Memory PSYA1
Revision powerpoint
RESEARCH INTO
THE NATURE OF
MEMORY
SHORT TERM
MEMORY
Capacity of STM
• 7  2 CHUNKS
• Chunks are meaningful units of information
• Evidence?
• Capacity of STM is tested by Imm...
Duration of STM
• 18 SECONDS
• Evidence?
• Peterson and Peterson study
• 1) Participants were asked to remember single con...
Encoding of STM
• ACOUSTIC (sound)
• Evidence?
• Conrad study
• He found that rhyming letters (b,t,c,p,g,e,d) were harder ...
LONG TERM
MEMORY
Capacity and Duration of LTM
Capacity
• LIMITLESS AND IMPOSSIBLE TO MEASURE
• Evidence is N/A
Duration
• ANYTHING BETWEEN ...
Bahrick High School Study Evaluation
Strengths
• It uses memory for classmates and therefore it is an example of
how we us...
Encoding of LTM
• SEMANTIC (meaning)
• Evidence?
• Baddely study
• Gave participants lists of words to remember and found ...
Evaluation into research into the
nature of memory
Strengths
• Strength of most of this lab based research is the huge con...
MODELS OF MEMORY
Multistore Model – Atkinson and
Shiffrin 1968
AO1 - Description
1) External information enters the sensory memory
where it is stored briefly before being passed into th...
AO2 - Strengths
Supporting evidence comes from free recall experiments in
which participants are shown a list of 20 words ...
AO2 - Strengths
• Primacy and recency effects can be
manipulated independently
• Primacy effect is reduced when the speed ...
AO2 - Strengths
• Case studies of brain damaged patients
• These have identified that patients can have
one of the stories...
AO2 - Weaknesses
• Brain damaged patients do not entirely
support the model
• For KF, the model does not explain how
infor...
AO2 - Weaknesses
• Research has been criticised
• In real life we remember many things that we
don’t rehearse
• E.g. what ...
AO2 - Weaknesses
• Information must flow in both directions from
STM to LTM for chunking to work
• Meaning must be accesse...
Working Memory Model – Baddely
and Hitch (1974)
AO1 – Description
Central executive –
• Controls activity of the working memory
• It’s function is to direct attention to ...
AO1 - Description
The phonological loop –
• Auditory store which rehearses sound based information to prevent
forgetting.
...
AO1 - Description
The visuo-spatial sketchpad –
• Often referred to as the ‘inner eye’
• This component can be considered ...
AO2 - Strengths
• Dual-task performance supports the distinction
between the phonological loop and the visuo-
spatial sket...
AO2 - Strengths
• Word length effect supports the role of the
phonological loop
• I.e. the tendency to immediately recall ...
AO2 - Strengths
• Studies of brain damaged patients and brain
scans support the existence of different parts
of the workin...
AO2 - Weaknesses
• Research suggests there are individual
differences in working memory
• E.g. in attention, capacity and ...
AO2 - Weaknesses
• Also, it is not clear how the working memory
links to LTM
• Also does not explain how the LTM works
its...
Application of working memory
• The phonological loop can explain why if we’re watching TV
and your parent tries to talk t...
EYEWITNESS
TESTIMONY
Research into
misleading the witness
Misleading information
• Loftus investigated whether participants were influenced by
misleading information
Barn Study
• S...
AO2 – Barn Study
• Although this shows that some witnesses can
be misled, it is important to realise that over
80% of part...
AO2 Barn Study
• However, a criticism is that the barn was not central to the accident.
Memory of important details may no...
Changing wording of the question
‘Hit’ Study
• Showed participants a film of a car accident and afterwards
asked them a cr...
Research into the
Effect of Anxiety
on EWT
Yerkes-Dodson Law AO1
• An increase in arousal improves performance
but only up to a point
• Once arousal has passed a cri...
Yerkes-Dodson Law Study
• Loftus made participants watch a film of a crime
• Some participants saw a version with an
extre...
Weapon Focus AO1
• When a person witnesses a crime in which a
weapon was used, their attention tends to
focus on the weapo...
Weapon Focus Study
• Loftus monitored the gaze of participants and
found that, when shown a film of a crime,
they tended t...
Elderly – Misleading Information
• Research seems to suggest the elderly are
especially susceptible to the effects of misl...
Elderly –Own Age Bias
• The elderly are particularly bad at face recognition.
However, this may reflect the own age bias.
...
Children
Two reasons the Elderly have a negative effect
on EWT:
• Suggestibility
• Language abilities
Children - Suggestibility
• The younger the child, the less information they provide
spontaneously
• Because of this, inte...
Children – Language Abilities
• A child's ability to comprehend and answer the
interviewer's question is also a factor lik...
AO2 FOR ANY
ESSAY
EVALUATION OF
EWT STUDIES
Lack of Stress
• In real life the emotion and stress could make
real life witnesses more accurate
• This is supported in a...
AO2 – Lack of Stress
• Yuille & Cutshall examined the recall of real life
witnesses to a shooting in a town in Canada in
w...
Lack of consequences
• It is possible that participants in experiments
are less accurate than in real life because they
kn...
AO2 – Lack of Consequences
• Foster showed participants a video of a bank
robbery and were asked to identify the robber in...
Cognitive interview
AO1
• A cognitive interview has no set questions and
there is no time limit so that witnesses don’t
feel time pressured. T...
Reinstate the context
• The witness needs to be returned, in their mind,
to the situation (the context) in which the event...
Change sequence
• Traditional interviews might ask a witness to
recall events in the order they occurred
• Cognitive inter...
Change perspective
• The witness is asked to recall events from
another perspective e.g. what another
observer would have ...
Report everything
• Witnesses are encouraged to report
everything even if info seems irrelevant
• This unrestrained recall...
AO1
The cognitive interview is based on 2 principles
of memory:
• Info is organised so that memories can be
accessed in a ...
Strengths – The Cognitive Interview
A strength is that it is effective:
• Geiselman found with relatively little training,...
Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview
• A problem with the CI in practice is that police
officers suggest that the techniqu...
Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview
• The cognitive interview is a form of
communication and its success depends on the
s...
Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview
• The cognitive interview is most effective when
the interview follows shortly after ...
Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview
• Another problem is that because context does
more to improve recall than recognitio...
Memory
Improvement
Strategies
Strategies
• Method of Loci
• Narrative Chaining
• Acronyms
• Chunking
• Elaboration
• A mnemonic is any structured techni...
Method of Loci
Method of Loci AO1
• 'Loci' is Latin word meaning 'places‘
• This method of improving memory works by first
imagining a ve...
Method of Loci - Strengths
• Research shows that significant improvements
can occur when this technique is used
• Crovitz ...
Method of Loci - Strengths
• The method is effective as it uses more than one
type of code
• In linking verbal pieces of i...
Method of Loci - Weaknesses
• The technique requires ability to form
complex images
• Some people will find this easier th...
Narrative Chaining
Narrative Chaining AO1
• Unlike memorising by repetition (rote), the
narrative puts the unorganised information into
a mea...
How does it work?
• Narrative chaining is another technique that uses
mental imagery
• In this case, there is a meaningful...
Narrative Chaining - Strengths
• Research suggests that the narrative technique is a very effective
method for improving r...
Acronyms
Acronyms AO1
• An acronym is a word that is formed out of the
first letter of a string of other words
• These words are ty...
Acronyms - Weaknesses
• Although acronyms can be useful, they do have
disadvantages
• Just because something is memorised ...
Acronyms - Weaknesses
• The most permanent memories however are
based on understanding and meaning
• It may be that in ord...
Acronyms - Weaknesses
• Even if an acronym can be formed, it needs
somehow to be committed to memory
• The amount of effor...
Chunking
Chunking AO1
• By dividing a long string of information into meaningful
chunks it is much easier to remember them
• This t...
How does it work?
• From the multi-store model we learnt that the
capacity of STM can be increased by chunking
• The capac...
Elaboration
Elaboration AO1
• A more effective form of rehearsal than pure repetition is
elaborative rehearsal
• Rather than simply re...
Elaboration - Strengths
• Elaborative rehearsal involves processing
information at a deeper, more semantic level
• Craik a...
Elaboration - Weaknesses
• Elaboration occurs as a result of already
existing knowledge
• Therefore, the success of elabor...
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Memory PSYA1

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Old specification revision powerpoint for the cognitive psychology unit. Handy for resits.

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Memory PSYA1

  1. 1. Memory PSYA1 Revision powerpoint
  2. 2. RESEARCH INTO THE NATURE OF MEMORY
  3. 3. SHORT TERM MEMORY
  4. 4. Capacity of STM • 7  2 CHUNKS • Chunks are meaningful units of information • Evidence? • Capacity of STM is tested by Immediate Digit Span • A list of random digits is read out to participants and they have to repeat them straight back • Sequence length at which they are correct 50% of the time is digit span
  5. 5. Duration of STM • 18 SECONDS • Evidence? • Peterson and Peterson study • 1) Participants were asked to remember single consonant trigram at a time (KPD) • 2) Participants were given a task to stop them rehearsing (counting backwards in threes) • 3) Participants were asked to recall the trigrams after different increasing times (3,6,9,12,15 seconds) • WHERE RECALL WAS GOOD AFTER 3 SECONDS (about 80%), AFTER 18 SECONDS IT HAD FALLEN (10%)
  6. 6. Encoding of STM • ACOUSTIC (sound) • Evidence? • Conrad study • He found that rhyming letters (b,t,c,p,g,e,d) were harder to recall than non rhyming letters due to acoustic confusion errors • Found similar results from rhyming and non rhyming words
  7. 7. LONG TERM MEMORY
  8. 8. Capacity and Duration of LTM Capacity • LIMITLESS AND IMPOSSIBLE TO MEASURE • Evidence is N/A Duration • ANYTHING BETWEEN A FEW MINUTES TO A LIFETIME • Evidence? • Bahrick study • He used an opportunity sample of 392 American ex-high school students aged from 17- 74 years old • Participant accuracy was assessed by comparing responses with high school yearbooks • Results • 90% accuracy in face and name recognition, even in participants who left 34 years ago • 60% in free recall after 15 years • Shows that classmates are rarely forgotten
  9. 9. Bahrick High School Study Evaluation Strengths • It uses memory for classmates and therefore it is an example of how we use memory in real life / trivial lists of words are not remembered for nearly as long. Therefore it illustrates dangers of lab based experiments for not being appropriate to study memory Weaknesses • Nature of study meant high control was not possible – could not control how often participants looked at yearbooks or saw classmates • Only testing memory for people we know – may not be representative of all types of memory as it’s possible that memory for faces is a special type of memory
  10. 10. Encoding of LTM • SEMANTIC (meaning) • Evidence? • Baddely study • Gave participants lists of words to remember and found when LTM • Was tested after 20 minutes • Lists of words that had similar meanings (huge, large, wide, big) were more difficult to recall than non-similar meanings (map, mad, cap, cat)
  11. 11. Evaluation into research into the nature of memory Strengths • Strength of most of this lab based research is the huge control over extraneous variables so we can infer cause and effect Weaknesses • Tests are using artificial stimuli (strings of consonants), which is not much like memory as we don’t use in real life. – lack of ecological validity • Studies specifically ask participants to remember single words so introduce demand characteristics as in real life we remember things without being told to
  12. 12. MODELS OF MEMORY
  13. 13. Multistore Model – Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968
  14. 14. AO1 - Description 1) External information enters the sensory memory where it is stored briefly before being passed into the STM when given attention. Here it will be stored via an acoustic code. 2) STM has a limited capacity (7 +- 2 chunks) so information can be lost easily by being pushed out by new information. 3) Memories in STM can be lost with 30 seconds unless they are rehearsed. 4) Material that is rehearsed is put into the LTM, where it is stored semantically and can remain for a lifetime, although can be lost at any time due to forgetting.
  15. 15. AO2 - Strengths Supporting evidence comes from free recall experiments in which participants are shown a list of 20 words and asked to recall them in any order. • Primacy effect - Participants tend to recall words at the beginning of the list as participants have rehearsed them and they have been passed onto the LTM. • Recency effect – Participants tend to recall words at the end of the list as they are still in the participant’s STM. • When a graph of % recall is plotted against position in list the results fall into a pattern known as the serial position curve • Supports view that there are separate stores
  16. 16. AO2 - Strengths • Primacy and recency effects can be manipulated independently • Primacy effect is reduced when the speed of presentation is increased as there is no time for rehearsal • Recency effect can be removed by giving participants a distraction task (e.g. counting backwards in 3s) before recall
  17. 17. AO2 - Strengths • Case studies of brain damaged patients • These have identified that patients can have one of the stories unaffected and the other damaged • HM – had normal STM but greatly impaired LTM • KF – had damaged STM (digit span = 2) but normal LTM
  18. 18. AO2 - Weaknesses • Brain damaged patients do not entirely support the model • For KF, the model does not explain how information is passed onto the LTM without being affected by the damaged STM • Although HM cannot learn any new facts or events research shows that he is capable of learning new skills (mirror drawing)
  19. 19. AO2 - Weaknesses • Research has been criticised • In real life we remember many things that we don’t rehearse • E.g. what we did at the weekend must pass to LTM without rehearsal
  20. 20. AO2 - Weaknesses • Information must flow in both directions from STM to LTM for chunking to work • Meaning must be accessed from LTM and passed into STM • E.g. to know that BMW is a car, the LTM must be accessed
  21. 21. Working Memory Model – Baddely and Hitch (1974)
  22. 22. AO1 – Description Central executive – • Controls activity of the working memory • It’s function is to direct attention to tasks, determining at any time how resources are allocated, manages what goes on by directing attention to the most important information at the expense of the lesser • Other parts are ‘slaves’ to this one • Has a limited capacity and cannot attend to too many things at once
  23. 23. AO1 - Description The phonological loop – • Auditory store which rehearses sound based information to prevent forgetting. • Has two parts: - Phonological store: known as ‘inner ear’. deals with perception of speech. it holds the words you hear. - Articulatory loop: known as ‘inner voice’. it is a verbal rehearsal system, used to prevent forgetting of verbal material by saying things over and over. the words are silently looped, and has a duration of about 2 seconds thus we can hold as much information as we can rehearse in 2 seconds
  24. 24. AO1 - Description The visuo-spatial sketchpad – • Often referred to as the ‘inner eye’ • This component can be considered a visual and spatial version of the articulatory loop • It deals with information by visually organising it rather like laying items on a table • Actual visual information is maintained in working memory • Mental rough paper that you may use when doing mental arithmetic • May be able to be divided into a visual store and a spacial one
  25. 25. AO2 - Strengths • Dual-task performance supports the distinction between the phonological loop and the visuo- spatial sketchpad • Performance of two simultaneous tasks requiring the use of two separate stores is nearly as efficient as performance of the tasks individually • In contrast, when a participant tries to carry out two simultaneous tasks that use the same system, performance is less efficient
  26. 26. AO2 - Strengths • Word length effect supports the role of the phonological loop • I.e. the tendency to immediately recall shorter words better than long words • Working memory explains this by saying the articulatory loop has a limited time capacity of 2s and as short words take less time to say we can rehearse them
  27. 27. AO2 - Strengths • Studies of brain damaged patients and brain scans support the existence of different parts of the working memory • Brain scans reveal that different brain regions are active in sound based tasks than spatial tasks, supporting the fact they’re separate • Brain damaged patients can be poor at verbal tasks but normal at spatial tasks, and vice versa
  28. 28. AO2 - Weaknesses • Research suggests there are individual differences in working memory • E.g. in attention, capacity and duration which lead to differences in abilities such as reading, spelling and writing • Not clear why this occurs
  29. 29. AO2 - Weaknesses • Also, it is not clear how the working memory links to LTM • Also does not explain how the LTM works itself
  30. 30. Application of working memory • The phonological loop can explain why if we’re watching TV and your parent tries to talk to you, you cannot listen to both the TV and your parent. • This is because of the limited capacity of the phonological loop being exceeded by the 2 tasks • However, you can play a computer game and listen to your mother as the computer game uses the visuo-spatial sketchpad not the loop so the limited capacities are not exceeded as the different components are being used. • Mental arithmetic uses the visuo-spatial sketchpad to mentally add numbers in your head. When doing longer equations the capacity of the system is exceeded, making it difficult.
  31. 31. EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY
  32. 32. Research into misleading the witness
  33. 33. Misleading information • Loftus investigated whether participants were influenced by misleading information Barn Study • Showed 150 participants a film of a car accident • Divided them into 2 groups and asked them 10 questions about the film • The first group were given questions that were consistent with the film they had seen e.g. how fast was the car going when it passed the STOP sign? The second group were given the same questions with the exception of one – how fast was the car going when it passed the barn on the country lane? (Misleading question) • After one week the participants were given another 10 questions. The last question was ‘Did you see a barn?’ Only 2.7% of the first group gave the incorrect answer YES, whereas 17.3% of the second group answered YES.
  34. 34. AO2 – Barn Study • Although this shows that some witnesses can be misled, it is important to realise that over 80% of participants in the misled group gave a correct response.
  35. 35. AO2 Barn Study • However, a criticism is that the barn was not central to the accident. Memory of important details may not be so easily changed; Loftus (1979) found that participants were not susceptible to blatantly incorrect information. Red Purse Study • Participants watched a slide show depicting the theft of a large RED purse. • They then read a professor’s account of the theft, which contained several errors. • Participants resisted the misleading information that the purse was BROWN and correctly recalled the purse as being RED • This suggests that information which is obvious and central is less subject to distortion
  36. 36. Changing wording of the question ‘Hit’ Study • Showed participants a film of a car accident and afterwards asked them a crucial question ‘what speed were the vehicles travelling when they hit?’ • The word hit was replaced with different words for different groups • They found that what word was used affected the estimates of speed that participants gave • The fastest estimate was for smashed (41 mph) and the slowest for contacted (32 mph). A week later when participants were asked whether they had seen any broken glass, those in the smashed group were consistently more likely to answer YES wrongly
  37. 37. Research into the Effect of Anxiety on EWT
  38. 38. Yerkes-Dodson Law AO1 • An increase in arousal improves performance but only up to a point • Once arousal has passed a critical point called the optimum, performance tends to decline • A possible interpretation of the research on violence is that witnessing violence raises witnesses' arousal level past optimum, leading to poorer memory performance.
  39. 39. Yerkes-Dodson Law Study • Loftus made participants watch a film of a crime • Some participants saw a version with an extremely violent scene (a young boy being shot in the face) • When questioned about the events in the film, those participants who saw the non-violent version of the film recalled much more detail of the crime than those who witnessed the more violent crime
  40. 40. Weapon Focus AO1 • When a person witnesses a crime in which a weapon was used, their attention tends to focus on the weapon so the recall less details of the criminal • Weapon focus usually results in poor quality testimony, as the witness is unable to describe much that is useful about other aspects of the incident
  41. 41. Weapon Focus Study • Loftus monitored the gaze of participants and found that, when shown a film of a crime, they tended to focus their gaze on the gun used in the robbery • When questioned later, these participants were less able to identify the robber and recalled fewer details of the crime than other participants who saw a similar film minus a gun
  42. 42. Elderly – Misleading Information • Research seems to suggest the elderly are especially susceptible to the effects of misleading information Silent kidnapping study • One study compared adults (average 35 years) and elderly participants (average 70 years) who all watched a silent film-clip of a kidnapping • Participants then read an inaccurate account. It was found that elderly participants were much more likely to be influenced by the incorrect information
  43. 43. Elderly –Own Age Bias • The elderly are particularly bad at face recognition. However, this may reflect the own age bias. • It has been found that people are most accurate at identifying faces of their own age group • Because individuals usually encounter members of their own age group more regularly, they become more expert at processing those faces • However, most criminals (and those used in studies) are middle aged adults so this would explain why the elderly and the young appear the least accurate
  44. 44. Children Two reasons the Elderly have a negative effect on EWT: • Suggestibility • Language abilities
  45. 45. Children - Suggestibility • The younger the child, the less information they provide spontaneously • Because of this, interviewers need to encourage children to give more detailed responses so increasing the risk of leading questions • Research seems to suggest that children are more influenced by leading questions because of the power/ status of an authoritative adult Suggestibility Study • In support, one study gave children and adults a story to read and then asked them 20 questions; 15 of these questions were misleading. They showed that children were more likely to be influenced by the leading questions than were adults
  46. 46. Children – Language Abilities • A child's ability to comprehend and answer the interviewer's question is also a factor likely to affect their recall Language Abilities Study • One study found that the more complex the question, the more likely a child was to give an inaccurate answer. This suggests one aspect of ensuring the accuracy of a child's eyewitness testimony is to use language appropriate to their age
  47. 47. AO2 FOR ANY ESSAY EVALUATION OF EWT STUDIES
  48. 48. Lack of Stress • In real life the emotion and stress could make real life witnesses more accurate • This is supported in a study showing real life witnesses can recall information very accurately • The findings are contrary to those that Loftus might lead us to expect. Such findings, which are obtained from real-world witnesses and hence are high in ecological validity, cast doubt on the validity of Loftus' conclusions
  49. 49. AO2 – Lack of Stress • Yuille & Cutshall examined the recall of real life witnesses to a shooting in a town in Canada in which a man had attempted to rob a gun shop • Some months after the event, the witnesses were interviewed. Findings were that the witnesses were able to recall the incident in a great deal of detail, there was a very high level of agreement between the accounts and the witnesses’ accounts were not influenced by leading questions
  50. 50. Lack of consequences • It is possible that participants in experiments are less accurate than in real life because they know inaccuracies will not lead to serious consequences • Shown in Foster’s studies • Findings once again cast doubt on Loftus’s work
  51. 51. AO2 – Lack of Consequences • Foster showed participants a video of a bank robbery and were asked to identify the robber in an identity parade • Half the participants were led to believe that the robbery was real and that their responses would influence the trial • The other half assumed it was a simulation. • Identification was more accurate in the first group suggesting that consequences are an important factor
  52. 52. Cognitive interview
  53. 53. AO1 • A cognitive interview has no set questions and there is no time limit so that witnesses don’t feel time pressured. The interviewer remains silent and will not interrupt the witness. Questions will be open ended and non- leading. • The cognitive interview uses 4 techniques
  54. 54. Reinstate the context • The witness needs to be returned, in their mind, to the situation (the context) in which the event occurred. • Attempts will be made to recreate the original mood & environment in the imagination of the interviewee which may increase recall. • The witness will be asked to think back to before, during and after the event & recall where they were, what they were doing, their mood etc.
  55. 55. Change sequence • Traditional interviews might ask a witness to recall events in the order they occurred • Cognitive interviews will ask witnesses to recall events in different orders including reversing the order of events • This should ensure that important details are not missed out & it might help to fill in any gaps
  56. 56. Change perspective • The witness is asked to recall events from another perspective e.g. what another observer would have seen • The witness must report what they actually know & not be too inventive
  57. 57. Report everything • Witnesses are encouraged to report everything even if info seems irrelevant • This unrestrained recall is likely to throw up details which might otherwise be mentally ‘edited out’
  58. 58. AO1 The cognitive interview is based on 2 principles of memory: • Info is organised so that memories can be accessed in a number of ways. • Memories are context dependent, meaning that retrieval will be more effective if the cues present at the time of storage are reinstated.
  59. 59. Strengths – The Cognitive Interview A strength is that it is effective: • Geiselman found with relatively little training, cognitive interviewers obtained up to 35% more correct details about simulated events than untrained interviewers with no increase in the number of errors. • This result was replicated in numerous studies in which both children and adults were witnesses
  60. 60. Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview • A problem with the CI in practice is that police officers suggest that the technique requires more time than is often available and that instead they prefer to use deliberate strategies aimed to limit an eyewitness's report to the minimum amount of information that the officer feels is necessary. • Speed is often required to catch the criminal
  61. 61. Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview • The cognitive interview is a form of communication and its success depends on the skills of the interviewer. • It is very easy for an inexperienced interviewer to ask questions that might be considered as 'leading' the witness. • The accuracy of information from the cognitive interview may be subject to the same problems as regular interviews where the wording of the question might play a very significant role
  62. 62. Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview • The cognitive interview is most effective when the interview follows shortly after the event. • It becomes less effective as the passage of time between event and recall increases
  63. 63. Weaknesses – The Cognitive Interview • Another problem is that because context does more to improve recall than recognition, the cognitive interview does not help with the recognition of a culprit, for example, from photo fit evidence
  64. 64. Memory Improvement Strategies
  65. 65. Strategies • Method of Loci • Narrative Chaining • Acronyms • Chunking • Elaboration • A mnemonic is any structured technique that is used to help people remember and recall information
  66. 66. Method of Loci
  67. 67. Method of Loci AO1 • 'Loci' is Latin word meaning 'places‘ • This method of improving memory works by first imagining a very familiar place - such as the town where you live or your house • Each item in the to-be-remembered list is then 'pegged' or 'hung' on various locations • When you want to remember the items you take an imaginary walk around the location you will pass the memories hung at various places
  68. 68. Method of Loci - Strengths • Research shows that significant improvements can occur when this technique is used • Crovitz reports one study where 2 groups of ps were required to memorise a list of 32 words • One group used rote learning, whilst the other used the loci method • Much greater recall was observed in the loci group (78%) than the rote group (25%) • It is the favourite method used by those involved in memory competitions
  69. 69. Method of Loci - Strengths • The method is effective as it uses more than one type of code • In linking verbal pieces of information with visual images the loci method is using two coding systems - verbal and visual • According to the dual code theory our memories are encoded using both visual and auditory codes • The use of two codes creates a much stronger memory than using a single one
  70. 70. Method of Loci - Weaknesses • The technique requires ability to form complex images • Some people will find this easier than others
  71. 71. Narrative Chaining
  72. 72. Narrative Chaining AO1 • Unlike memorising by repetition (rote), the narrative puts the unorganised information into a meaningful context • The first item to be memorised is connected to the second, the second with the third and so on through a story or 'narrative‘ • In combining the elements to be remembered you end up with a 'chain' of information, where one item or element is associated with another in a series
  73. 73. How does it work? • Narrative chaining is another technique that uses mental imagery • In this case, there is a meaningful interaction between separate items represented in the narrative • This kind of interactive imagery is far more effective than other methods where images are used with no interaction between them • Because of the organisation into a story each item acts as a clue for the next one
  74. 74. Narrative Chaining - Strengths • Research suggests that the narrative technique is a very effective method for improving retention • Researchers asked participants in to learn 12 lists of disconnected words, each list containing 12 words - 144 words in all • Participants were either told to use the narrative method (where short stories were created using the 12 items in each list) or were given no special instructions • It was found that participants in the 'narrative' group recalled an average of 94% of their items, whilst the other 'non-narrative' group recalled an average of 14%. • The biggest strength is that this method puts new info into a meaningful way making it easier to remember
  75. 75. Acronyms
  76. 76. Acronyms AO1 • An acronym is a word that is formed out of the first letter of a string of other words • These words are typically difficult to associate • For example, ROY G BlV can be used to remember the colours of the rainbow - Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet • Another kind of acronym forms phrases out of the first letter of each word in a list • For example, Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain, does the same job with colours of the rainbow as ROY G BlV
  77. 77. Acronyms - Weaknesses • Although acronyms can be useful, they do have disadvantages • Just because something is memorised it does not mean that it is understood - remembering is not the same as knowing • Acronyms are very useful for rote memory, that is, for information that is going to be recalled exactly as it is learned • The most permanent memories however are based on understanding and meaning
  78. 78. Acronyms - Weaknesses • The most permanent memories however are based on understanding and meaning • It may be that in order to form the acronym you have to change the order of items in a list • This is not helpful when the order is an important factor
  79. 79. Acronyms - Weaknesses • Even if an acronym can be formed, it needs somehow to be committed to memory • The amount of effort this sometimes takes means that the costs of using acronyms might not be worth the benefits you receive
  80. 80. Chunking
  81. 81. Chunking AO1 • By dividing a long string of information into meaningful chunks it is much easier to remember them • This technique is often used to remember telephone numbers and postcodes • One mnemonist, SF, managed to remember more than 80 digits as he could give meaning to groups of numbers • He had a detailed knowledge of running times and so if given 3492 he remembered this as 3 minutes 49.2 seconds, a near world record for a mile
  82. 82. How does it work? • From the multi-store model we learnt that the capacity of STM can be increased by chunking • The capacity of STM = 7±2 meaningful units. by grouping info into meaningful units we can remember more info
  83. 83. Elaboration
  84. 84. Elaboration AO1 • A more effective form of rehearsal than pure repetition is elaborative rehearsal • Rather than simply repeating info, we use and change it in some way. We 'organise' the information, relate it to information already in our memory, and make the information more meaningful • E.g. with a telephone number, rather than repeating the number we could make it more meaningful- maybe it is like a friend's number already in memory but with the last two digits switched, or maybe a rhyme could be added to it. This kind of elaboration not only keeps information in short-term memory longer • It seems that if we want to improve our memories, that is, to increase the chances that we remember something, we need to make the information as meaningful as possible
  85. 85. Elaboration - Strengths • Elaborative rehearsal involves processing information at a deeper, more semantic level • Craik and Tulving found that giving the information to be remembered more meaning and more links to other things will help people recall it later on • This is called the 'levels of processing' approach - the deeper the level, the more elaborately it is encoded and the more secure it is
  86. 86. Elaboration - Weaknesses • Elaboration occurs as a result of already existing knowledge • Therefore, the success of elaboration will be affected by the motivation of the learner • E.g., Morris et al (1981) found that football fans recalled a list of football results far better than did non-football fans

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