Development of a
                Morphological-Phylogenetic
                      Lucid Key for the
 P. capsici     Identi...
MDL




             EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA
             EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA


        ...
POTATO DISEASE CAUSE 1840´S
                                              POTATO DISEASE CAUSE 1840´S
       MDL
         ...
Phytophthora infestans Center of Origen current teories
                             Phytophthora infestans Center of Orig...
Jones in 1912, presented the following statements in regard to this
topic, “the details of the introduction of late blight...
Phytophthora niederhauserii Abad ZG & Abad JA
         Phytophthora niederhauserii Abad ZG & Abad JA
                to ho...
MDL
                            Phytophthora Morphological Taxonomy
                            Phytophthora Morphological...
MDL




            Newhook, Waterhouse, and Stamps. 1978
           Newhook, Waterhouse, and Stamps. 1978          Erwin ...
MDL




 Sixty of the important
 species and taxons



             New dichotomous-like key is presented using minimal mo...
Morphological features of Phytophthora
                                         Morphological features of Phytophthora    ...
MORPHOLOLGY OF SPORANGIOPHORES
                                     MORPHOLOLGY OF SPORANGIOPHORES
       MDL

           ...
Sporangia shapes
       MDL


        Globose                    Globose              Ovoid            Ellipspoid         ...
Sporangium, papilla, exit pore and pedicel shapes
       MDL

             Papillate –short pedicel
                      ...
Hyphal swellings
                                              Hyphal swellings
       MDL




             P.drechsleri

...
Chlamydosphores
                                                      Chlamydosphores
       MDL

                     Ter...
Phytophthora sexual phase
                                                       Phytophthora sexual phase
       MDL
    ...
Morphospecies Groups [Waterhouse (1963), Newhook et al. (1978), Stamps et al. 1990]
                                      ...
MDL            Problems in morphological ID of Phytophthora Species
                      Problems in morphological ID of ...
MDL




             EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA
             EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA


        ...
Phytophthora molecular markers
                                         Phytophthora molecular markers
       MDL

       ...
MDL
                                 ITS                          TEF α 1 and β- Tubulin

                                ...
A genus-wide phylogeny for Phytophthora using seven nuclear loci
                  A genus-wide phylogeny for Phytophthora...
24 Species of Phytophthora described after Erwin and Ribeiro (1996)         8/24/08
       MDL


                         ...
Phytophthora ‘taxons’ in process for official description
       MDL


          Many, many!! species in progress for offi...
MDL




                                   CL1

                                 CL2
                                 CL3
...
Phylogram of Phytopthora species resulted from Neighborgh-Joining (NJ) analysis (1000bs) of the ITS region.


            ...
ABAD ET AL OTHER PUTATIVE NEW SPECIES




                       Phy. sp. caroliniana Ph268.99.6102 from strawberry NC- HO...
Phytophthora sp. morindae Abad ZG & Nelson S
      MDL




G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
INTEGRATING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR FOR A UNIFIED TAXONOMY OF PHYTOPHTHORA
       MDL                                 ...
MDL


          INTEGRATED
         INTEGRATED
  MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC
  MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC
            KEY-200...
INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007
                         INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007
     ...
INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007
                         INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007
     ...
Peronosporaceae family and some phylogenetic groups
 Peronosporaceae family and some phylogenetic groups
                 ...
CENTRE FOR BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
                    CENTRE FOR BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
      MDL   ...
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2008 Phytophthora Workshop in Italy

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O30 Abad

  1. 1. Development of a Morphological-Phylogenetic Lucid Key for the P. capsici Identification of Oomycetes: Phytophthora Z. G. Abad, USDA/APHIS/MDL, MD, USA P. ramorum M. Coffey, World Oomycetes Collection, CA, USA 3rd International Phytophthora, Pythium and related genera Workshop: 3rd International Phytophthora, Pythium and related genera Workshop: Integration of Traditional and Modern Approaches for Investigating the Integration of Traditional and Modern Approaches for Investigating the Taxonomy and Evolution of the Oomycetes Taxonomy and Evolution of the Oomycetes Turin – Italy 23 – 24, 2008 Turin – Italy 23 – 24, 2008
  2. 2. MDL EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA THE CLASICAL ERA THE CLASICAL ERA AND THE AND THE MORPHOLOGICAL-SPECIES MORPHOLOGICAL-SPECIES G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  3. 3. POTATO DISEASE CAUSE 1840´S POTATO DISEASE CAUSE 1840´S MDL AND THE PIONEERS OF AND THE PIONEERS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY PLANT PATHOLOGY 1841-1842 Morren,Belgium 1841-1842 Morren,Belgium 1841-1842 Teschemacker, USA 1841-1842 Teschemacker, USA Anton de Bary 1861, 1876 Anton de Bary 1861, 1876 Researchers into the nature of the potato fungus Rev. Berkeley, 1846 Rev. Berkeley, 1846 Researchers into the nature of the potato fungus Phytophthora infestans. J. R. Agric. Soc. England Phytophthora infestans. J. R. Agric. Soc. England The Potato Murrian The Potato Murrian 12:239-269 12:239-269 G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  4. 4. Phytophthora infestans Center of Origen current teories Phytophthora infestans Center of Origen current teories MDL Mexican Theory Mexican Theory Andean Theory Andean Theory USA 1842 and USA to USA 1842 and USA to Europe 1845 Europe 1845 USA & Europe 1841-1843 Postulated by Redick 1928 Postulated by Redick 1928 USA & Europe 1841-1843 Lines of Evidence: Suggested by: Berkeley and De Suggested by: Berkeley and De Lines of Evidence: Bary Neiderhauser. Neiderhauser. Bary Supporters: Fry, Goodwin, Lines of Evidence: Abad G. Lines of Evidence: Abad G. Supporters: Fry, Goodwin, 1983, Abad G. and Abad J. 1995 Grunwland Grunwland 1983, Abad G. and Abad J. 1995 Supported by: Ristaino, Supported by: Ristaino, Morales, Torres, Forbes, Morales, Torres, Forbes, Restrepo Restrepo G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  5. 5. Jones in 1912, presented the following statements in regard to this topic, “the details of the introduction of late blight (native upon the wild potato of the Andean regions) in the 1840s from South America into Europe, and subsequent spread in this area, constitute one of the most interesting chapters of the history of plant pathology… In 1928, Reddick – Mexican Theory ‘Lima’ ‘Lima’ ‘Péruviennes’ ‘Péruviennes’ ‘Cordiliéres’ ‘Cordiliéres’ The importation from from South America •Independent South American states [1820 to 1830s]. Peru 1821. •Introduction of Guano boom •The advent of the steamships in the late 1830's
  6. 6. Phytophthora niederhauserii Abad ZG & Abad JA Phytophthora niederhauserii Abad ZG & Abad JA to honor John Niederhauser to honor John Niederhauser P.niederhauseria.01.5112.Arvor P.niederhauseria.01.6056.Engli P.niederhauserii.32023.Austral P.niederhauserii.32086.Austral P.niederhauserii P.niederhauserii.32022.Austral P.niederhauserii.Cistus.Califo P.niederhauserii.Cistus.Spain Phy.sojae.UQ1200 1000 Phy.cajani.P536 989 Phy.vignae.UQ136I 990 ITS Phy.melonis.IMI325917 922 1000 CLADE 7 Phy.sinensis.ATCC46538 Phy.pistaciae.PIS15 672 Phy.alni.sp.uniformis.P1375 514 Phy.cambivora.IMI296524 891 Phy.alni.sp.Alni.P772 790 Phy.alni.sp.Multiformis.P1256 437 Phy.fragariae.v.fragariae.FVF= 992 1000 1000 Phy.fragariae.v.rubi.FVR=03 Phy.europaea.IFBEUR2 848 Phy.uliginosa.IFBULI.1 Phy.cinnamomi.DQ173250.001.Avo 983 Arvorbitae, English Yvy, Leyland P.cinnamomi.05.728.Blue.Holly 982 Cyppress Abad Z.G., Abad J.A., NC USA P.cinnamomi.Ph131.1A 1000 Phy.cinnamomi.UQ881 Cistus , CA USA Cheryl Blomquish Phytophthora.03.2633 Phy.insolita.IMI288805 Cistus, Italy David Cooke 0.1 Xanthorrea Australia, James Cunnigton Cistus, Canary Island S. Moralejo Norway M.L. Herrero,
  7. 7. MDL Phytophthora Morphological Taxonomy Phytophthora Morphological Taxonomy •• Rosenbaum J. 1917. Studies of the Genus Phytophthora. Proceedings of the National Rosenbaum J. 1917. Studies of the Genus Phytophthora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 3: 159-163. Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 3: 159-163. •• Tucker, CM 1931. Taxonomy of the genus Phytophthora de Bary. Univ. Missouri Agric. Tucker, CM 1931. Taxonomy of the genus Phytophthora de Bary. Univ. Missouri Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 153: 1-208 Exp. Sta. Bull. 153: 1-208 •• Leonian, LH. 1925. Physiological studies on the genus Phytophthora. West. Virginia Leonian, LH. 1925. Physiological studies on the genus Phytophthora. West. Virginia Agric. Expt. Sta. Sci. Paper 11 : :444-498. Agric. Expt. Sta. Sci. Paper 11 444-498. •• Leonian, LH 1934. Identification of Phytophthora species. West Virginia Agriculture Leonian, LH 1934. Identification of Phytophthora species. West Virginia Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin 262: 2-36 Experiment Station Bulletin 262: 2-36 •• Frezzi, MJ. 1950. Las especies de Phytophthora en la Argentina, Revista Frezzi, MJ. 1950. Las especies de Phytophthora en la Argentina, Revista de Investigaciones Agrícolas IV: 47–134. de Investigaciones Agrícolas IV: 47–134. Waterhouse GM 1963. Key to the species of Phytophthora de Bary. Mycol Pap 92: 22 Waterhouse GM 1963. Key to the species of Phytophthora de Bary. Mycol Pap 92: 22 Waterhouse GM 1970. The genus Phytophthora de Bary. Mycol Pap 122: 1–59 Waterhouse GM 1970. The genus Phytophthora de Bary. Mycol Pap 122: 1–59 •• Newhook FJ, Waterhouse GM, Stamps DJ. 1978. Tabular key to the species of Newhook FJ, Waterhouse GM, Stamps DJ. 1978. Tabular key to the species of Phytophthora de Bary. Mycol. Pap. 43. Phytophthora de Bary. Mycol. Pap. 43. Stamps DJ, Waterhouse GM, Newhook FJ, Hall GS. 1990. Revised tabular key to the Stamps DJ, Waterhouse GM, Newhook FJ, Hall GS. 1990. Revised tabular key to the species of Phytophthora. Mycol Pap 162: 28 pp. species of Phytophthora. Mycol Pap 162: 28 pp. Erwin O, Ribeiro . .1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. APS. Press. St. Paul, MN. Erwin O, Ribeiro 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. APS. Press. St. Paul, MN. •• Gallegly ME, Hong C. 2008. Phytophthora: Identifying Species by Morphology and Gallegly ME, Hong C. 2008. Phytophthora: Identifying Species by Morphology and DNA. APS. Press. St. Paul, MN. DNA. APS. Press. St. Paul, MN. G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  8. 8. MDL Newhook, Waterhouse, and Stamps. 1978 Newhook, Waterhouse, and Stamps. 1978 Erwin and Ribeiro. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Erwin and Ribeiro. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Tabular Key to the Species of Phytophthora Tabular Key to the Species of Phytophthora Worldwide. APS. Press. Worldwide. APS. Press. De Bary. Commonwealth Mycological Intitute, De Bary. Commonwealth Mycological Intitute, Kew Surrey, England Kew Surrey, England G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  9. 9. MDL Sixty of the important species and taxons New dichotomous-like key is presented using minimal morphological characters and the Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism PCR- SSCP DNA fingerprint of the ITS rDNA. G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  10. 10. Morphological features of Phytophthora Morphological features of Phytophthora Asexual phase MDL Asexual phase Asexual phase sporangiophore Asexual phase sporangiophore sporangium sporangium chlamydospores chlamydospores P.drechsleri hyphal swellings hyphal swellings Phytophthora ramorum Sexual phase Sexual phase Temperature Temperature P.cambivora growth at 20, growth at 20, 25, 30, 35C 25, 30, 35C oospore oospore © G.Abad.PPIL.NCSU Colony morphology Colony morphology oogonium oogonium antheridium antheridium P. sp. morindae G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL Photos by G. Abad
  11. 11. MORPHOLOLGY OF SPORANGIOPHORES MORPHOLOLGY OF SPORANGIOPHORES MDL UNBRANCHED BRANCHED EXTERNAL INTERNAL PROLIFERATION PROLIFERATION P. erytroseptica P. sp. kelmania P. sp. 3 P. bisheria P. lateralis BOTRYOSE CLUMPS UMBELLA TYPE SYMPLE SYMPODIUM LONG SYMPODIUM P.botryosa P.capsici P.kernoviae P. ramorum G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL Photos by G. Abad
  12. 12. Sporangia shapes MDL Globose Globose Ovoid Ellipspoid Lemoniform E Phytophthora sp. P. bohemeria P. cactorum aucubae P. sp.niederhauserii P. capsici P. capsici Obpyryform Constricted Tapered base Irregular Irregular P. cryptogea P. erytroseptica P. tropicalis P. nicotianae P. nicotianae G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  13. 13. Sporangium, papilla, exit pore and pedicel shapes MDL Papillate –short pedicel pedicell Semipapillate- Semipapillate- Non-papillate – Medium pedicel Long pedicel persistent P. cactorum P. bohemeria P. botryosa P. capsici P. sp.niederhauserii Exit pore Narrow Medium Wide Two papilla P. nicotianae P. bohemeriae P. citrophthora P. sp. personii P. capsici G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL Photos by G. Abad
  14. 14. Hyphal swellings Hyphal swellings MDL P.drechsleri P. sp. personii P. sp. niederhauserii P. sp. kelmania G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL P. foliorum Photos by G. Abad
  15. 15. Chlamydosphores Chlamydosphores MDL Terminal Intercalary Clustered P. tropicalis Phytophthora sp. Juniper P.cinnamomi. Terminal, lateral, intercalary G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL P. ramorum Photos by G. Abad
  16. 16. Phytophthora sexual phase Phytophthora sexual phase MDL Antheridia Paragynous amphigynous Paragynous/ amphigynous P. cactorum P. capsici P. glovera Paragynous Unusual shapes oospores Plerotic Aplerotic P. bisheria P.sp. aucubae P. cactorum P. capsici G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL Photos by G. Abad
  17. 17. Morphospecies Groups [Waterhouse (1963), Newhook et al. (1978), Stamps et al. 1990] Morphospecies Groups [Waterhouse (1963), Newhook et al. (1978), Stamps et al. 1990] MDL Mostly HO GROUP II GROUP GROUP III Mostly HO Mostly HT Mostly HO GROUP II GROUP II Mostly HT GROUP III Mostly HO P P A1 x A2 P. cactorum P. heveae HO P. citricola i.e P.boehmeriae, P.botryosa, P.capsici, i.e P.cyperi, P.cyperi bulbosi, P. inflata, i.e P. clandestina, P. idaei, P.iranica, P.italica, P.pseudotsugae, P.tentaculata P.pseudotsugae, P.tentaculata, P. meadii, 6 P. lepironiae, P. porri, P. primulae, 2 Mostly HT Mostly HO Mostly HT GROUP IV GROUP IV Mostly HT GROUP V GROUP V Mostly HO GROUP VI GROUP VI Mostly HT P A1 x A2 A1 x A2 P. infestans P. megasperma P. cryptogea i.e P.cambivora, P. cinnamomi, i.e P. hibernalis HO, P.ilicis HO, P. mirabilis, i.e. P.fragariae v. fragariae, v. rubi P. humicola P. drechsleri, P. phaseoli HO, P. colocasiae, P. eriugena, HO P.insolita, P. lateralis, P. medicaginis, P. sojae, 3 P.erythroseptica HO, P. gonapodyides G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL Photos by G. Abad
  18. 18. MDL Problems in morphological ID of Phytophthora Species Problems in morphological ID of Phytophthora Species 64 species described to 1994 • variability in morphological characters • limited no. of morphological characters • overlapping in morphological characters • some atypical isolates • difficulties in esporulation • lack of expertise for identification G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  19. 19. MDL EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA EVOLUTION IN THE TAXONOMY PHYTOPHTHORA THE MODERN ERA THE MODERN ERA AND THE AND THE PHYLOGENETIC -- SPECIES PHYLOGENETIC SPECIES G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  20. 20. Phytophthora molecular markers Phytophthora molecular markers MDL White et al. 1990, Primers– ITS 1,2,3,4,5 White et al. 1990, Primers– ITS 1,2,3,4,5 Lee and Taylor 1992- 1993 Lee and Taylor 1992- 1993 First phylogeny First phylogeny Cooke et al 1996 & 1997 Cooke et al 1996 & 1997 Group II––papillated ––HO, RFLP Group papillated HO, RFLP Cooke- et al 2000. phylogeny Cooke- et al 2000. phylogeny Martin and Tooley 2003 Martin and Tooley 2003 mt Cox IIsequencing phylogeny mt Cox sequencing phylogeny Kroon et al. 2004 Kroon et al. 2004 Tef Tef mt Cox II mt Cox II mt nad11 mt nad11 β- tubulin β- tubulin Jaime Blair and Michael Coffey. 2007. Seven Nuclear and Mitochandrial Markers Jaime Blair and Michael Coffey. 2007. Seven Nuclear and Mitochandrial Markers G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  21. 21. MDL ITS TEF α 1 and β- Tubulin CL1 CL2 CL3 CL4 CL5 CL6 CL7 CL8 Cooke et al. 2000. Fungal Genetics Cooke et al. 2000. Fungal Genetics And Biology 30, 17-32 Kroon et al. 2000. Fungal Genetics Kroon et al. 2000. Fungal Genetics And Biology 30, 17-32 And Biology 41, 766-782 And Biology 41, 766-782 G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL Photos by G. Abad
  22. 22. A genus-wide phylogeny for Phytophthora using seven nuclear loci A genus-wide phylogeny for Phytophthora using seven nuclear loci MDL G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  23. 23. 24 Species of Phytophthora described after Erwin and Ribeiro (1996) 8/24/08 MDL 1998 P. multivesiculata Ilieva, Man in’t Veld, Veenbaas-Rijks & Pieters 1999 P. quercina Jung 2001 2005 P. tropicalis Aragaki & Uchida P. kernoviae Brasier, Beales & Kirk P. oryzo-bladis (Wang and Lu) Ho 2006 P. pistaceae Mirabolfathy P. captiosa Dick & Dobbie P. polygony Zheng & Ho P. fallax Dick & Dobbie P. ramorum Werres, de Cock & Man In’t veld P.foliorum Donahoo & Lamour 2002 P.polonica Belbahri, Melgarejo & Leford P. europaea Hansen & Jung 2007 P. psichrophila Jung & Hansen P. alticola Maseko, Coutinho & MJ Wingf. P. uliginosa Jung & Hansen P. austrocedrae Gresl. & Hansen P. brassicae de Cock and Man in’t Veld P. frigida Maseko, Coutinho & MJ Wingf. (2007) P. ipomoeae Flier & Grünwald P. siskiyouensis Reeser & EM Hansen (2007) 2003 2008 P. inundata, Brasier, Sanchez-Hernadez & Kirk P. bisheria Abad ZG, Abad JA & Louws P. pseudosyringae Jung & Delatour P. gallica T Jung T & J Nechwatal 2004 P. irrigata C Hong & M Gallegly (2008) P. alni Brasier & Kirk P. parsiana Mostowfizadeh, Cooke & P. inundata, Brasier, Sanchez-Hernadez & Kirk Banihashemi P. hedraiandra de Cock & Man in’t Veld P. pinifolia AJ. Durán, Gryzenh. & MJ Wingf. P. polygony Zheng & Ho P. quercetorum Balci & Balci G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  24. 24. Phytophthora ‘taxons’ in process for official description MDL Many, many!! species in progress for official descriptions. Some examples…. 13 species in progress for official description 16 putative new species P. sp. andina Forbes et al. MIKE COFFEY’S GROUP P. sp. asparagi Cooke et al P. sp. carica P. taxon ‘cranberry’ Oudemans et al. P. sp. cuyabensis P. sp. glovera Abad & Shew P. sp. erwinii P. sp. kelmania Abad ZG & Abad JA P. sp. lagoariana P. sp. morindae Abad ZG & Nelson S Phytophthora sp. novaeguinee P. sp. niederhauserii Abad ZG & Abad JA P. sp. oregonsis P. sp. pelgrandis Nirenberg & Gerlarch P. sp. sansomea P. sp. personii Abad ZG et al. P. sp. sulawesiensis P. sp. quercetorum Balci & Balci P. sp. zentmeyerii P. sp. fragaefolia Shirai K & Shinmura CLIVE BRASIER GROUP P. sp. hungarica Belbahri,L., Lefort,F., Many putative new species in P. megasperma Calmin,G. and Oszako,T. complex P. sp. sylvatica Belbahri,L., Lefort,F., DAVID COOKE (4), GLORIA ABAD (2) Calmin,G. and Oszako,T. Six putative new species in P. insolita complex G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  25. 25. MDL CL1 CL2 CL3 CL4 CL5 CL6 CL7 CL8 Cooke et al. 2000. Fungal Genetics Cooke et al. 2000. Fungal Genetics And Biology 30, 17-32 And Biology 30, 17-32 G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  26. 26. Phylogram of Phytopthora species resulted from Neighborgh-Joining (NJ) analysis (1000bs) of the ITS region. Phy.inflata.IMI342898.CL2.III P.inflata.03.2501.G24 P.inflata.03.2000 P.citricola.P47.112.3D.Perfect P.citricola.P47.116.E1 Phy.citricola.IMI031372.CL2.II P.citricola.03.2745.F.fir Phytophthora.sp.03.338.Aucuba. 604 Phythophthora.sp.Ph30.Rhododen Phy.citrophthora.IMI332632.CL2 Phy.botryosa.IMI136915.CL2.II Phy.meadii.Zantesd Phy.colocasiae.IMI368918.CL2.I 577 P.glovera.11099.23 P.glovera.11095.28 ITS REGION ITS REGION P.glovera.11091.1.27 P.glovera.P11085.26 623 Phy.capsici.IMI352321.CL2.II P.glovera.11083.1.25 702Phy.tropicalis.P4742 P.glovera 981 Phythophthora.sp.Ph35.58.Hwang Phy.multivesiculata.CBS545.96. P.bisheria.1680.Australia P.glovera P.bisheria.P1.33.AF408625.stra P.bisheria.Cg2.3.3.AY241924.st P.bisheria. P.bisheria Phy.mirabilis.CBS678.85.CL1.IV Phy.andina.EC3343 Phy.infestans.P6.4CIPC Phy.ipomoeae.Pic99165 Phy.infestans.IMI6606.CL1.IV 623 Phy.phaseoli.CBS556.88.CL1.IV Phy.clandestina.IMI287317.CL1. 339 Phy.iranica.IMI158964.CL1.I 505 998 Phy.tentaculata.CBS552.96.CL1. Phy.nicotianae.UQ848.CL1.II 1000 Phy.cactorum.IMI296524.CL1.I Phy.idaei.IDA3.CL1.I Phy.pseudotsugae.IMI331662.CL1 371 Phy.hedraiandra.CBS111725 Phy.heveae.IMI180616.CL5.II 413 Phy.hevea.05.495.G24 Phy.katsurae.IMI360596.CL5.II Phy.ilicis.ILI.P590.CL3.IV Phy.pseudosyringae.PSEU.12 Phy.nemorosa.2055.2 453605 Phy.psychrophila.IFBPSY.2 Phy.quercina.IFBQUE4 Phy.arecae.IMI348342.CL4.II 955 Phy.palmivora.UQ1294.CL4.II Phy.megakarya.IMI337104.CL4.II Phy.megasperma.IMI133317.CL6.V Phytophthora.sp.02.867.strawbe P.megasperma.03.660.strawberry Phytophthora.P47.102.7.BC. H08 261 Phythophthora.sp.Ph30.50.2.02 Phythophthora.sp.Ph31.51.9.P72 Phy.megaspermaII.P1276 Phy.sp.03.326.F.fir.homothalli P. bisheria P.megaspermaIII.P250 P.megaspermaIV.P1279 P.megaspermaV.P1280 Phy.gonapodyides.P1047 Phytophthora.Pgchlamydo.P510 Phytophthora.sp.P47 Phytophthora.sp.P51 Phytophthora.sp.P79 Phytophthora.sp.P61 Phytophthora.sp.Raspberry.P896 Phytophthora.sp.P1049 Phytophthora.sp.P1050 Phytophthora.sp.cranberry.1410 Phytophthora.sp.P1054 Phytophthora.sp.P1044 Phytophthora.Salix.soil.P878 P.personii.P31.51.4.P1YA.S.Tob 982 1000 939 P.personii P.personii.P31.51.5.G24.Tobacc P.personii.P31.5.6.P56.X5.Toba P.personii.P31.51.8.P38-XS.Tob 962Phy.humicola.IMI302303.CL6.V Phy.inundata.P1052 Phytophthora.sp.KACC40449 925 Phytophthora.sp.walnut.P532 Phytophthora.sp.apple.cherry.P 1000 Phytophthora.sp.asparagus.VPRI Phytophthora.sp.asparagi.UQ214 Phy.alni.sp.uniformis.P1375 Phy.cambivora.IMI296524.CL7.VI P. personii Phy.alni.sp.Alni.P772 Phy.fragariae.v.fragariae.FVF= Phy.fragariae.v.rubi.FVR=03.CL Phy.alni.sp.Multiformis.P1256 Phy.europaea.IFBEUR2 828 Phy.uliginosa.IFBULI.1 Phy.cinnamomi.DQ173250.001.Avo P.cinnamomi.Ph131.1A P.cinnamomi.05.728.Blue.Holly Phy.cinnamomi.UQ881.CL7.VI P.niederhauserii.Cistus.Califo P.niederhauseria.01.5112.Arvor 506 1000 539 Phy.vignae.UQ136.CL7.VI P.niederhauserii P.niederhauseria.01.6056.Engli P.niederhauserii.32023.Austral P.niederhauserii.32086.Austral P.niederhauserii.32022.Austral Phy.cajani.P536.CL7.VI Phy.melonis.IMI325917 Phy.sinensis.ATCC46538.CL7.V 946 Phy.pistaciae.PIS15 Phy.sojae.UQ1200.CL7.V Phytophthora.03.2633 P.kelmania.Ph148.G311 P.kelmania.01.5341.F.Fraser.Fi 172 P.kelmania.02.200.F.Fir. P.kelmania.02.119.A.G41 P.kelmania P.kelmania.01.5341.N.North.Fir Phy.cryptogea.IMI045168.CL8.VI Phy.erythroseptica.ATCC36302.C Phy.drechsleri.ATCC46724.CL8.V P.medicaginis.x.cryptogea.P74 640 473 908 Phy.medicaginis.UQ125.CL8.V Phy.trifolii.UQ2143.CL8.V Phy.porri.CBS.567.86.CL8.III Phy.primulae.CBS620.97.CL8.III P. niederhauserii 1000 Phy.brassicae.CBS782.97 672 Phy.syringae.IMI296829.CL8.III Phy.ramorum.cc2467 976 999 Phy.ramorum.20315247 Phy.lateralis.IMI040503.CL8.V Phy.hibernalis.ATCC.60352 1000 Phy.avicenniae.CBS188.85 Phy.polymorphica.CBS.680.84 Phy.kernoviae.P1571 Phy.macrochlamydospora.IMI1832 Phy.richardiae.IMI340618 Phytophthora.sp.C19.AY659738 Phytophthora.sp.Rf17 1000 826 Phytophthora.P9.001 Phytophthora.sp.Rf6 Phytophthora P9.001 Phytophthora.sp.SCRP237 Phytophthora.sp.C25 0.1 Phytophthora 05.1205 05.1205.Pond.H20.5.1 Phy.insolita.IM I288805 P. kelmania
  27. 27. ABAD ET AL OTHER PUTATIVE NEW SPECIES Phy. sp. caroliniana Ph268.99.6102 from strawberry NC- HO Phy. sp. pseudobisheria Ph478.04.2766 Azalea NC- HO Phy. sp. proliferanta Ph517 05.1205 Pond H20 NC - HT Phy. sp. catenulata Ph536 05.2278 Irrigation Pond, NC - HT Phytophthora sp. nov. 2 Ph271.09.001 Soil Ecuador - HT Phy. sp. nov. 1Ph309 02.373.B.2A Irrigation Pond, NC - HT
  28. 28. Phytophthora sp. morindae Abad ZG & Nelson S MDL G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  29. 29. INTEGRATING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR FOR A UNIFIED TAXONOMY OF PHYTOPHTHORA MDL PAPILLATE 7 DNA molecular markers P. cactorum SEMIPAPILLATE Phylo tree Michael Coffey 2007 P. citricola NON-PAPILLATE G. Abad 2008 P. erytroseptica SEMIPAPILLATE G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  30. 30. MDL INTEGRATED INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2008 KEY-2008 Phytophthora species Phytophthora species in CLADE 2 in CLADE 2 G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  31. 31. INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007 INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007 MDL Clade 2 G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  32. 32. INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007 INTEGRATED MORPHOLOGICAL/PHYLOGENTIC KEY-2007 MDL Clade 8c G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL
  33. 33. Peronosporaceae family and some phylogenetic groups Peronosporaceae family and some phylogenetic groups P.vexans.03.1391.Crptmans.PPIL Py.vexans.PT2.PPIL21.37.2 P.vexans.03.3212.C.laurel P.vexans.03.1220.Yew Py.vexans.CBS119.80.CLK P.vexans.C.04.562.11980 P47.107.F7 P.vexans.P47.116.C. Phytopyythium vexans Pyhtium.sp.P47.111.H5 P.vexans.03.2747.F.fir PPIL 1 ? Pythopythium or P47.111.F2 P47.111.B1 Pythium Clade K Py.indigoferae.CBS261.30.CLK Py.cucurbitacearum.CBS748.96.C Py.carbonicum.F7203 Py.montanum.CBS111.349 03.2584.strawberry Py.citrinum.Paul2004 Py.oedochilum.CBS292.37.CLK Py.boreale.CBS551.88.CLK Py.megacarpum.F.66.AF242896 Py.ostracodes.CBS768.73.CLK Pythium helicoides ITS Pythium.helicoids.61 Pythium ? Pythium.helicoids.60 P.helicoides.Pythium.EE.Sur.Bo Py.helicoides.CBS286.31.CLK Py.chamaehyphon.CBS259.30.CLK helicoides complex Halophytophthora.batemanensis Phy.polymorphica.CBS.680.84 Phy.avicenniae.CBS188.85 Halophytophthora Phy.phaseoli.CBS556.88.CL1.IV Phy.infestans.IMI6606.CL1.IV Phy.cactorum.IMI296524.CL1.I Phy.palmivora.UQ1294.CL4.II Peronophythora.litchii.97 Phy.megakarya.IMI337104.CL4.II Phy.heveae.IMI180616.CL5.II Phytophthora citrophthora Phy.katsurae.IMI360596.CL5.II Pseudoperonospora.urticae.07 Pseudoperonospora.humuli.05 Phytophthora Peronospora.sparsa.83 Phy.botryosa.IMI136915.CL2.II Phy.citrophthora.IMI332632.CL2 Phy.citricola.IMI031372.CL2.II Phy.humicola.IMI302303.CL6.V Phy.cambivora.IMI296524.CL7.VI Phy.sojae.UQ1200.CL7.V Phy.cinnamomi.UQ881.CL7.VI Phy.cryptogea.IMI045168.CL8.VI Phy.drechsleri.ATCC46724.CL8.V Phy.porri.CBS.567.86.CL8.III Perofascia.lepidii.60 Hyaloperonospora.parasitica.59 Pythium paroecandrum Phytophthora.sp.C19.AY659738 Phytophthora.sp.nov.P9.001.Ph3 Phytophthora Phy.insolita.IMI288805.CL10 Py.polymastum.CBS811.70.CLJ Py.uncinulatum.CBS518.77.CLJ Py.splendens.CBS462.48.CLI Py.erinaceum.CBS505.80.CLE1 Py.anandrum.CBS285.31.CLH Pythium 1 Py.undulatum.CBS157.69.CLH Py.rostratum.CBS533.74.CLE1 globose Py.okanoganense.CBS315.81.CLG Py.sylvaticum.CBS453.67.CLF Py.paroecandrum.CBS157.64.CLF Py.iwayamai.CBS156.64.CLG Py.chondricola.CBS.203.85.CLA Pythium aphanidermatum Py.adhaerens.CBS520.74.CLA 2 Py.insidiosum.CBS574.85.CLC Pythium Py.hydnosporum.CBS253.60.CLD Py.acanthicum.CBS377.34.CLD Py.graminicola.CBS327.62.CLB1 Py.grandisporangium.82 lobate P.aff.arrhenomanesP.11.CLB1 PYTHIOGETON.03-1000F.contig Pythium.grandisporangium.91 Pythiogeton 0.1 ? In need to clarify taxonomy. Achlya.bisexualis.female.53 Pytiogeton sp. nov. Gloria Abad, Ph.D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PSPI/NIS/MDL
  34. 34. CENTRE FOR BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CENTRE FOR BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MDL THE UNIVERSITY OF QUENSLAND --AUSTRALIA THE UNIVERSITY OF QUENSLAND AUSTRALIA LUCID KEY LUCID OOMYCETES- PHYTOPHTHORA CENTRE By Gloria Abad and Michael Coffey LISENCE TO Z.G.ABAD FUTURE USDA/MDL PYTHIUM 2008 PYTHIOGETON PHYTOPYTHIUM nov. gen SOFTWARE EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Lucid Keys Hygrophoraceae Urban bee species of the San Francisco Bay area Urban bee species of the San Francisco Bay area Lucid Keys Hygrophoraceae G. Abad, Ph. D. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PHP/PSPI/MDL

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