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  • I like in particular the section on Middle Management. Being middle means interacting with the upper and lower managerial levels. If interactions are weak or lopsided the whole management system suffers. I think that a strong middle management is crucial for organization that opt for hierarchical management. What is your view, Bonnet?
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  1. 1. Module 13 Change From Within: Roads to Successful Issue Selling
  2. 2. Issue Selling <ul><li>Issue selling: attempts by lower level managers to influence higher level members of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Issue selling important to both organizations and managers today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top managers are challenged to cope with complex business world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue selling allows many minds to contribute in organization’s future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These minds may be closer to problem areas and thus offer important perspectives </li></ul></ul>Class Note: Issue Selling From Within
  3. 3. The Choice to Sell Issues in Organizations <ul><li>Understanding managers’ choice processes in deciding to sell issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People more willing to sell issues in contexts where they perceive management will listen and where context is experienced as supportive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context may enhance or inhibit issue selling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sellers worry about damaging their reputations </li></ul><ul><li>Top management plays important role in issue selling because they set context for subordinates </li></ul>Class Note: Issue Selling From Within
  4. 4. The Choice to Sell Issues in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Tactical choices in issue-selling process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundling —tying new issues to existing ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing —ways an issue is described and presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language —choice of language used to describe issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement —pushing an issue alone or involving others in the selling effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach —formal or informal, public or private appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing —raising issues at the right time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing one’s homework —becoming an expert on the issue and assessing political situation </li></ul></ul>Class Note: Issue Selling From Within
  5. 5. Issue Selling Process Choices Figure 13.1 Class Note: Issue Selling From Within
  6. 6. The Challenge of Charged Issues <ul><li>Charged issues are tough, problematic, sensitive issues that sellers may be reluctant to raise </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of charged issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of employees with AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of racial minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of the natural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations often try to defuse charged issues from the top </li></ul>Class Note: Issue Selling From Within
  7. 7. Partial Organization Chart for Inex Company Figure 13.2 * Member of Management Committee. Sara Lightwood, Chair.
  8. 8. The Misunderstood Middle Manager <ul><li>Middle management translates strategies into actions by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining tactics and developing budgets for achieving a strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring the performance of individuals and subunits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking corrective action when behavior falls outside expectations </li></ul></ul>The Press: Dinosaurs or Dynamos? Recognizing Middle Management’s Strategic Role
  9. 9. Misunderstood Middle Manager (cont’d) <ul><li>In the “new” organization, senior managers rely less and less on middle managers </li></ul><ul><li>Middle management’s operating responsibilities have withered, but strategic roles still play a crucial factor in organizational success </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of middle management in formulating strategic decisions can result in higher financial performance </li></ul>The Press: Dinosaurs or Dynamos? Recognizing Middle Management’s Strategic Role
  10. 10. Middle Management Strategic Roles <ul><li>Core and dynamic capabilities develop through long association with a company such as that experienced by middle managers </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of middle managers include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Championing strategic alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing deliberate strategy </li></ul></ul>The Press: Dinosaurs or Dynamos? Recognizing Middle Management’s Strategic Role
  11. 11. A Typology of Middle Management Roles in Strategy Figure13.1 The Press: Dinosaurs or Dynamos? Recognizing Middle Management’s Strategic Role
  12. 12. Realizing Middle Management’s Strategic Value <ul><li>Senior managers should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the link between middle management, core capability, and competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify middle managers with appropriate skills, experiences, and potential to thrive in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a better understanding of desired roles within the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redesign the organization to leverage knowledge and skills of selected set of middle managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renegotiate the “psychological contract” by committing to the ongoing involvement of middle management in the strategy-making process </li></ul></ul>Figure13.1 The Press: Dinosaurs or Dynamos? Recognizing Middle Management’s Strategic Role