Italian School Management


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Italian School Management

  1. 1. HOW DO WE MANAGE OUR SCHOOLS ? Mara Bonitta Circolo Didattico Maniago ( PN) ITALY
  2. 2. MIUR:Ministry of Education, University and Research• Central authority, responsible for supervising and coordinating scholastic institutions throughout the country. The Ministry of Education, University and Research lays down : • the general goals and learning outcomes of the school process; • specific learning objectives related to student competence levels; • the subjects and activities which make up the national curriculum quota and annual teaching hours for these; • general indications for student evaluation and assessment. 2
  3. 3. 21 Regional Education Offices • At peripheral level, the U.S.R. or Regional Education Offices were instituted in the late ’90s; • Led by General Manager for Education; • Appointed by the MIUR; • Duration of appointment varies.Regional Education Authorities:• are autonomous centres with administrative responsibility;• have residual state functions which have been transferred neither to the Regions nor to the schools (for example: the determination of the number of the schools’ staff• have functions related to the relationships with the Regions, local authorities, universities and formative agencies;• are present also at provincial level through the centres for administrative support to schools, called Provincial Education Office. 3
  4. 4. Who does what Ministry:  sets the national curriculum  appoints teachers to the schools through its regional offices (and pays directly for them)  regulates the educational system in most of its aspects  funds schools for the ordinary running costs  acts for most matters through regional offices Local authorities ( Municipalities or Provinces):  provide for buildings, maintenance, and general supplies (telephone, electricity, heating, transport)  have no competence in the curriculum or management
  5. 5. Education Reform in Progress • THE REFORMED • THE OLD SYSTEM• Old education system was SYSTEM centralised, characterised by • New system is characterised by an national curricula established by the increasing level of autonomy granted Ministry of Education. to individual schools• From four school types or levels: pre-school education, primary • to a three-phase structure: Pre- education, lower secondary school education, primary cycle, education, upper secondary secondary cycle. education• Ministry provided detailed • Ministry now defines general curriculum for all school levels and framework, guidelines and principles, subject areas (fixed) for all levels, types and branches of study. (flexible). Schools make any needed adjustments 5
  6. 6. Individual SchoolsLed by Head Teacher / School Manager responsible for:• the overall management of the institution, of which he has legal responsibility;• the management of financial and material resources and for the quality of the service provided;• the promotion of the necessary interventions aimed at guaranteeing quality in the educational processes;• s/he can resort to teachers, of his choosing, to whom specific tasks can be delegated;• his/her salary is made up of a fixed part and a variable part, this one related to the ‘complexity’ of the school and attained results• (e.g. number of pupils, student success and/or dropout figures, additional school projects) 7
  7. 7. School Autonomy(all must be worked into a ministerial outline and framework, to ensureuniformity throughout the country )• School autonomy • 1997 - Law 59: the old centralised school system was dismantled and School Autonomy granted (teaching, administration, research activities, experimentation and development).• Education Offer Plan • Schools determine and implement the educational ( P.O.F.) offer: each school prepares the Education Offer Plan yearly.• Teaching autonomy • Flexibility in organising school time and teaching time in the way which is better suited to the study• Organisation autonomy and learning rhythms • Overall timetable can be adopted to the Education• Autonomy in research, Plan’s requirements; experimentation and development • Teaching staff and other personnel plan training activities, set up ‘network agreements’ with other schools, education institutions, businesses, etc. 8
  8. 8. School Collective Bodies• School Council • is made up of elected representatives of (Consiglio di istituto) teaching and non-teaching staff, parents and, in upper secondary schools, students. It is chaired by a parent.• The Executive Board • is elected by the School Council; chaired by (Giunta Esecutiva) the School Manager. It draws up the preliminary budget and the final accounts and ensures that resolutions of the School Council are implemented.• Teachers’ Assembly • is made up of the permanent and temporary (Collegio dei Docenti) teachers and chaired by the School Manager. It formulates the ‘School education plan’, taking into account proposals and opinions expressed by parents associations and organisations. it is consulted by the Headmaster as regards class formation, lesson timetables and the performance of school activities, taking account of the general criteria laid down by the School Council• Class Council • comprises school manager (chair), teachers of all subject areas (usually 8), special needs teacher(s) 9
  9. 9. What schools are entitled to do  The schools are supposed to follow the national curriculum  Since 2000 on, they have a limited possibility to modify it (for a part not exceeding 20% of the annual teaching time for each subject)  moreover they take advantage out of the opportunity to cooperate with “experts” directly appointed by the school for some particular subjects ( sports, music, arts, minority languages, italian as a second language...)  A certain autonomy of budgeting (but 90% of grants are under some kind of restraints)
  10. 10. Some critical points There is an increasing lack of financial resources for schools• Too many pupils drop out of the system before completing their studies• The system is not designed for certifying credits and skills at intermediate levels (only final diplomas)• The system is not performing well in the field of vocational education (too much theory, not training enough)
  11. 11. Some strong points Our school system works quite well in solving problems and creating opportunities by their own It is highly effective for a minority of gifted students (whose levels are often above the average in international tests) It’s inclusive towards the less favoured pupils (in that sense that they remain within the mainstream education, while getting at the same time special assistance)
  12. 12. And the school managers? They have many legal responsibilities, but they lack corresponding powers of decision because of a great number of other actors ( teachers, trade unions, local authorities, administration, parents..) The juridical framework make heavy their tasks and does not allow them to take real decisions about the curriculum and the most relevant educational issues such as integration and multicultural challenges
  13. 13. Who assesses the schools There is no systematic assessment of schools From 2001 up to 2004 there has been a national system of tests for students’ achievements (only for schools that decided to make use of it)  many schools actually did (80% approx.)  only for 2005-2006 this system has been compulsory  from 2007 on, it will be operated only on a sample of schools (approx. 5%) There is no assessment for schools as a whole, nor for individual teachers
  14. 14. The UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 Norms1) Quality as a means of management and improvement2) Control of activities3) Measuring and monitoring data
  15. 15. ABOUT UNI EN ISO 9000:2000 ISO 9000 : 2000QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - Fundamentals and vocabulary ISO 9001: 2008QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - Requirements ISO 9004 : 2000 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - Guidelines for improvement
  16. 16. Keys about ISO 9000.2000 Standard based on 8 quality management principles 1) customer focus2) leadership3) involvement of people4) process approach5) system approach to management6) continual improvement7) factual approach to decision making8) mutually beneficial supplier relationships
  17. 17. ISO 9001 REQUIREMENTS
  18. 18. 4. QUALITY MANAGEMENTSYSTEM General requirements identify QMS processes sequence & interaction of processes criteria & measures for effective operation information to support processes measure, monitor, analyse, action & improvement General documentation requirements procedures other documents
  19. 19. 5. MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY Management Administration commitment responsibility & authority Customer focus management representative internal communication Quality policy quality manual Planning control of documents quality objectives control of quality records quality planning Management review inputs outputs
  20. 20. 6. RESOURCE MANAGEMENTProvision of resources Work environmentcustomer satisfaction human & physical factorsHuman resourcescompetencytrainingeffectiveness of trainingcontribution to qualityobjectivesstaff records
  21. 21. 7. PRODUCT REALISATIONPlanning of realisation Purchasingprocesses controlCustomer related processes informationDesign & development verificationplanning Production & service operationsinputs controloutputs identification & traceabilityreview customer propertyverification preservationvalidation measuring & monitoringchanges
  22. 22. 8. MEASUREMENT,ANALYSIS& IMPROVEMENT Planning Measurement & monitoring customer satisfaction internal audit processes product control of non comformity analysis of data
  24. 24. AND NOW...MY SCHOOL !
  25. 25. AND NOW...MY SCHOOL !
  26. 26. Warning to navigators“ It is necessary to learn to navigate in an ocean of doubts between archipelagoes of certainties” ( E. Morin)