple sentences first using a semicolon (;) then a conjunctive adverb (fancy words =)• (Conjunctive adverbs)and finally a comma (,). How about an easy to remember acronym: HOT MAMAS: However, on the...other hand/contrary, therefore, moreover, although, meanwhile, and yet (note- 2 of our coordinating conjunctions together), subsequently.• Maggie swims with the kids; however, Tony used to swim laps with me. Bonnie Startt
  11. 11. The Complex Sentence….. The dependent clause• We know all about using our independent clauses, but how do we create a dependent clause? We take a plain old independent clause and add a Subordinating Conjunction. I like to call the subordinating conjunctions spoilers because they take a clause which can stand alone and turn it to one which needs help---cannot stand alone. Think about Bugs Bunny as you consider this acronym: WABITS--- Whenever, after, although, because. if, that (than though)since (so that). Bonnie Startt
  12. 12. The Complex Sentence….. The dependent clause• Since I read.---this is a fragment.• We have two options to fix the fragment; we can remove the subordinating conjunction, OR we can add it to an independent clause.• When we combine a dependent clause with an independent clause, we get a complex sentence.• Since I read a lot, I got a Kindle for Christmas. Bonnie Startt
  13. 13. The Complex Sentence….. Funny punctuation rules• There are 2 ways to join the two clauses.• IC and DC ; DC and IC• The difference between the two methods is a simple comma. If you have the first type:• I got a Kindle for Christmas since I read. You will see there is no comma between the clauses.• If we go with the second method:• Since I like to read, I got a Kindle for Christmas. It takes the comma.• IC DC. OR DC, IC. Bonnie Startt
  14. 14. The Compound Complex Sentence….. This needs 3 clauses—2 IC ; 1 DC• When we are writing, we want to have some variety in writing sentences. We use a few simple sentences and some complex sentences in our writing, but sometimes we need to be a bit fancier....... to show off a little. The best way to do this is to write a compound complex sentence..• When Lee retired, our entire family all flew with him from Charlotte to New Bern; the fire trucks sprayed water over the plane when we left Charlotte. After Lee made a second pass over the airport, we landed in New Bern, and they sprayed water again. It was a special day for us although it felt funny to know while was his last flight, it was our Sophies first flight; however, her Grandad let her sit in his lap in the cockpit after we landed. Bonnie Startt
  15. 15. You need to make sure you know theserules----If you know these rules, youknow most the most commonpunctuation rules. Bonnie Startt