+Social Skills for Studentswith AutismByBonnieHoughton
+“Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is arange of complex neurodevelopmentdisorders, characterized by socialimpairments, communicationdifficulties, andrestricted, repetitive, and stereotypedpatterns of behavior.” (NINDS, 2012)
+Social Skills and Autism Socialization is the ability to interact and communicate withothers. This is facilitated through a number of social skills. Good social skills help us:A. determine what to sayB. make good choicesC. behave appropriately.("Nasp Resources: Social Skills: Promoting PositiveBehavior, Academic Success, And School Safety", )
+Students with Autism Tend to have FourCommon Social Skill Deficits1) Social Communication2) Social Initiation3) Social Reciprocity4) Social Cognition
+Non-Verbal SocialCommunication Non-Verbal Communication is the ability to read or express thoughtsand feelings with the use of body language or facial expressions.The "Autism And University" (n.d.) Students with autism have difficulties with the ability to “recognizethe body language of others and infer the meaning of the nonverbalcommunication” ( Boutot, Myles, 2011). There is an inability to interpret the meaning of inflection and tone ina conversation. (Please go to this site and watch the “Banana”video) http://autismandu.weebly.com/autism-the-specifics.html The "Autism And University" (n.d.)
+ According to "Non-Comm: Non VerbalCommunication" (n.d.), here are someexamples of non-verbal communication
+Difficulties with Non-Verbal CuesStudents’ with autismhave difficultiesreading non-verbalsignals and bodylanguage.(Hall, 2013)
+Social Stories A social skill acquisition tool that can be used to helpstudents develop non-verbal skills is a social story. A socialstory:a) Should promote social understandingb) Can be written in the first or third person perspectivec) Should be positived) Should be reinforced right before the skill is practicede) A social story can be faded out as the student learns thesequence of the routine. (Hall, 2013)
+The Personalized Story Book This is an example of a social story that deals with deficits fornon-verbal communication; it is in the form of a story bookcreated for a little girl named Kealy(Houghton, 2013).http://www.kerpoof.com/#view?s=2gs11dD98Mo5cjs4c000-d-8c48b7-x
+The Importance of being able toCommunicate Some children with autism have difficulties with verbal communication aswell as non-verbal. Without an appropriate method of communication, students will turn tonegative behaviors to demonstrate:a) Sensory needsb) Task avoidancec) Attention seeking behaviorsd) Access a wanted or needed object("Autism Community: Communication And Behavior", n.d.). The video on the following page demonstrates a child who is unable tocommunicate his wants, needs or frustrations appropriately.
+Social InitiationProblemsStudents with autism tend to be grouped intoone of two categories when it comes tosocial initiation.1. Barely ever initiates1. The inappropriate initiator( Boutot, Myles, 2011)
+Why a Student Rarely InitiatesSocialization ( Boutot, Myles, 2011)RarelyInitiatesSocializationIndifferenceFearAnxiety
+Social Initiation Scripts An effective strategy for initiating a social situation is“Photographic Activity Schedules”. Photographic ActivitySchedules are:A. Sequenced events shown in picture form.B. Activities that are broken down into each individual step.C. A method of teaching socialization with minimum staff interaction.D. Is a social script that promotes independence. (Hall, 2013)
+ Example of a Photographic Activity Schedule (This givesstudents’ examples of conversation starters)
+Social Reciprocity According to “Boutot&, Myles”, (2011) socialreciprocity refers to “the give-and-take of socialinteractions. Students with autism may have difficultieswith socialreciprocity.
+Social ReciprocitySocial Reciprocity ActualizationAdd to a conversationwithout monopolizing.Stay on topic.Joint attention skills.
+Strategy for Social Reciprocity An effective strategy for social reciprocity is a Social SkillsCurriculum. Social Skills Curriculum (Social Skills Group):A. Is specifically for high functioning students but can be used for alllevels of functioningB. Teaches awareness of non-verbal communicationC. Teaches awareness of other peoples perspectivesD. Promotes joint attentionE. Teaches Emotional controlF. Promotes pro-social behaviors (Hall, 2013)G. Should help generalize skillsH. Students with similar needs and levels of cognition
+Social Skills Groups This is a video that describes the components and structure ofan effective social skills group. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qogksh7gxEo Keefer (2011)
+Social Cognition Social cognition is the ability to predict where a conversationmay be going and the ability to alter your behavior andresponses to fit the situation. In order to do this, a studentneeds:a) Social awarenessb) Knowledge of social norms1) Procedural—Learned behaviors2) Declarative—The ability to decipher idioms andknowledge of unspoken rules.c) Perspective taking (Boutot, Myles, (2011)
+Integrated Play Groups: Using aSocial Constructivist approach Integrated play groups:A. Are intended to promote socialization and play as well as introducepeer cultureB. Promotes acquisition of cultural skills and expectationsC. Combines both neuro-typical and typical studentsD. Should have a larger number of typical peers than neuro-typicalE. Use scaffolds to promote independent playF. Requires joint engagement
+Integrated Play Group Model Here is a video that explains the Integrated Play Group Model http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u867ilizx8M ("United Way Vancuver: Integrated Play Group ModelProgram", 2009).
+Social Skills Acquisition In order for a student with autism to acquire a social skill, theremust be a plan or method put into action. MethodsA. Social Scripting—demonstrates step by step conversations oractivity proceduresB. Video Modeling—watching and imitating videos for social training.C. Problem Solving Strategies—a strategy that replaces a problembehavior with a replacement behavior that is appropriate.
+ Social Scripting Here is anexample of socialscripting. This is used topromoteindependenceand routine.
+Video Modeling Here is an example of video modeling. This videodemonstrated the process and expectations of going to thedentist. Look at Me Now (2012, June 7) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_n1aZy1NV8
+Problem Solving Strategies An example of a problem solving strategy is a PowerPointpresentation that I created on Positive Behavioral, Interventionsand Supports I had a student who would sit down in the middle of the roadwhile doing the mail run. The student would watch students asthey moved around campus. I am not able to upload the ppt but will show the hypothesis andthe antecedent modifications.
+PBIS Hypothesis The function of the behavior is to observe and/or integrateherself with regular ed students. Sitting down on the ground is her way of telling teachers thatshe wants to participate in the social aspect of general ed—shewants to be part of the crowd.
+PBIS Antecedent Modifications Environmental: Teach student to ask appropriately for times when she can observestudents. Mail run will be performed while classes are in process. Liz will bring PECS book with her in order to communicate herthoughts. Magazine will be brought for Liz’s use after placing mail in theteacher’s slots at East. Social A volunteer student from study hall will walk with Liz and her 1:1during the mail run. Student will be encouraged to use her words to interact whenstudents walk by. If there are teachers in the mail room, student will be encouraged toshake hands or say hello using her voice or her PECS book. Student will sit and observe students--while sitting on a bench--in thehalls during an appropriate scheduled time.
+The road to Social Success There are many strategies that can be used to promote socialsuccess in students with autism. There is no way to show all ofthem. The key to success is being consistent. Students with autism do not tend to like socialization. If wedon’t train them to socialize, they will be alone. The more theyare left alone, the more they want to be left alone. We owe tothese students to add a quality of life through socialization.(Bonnie Houghton)
+References: Autism and university. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://autismandu.weebly.com/autism-the-specifics.html Boutot, E. A., & Smith, Myles, B. (2011) Autism spectrum disorders:Foundations, characteristics, and effective strategies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PearsonEducation. Houghton, B. A. (2013). Kerpoof: Princess Kealy learns about personal space. Retrieved fromhttp://www.kerpoof.com/#view?s=2gs11dD98Mo5cjs4c000-d-8c48b7-x http://www.educateautism.com/applied-behaviour-analysis/discrete-trial-training.html Jacobs, J. (2012). Social Skill Builder:Development of social skills in children with AutismSpectrum Disorder . Retrieved fromhttp://www.socialskillbuilder.com/articles/socialskillsASDchildren.html Keefer, A. (2011). Health Central:How to find the right social skills group for your child withautism. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qogksh7gxEo Koegel, L. K. (n.d). Education.com: Pivotal Response Treatment: Identifying and targeting areasof need in children with ASK. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article NASP Resources: Social Skills: Promoting positive behavior, academic success, and schoolsafety. (). Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/factsheets/socialskills_fs.aspx
+References cont.: National Institude of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Autism fact sheet. (2012). Retrievedfrom http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm Naturally Autistic (Y2010ar, November 2). How to teach social skills to autistic childen [Video file].Retrieved from Youtube website:http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=E1PeC4jvLvs Non-Comm: Non verbal communication. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.google.com/search?q=nonverbal+communication&client=safari&rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=yEB9UfGKJ4PB4APauYGIAw&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAQ&biw=1045&bih=614#imgrc=Ls2u3Y5E6_7kqM%3A%3BbMp5csHqSsmfmM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F3.bp.blogspot.com%252F-wN9q_evuLPQ%252FTV1pOZPNUqI%252FAAAAAAAAAAM%252F-IerC4KSDks%252Fs1600%252Feffective_teaching_016.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F http://speechtimefun.blogspot.com/ Look at Me Now (2012, June 7). Autism video model--Going to the dentist [Video file]. Retrievedfrom Youtubewebsite:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_n1aZy1NV8252Fverbalandnoncomm.blogspot.com%252F2011%252F02%252Fnon-verbal-communication-is-it-really.html%3B647%3B464