CitationsWhy do scholars cite the things they cite?
Conceptual vs. Operational • A reference can refer to • The evolutionary lineage a concept, theory, or described by Smith idea in an original paper (2009) suggests that... • A reference can also • Using the multivariate refer to a technique, statistical techniques method or piece of developed by Jones equipment used in (1985) we analyzed... another studyMoravcsik, M. J., & Murugesan, P. (1975). Some Results on the Function and Quality of Citations. Social studies of science, 5(1), 86-92. Sage Publications. Retrieved from http://sss.sagepub.com/content/5/1/86.full.pdf
Organic or Perfunctory• An organic reference is • Miller (2003) outlined one that is required for the basic concepts that understanding what is we build on here. going on in the current paper• A perfunctory reference • Other researchers have is one that simply examined this issue as acknowledges the well (Xi, 2003; Baker, existence of other work 1999).
Evolutionary or Juxtapositional • The original paper is • This research builds on cited because the work conducted in the current paper builds on 1990s by several the ideas in it researchers (Miller, 2004, Smith 2002) • The original paper is cited because the • Our study suggests an current paper oﬀers an alternative explanation alternative to the than that oﬀered by original paper Harper (1993).
Conﬁrmative or Negational• The current paper can • As suggested by Smith conﬁrm the work of the (1999), our ﬁndings original paper conﬁrm that...• The current paper can • The method used by dispute the ﬁndings of Jones (2004) was not the original paper rigorous enough to support their conclusions.
Interesting Correlations Concepts CorrelationArticle titles that ask a question Decreased  Funny article titles Decreased  Bigger reference section Increased  Coverage in the popular news Increased  Sharing research data Increased  Open Access Increased 
Citation Correlation References 1. Jamali, H. R., & Nikzad, M. (2011). Article title type and its relation with the number of downloads and citations. Scientometrics, (49), 653-661. doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0412-z 2. Sagi, I., & Yechiam, E. (2008). Amusing titles in scientiﬁc journals and article citation. Journal of Information Science, 34(5), 680-687. doi:10.1177/0165551507086261 3. Corbyn, Z. (2010). An easy way to boost a paper’s citations. Nature. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/news.2010.406 4. Phillips, D. P., Kanter, E. J., Bednarczyk, B., & Tastad, P. L. (1991). Importance of the Lay Press in the Transmission of Medical Knowledge to the Scientiﬁc Community. The New England Journal of Medicine, 325(16), 1180-1183. 5. Piwowar, H. a, Day, R. S., & Fridsma, D. B. (2007). Sharing detailed research data is associated with increased citation rate. PloS one, 2(3), e308. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000308 6. Wagner, A. B. (2010). Open access citation advantage: an annotated bibliography. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, (60). Retrieved from http://www.istl.org/10-winter/ article2.html •