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Workshop on Appreciative Inquiry (AI) in Youth Services

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Workshop on Appreciative Inquiry (AI) in Youth Services

  1. 1. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) Chan Kwok Bong Ng Sze Long 4-2008 [email_address] http://servicelearning.bgca.org.hk
  2. 2. Lessons from ABCD
  3. 3. ABCD – Key Assumptions <ul><li>Believes that meaningful and lasting community changes always origin from within, and local residents in that community are the best experts on how to activate that change. </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on the resources and capacities of a community and its residents, instead of dwelling on their needs problems and deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>inherently optimistic , and assumes every single person has capacities, abilities and gifts. Living a good life depends on whether those capacities can be used, abilities expressed and gifts given. </li></ul><ul><li>the strength of a community is directly proportional to the level that residents want, and are able to contribute their abilities and assets to the wellbeing of their community. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ABCD 的三大原則 <ul><li>Kretzmannh 與 McKnight 指出資産爲本的社區發展有三大原則: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>以 資産爲本 (Asset Based): 社區發展的策略是由 社區中有什麽開始 —居民及工作 人口 的能力 ; 地區中的 組織及團體 , 而不是社區中缺乏什麽 , 或是什麽問題 , 或是什麽需要 </li></ul></ul>‘ The root idea of community development is to identify local capacities and mobilise them, which involves connecting people with capacities to other people, associates, institutions and economic resources. ’  ( Jody Kretzman and John McKnight )
  5. 5. ABCD 的三大原則 <ul><ul><li>「以 內部 爲焦點」 (internally focused): 首要先集中 加強居民建立議題及解決問題的能力 ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>'ALL THE HISTORIC EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT SIGNIFICANT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ONLY TAKES PLACE WHEN LOCAL COMMUNITY PEOPLE ARE COMMITTED TO INVESTING THEMSELVES AND THEIR RESOURCES IN THE EFFORT. THAT‘ S WHY YOU CAN'T DEVELOP COMMUNITIES FROM THE TOP DOWN,OR FROM THE OUTSIDE IN' </li></ul><ul><li>(John McKnight, John Kretzmann) </li></ul>
  6. 6. ABCD 的三大原則 <ul><ul><li>「以 關係 作推動」 (relationship driven): 延續建立及再建立本地居民、本地組織、及本地團體之間及內部的關係 。 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ MUCH HARD EVIDENCE HAS ACCUMULATED THAT CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS ARE PRACTICAL PRECONDITIONS FOR BETTER SCHOOLS, SAFER STREETS AND EVEN HEALTHIER AND LONGER LIVES’ (Robert Putnam) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ AS A RULE OF THUMB, INVOLVE EVERYONE IN EVERYTHING ’ (Tom Peters – writer of In Search of Excellence ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 「社區資本」 <ul><li>物質資本:原料、工具 </li></ul><ul><li>人力資本:個人技術與知識 </li></ul><ul><li>文化資本:個人及其家庭階級所繼承的語言和文化能力 </li></ul><ul><li>社會資本:人與人的關係 </li></ul><ul><li>環境資本:物我平等,人與環境和諧…… </li></ul>
  8. 8. 蒐集社區資源 <ul><li>人:協助教材蒐集或課程發展的關鍵人士 </li></ul><ul><li>事:社區的生活事件 </li></ul><ul><li>地:社區的自然與文化地景,可供教學運用的地點或場所 </li></ul><ul><li>物:社區活動成果的遺產 </li></ul><ul><li>時間:人、地、事、物在社區的變化與發展 </li></ul>
  9. 9. 資產的流動 財政 社會 文化 人力 土地 / 空間
  10. 10. Appreciative Inquiry
  11. 11. The Future from the Old song <ul><li>Que Sera Sera </li></ul><ul><li>When I was just a little girl, I ask my mother what will I be. Will I be pretty? Will I be rich? Here’s what she said to me: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Que Sera Sera. Whatever will be will be, the future not our eyes to see, Que Sera Sera, whatever will be will be?” </li></ul><ul><li>Doris Day in 1965 </li></ul>
  12. 12. New way looking at The Futures <ul><li>“ The best way to predict the future is to create it” </li></ul><ul><li>Eyllard. </li></ul><ul><li>Future is “part chance and external-driven and part choice and internal-driven”. There are different ways of approaching the future. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable Future: “What will happen?” if carrying on as usual? ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred Future: “What should happen?” and “What is our dream ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible Future: “What can happen?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Eyllard (1998).Ideas for the new millennium </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Possible Future: The Paradigm Shift <ul><li>What can happen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a synthesis of the probable and the preferred futures which reflects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the availability of resources, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes value judgments on the relative power and ability of the visionary to shape the future, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the threats and opportunities created by the external environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Eyllard (1998).Ideas for the new millennium </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Possible Future is our future <ul><li>Develop Preferred Future Strategy towards changes </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Centred Strategy / Probable Future (e.g. killing diseases) </li></ul><ul><li>Mission-Directed Strategy / Preferred Future (e.g. Promote Health) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mission-Directed Strategy vs. Problem-Centred Strategy <ul><li>Mission-Directed </li></ul><ul><li>Visions for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative / New ways / Unlimited Options </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Centred </li></ul><ul><li>No hope to the future </li></ul><ul><li>Disempowering </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive / Flight & Response </li></ul><ul><li>Intellect Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Options </li></ul>
  16. 16. Positive Psychology “ Do you think conventional psychology is focus on the study of the positive things more or the negative things more?
  17. 17. Positive Psychology <ul><li>Convention Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tends to be about negative things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., anxiety, depression, stress, DSM-IV R… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attempt to redress the balance, to try to contribute to positive aspects of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow, Martin E.P. Seligman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A manual of strengths and virtues that are found in the happiest people&quot; (Peterson & Seligman, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. ABCD / AI…… Preferred Future, Mission-directed Strategy
  19. 19. Appreciative Inquiry: The Positive Core of Change
  20. 20. Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift … <ul><li>“ No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle. ” </li></ul><ul><li>– Albert Einstein </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ap-pre ’ ci-ate, v., <ul><li>1. Valuing … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The act of recognizing the best in people and the world around us; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, and excellence) to living systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has appreciated in value. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms: valuing, prizing, esteeming, and honoring. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. In-quire ’ (kwir), v., <ul><li>1. The act of exploration and discovery . </li></ul><ul><li>2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms: discovery, search, study and systematic exploration. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Problem Solving or Appreciative Inquiry <ul><li>Problem Solving : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify problem </li></ul><ul><li>Root cause analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions & analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Develop action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry : </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate “ What is ” </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine “ What Might Be ” </li></ul><ul><li>Determine “ What Should Be ” </li></ul><ul><li>Create “ What Will Be ” </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor: Organizations are a mystery to be explored. </li></ul>
  24. 24. What You Focus on, Grows Problem Solving Model Appreciative Inquiry Model “ Felt Needs” Identification of the Problem  Analysis of Causes  Analysis of Possible Solutions  Action Planning (Treatment) Organizations is a problem to be solved “ Valuing the Best of What is” Amplifying the Positive Core  Envisioning What Might Be  Dialoguing what Should Be  Innovating What Will Be Organization is a mystery to be embraced
  25. 25. Banking Approach, Problem-Solving & Appreciative Inquiry
  26. 26. WHAT IS APPRICIATIVE INQUIRY? <ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organisations, their communities and the world around them. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves systematic discovery of what gives a system “life” when it is most effective and capable. </li></ul><ul><li>AI involves the art and practice of asking questions that strengthen an individual, a com m unity or a system’s capacity to heighten positive potential . </li></ul><ul><li>AI assumes that every living being and system has untapped, rich, inspiring accounts of the positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Link this “ positive change core ” directly to any leadership strategy or change agenda, and changes never thought possible are suddenly and democratically mobilized. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Principle of AI
  28. 28. Principles of “ AI ” <ul><li>Constructionist Principle : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words create worlds; meaning is socially created, through language & conversations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle of Simultaneity : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry creates change; the moment we ask a question, we begin to create change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poetic Principle : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can choose what we study; organizations, like open books, are endless sources of information & learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Principle : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human systems move in the direction of their images; what we choose to study makes a difference. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Principles of “ AI ” <ul><li>Positive Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive questions lead to positive change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wholeness Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wholeness brings out the best in people & organization; bringing all stakeholders together in a group forum that stimulates creativity and builds collective capacity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enactment Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To really make change, we must “ be the change we want to see. ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free Choice Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People perform better and are more committed when they have the freedom to choose how and what they want to contribute. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Appreciative Inquiry The 4-D
  31. 31. Appreciative Inquiry “4-D” Discovery “ What gives life?” (The best of what is) Appreciating Dream “ What might be?” (What is the world calling for) Envisioning Results Design “ What should be— the ideal?” Co-constructing Destiny “ How to empower, learn, and improvise?” Sustaining Affirmative Topic Choice
  32. 32. AI 4D Stage Ideas in this 2 days workshop Discovery AI interviews Dream Positive Core List Visioning Design Provocative Proposition Working with stakeholders Destiny Step by step
  33. 33. 4-D: Affirmative Topic Choice
  34. 34. Characteristics of Good Affirmative Topic <ul><li>Topic are positive </li></ul><ul><li>Topics are desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Topics stimulate learning </li></ul><ul><li>Topics stimulate conversation about desired futures (preferred futures) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Positive Topic Choice <ul><li>Human systems move in the direction of what we deeply and persistently ask questions about </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational topics are possible in any situation, and will generate more positive change — every time. </li></ul><ul><li>The skill of framing and re-framing </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Change Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you want...” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth resiliency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affirmative Topics </li></ul><ul><li>“ Then you may choose to study…” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to the state of “feeling strong” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to becoming happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to the state of relax </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 4-D: Discovery Appreciative Interviews ~ Inquiry that makes the difference…..
  38. 38. WE CAN ASK QUESTIONS IN TWO WAYS– <ul><li>1. What is wrong with our community? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems can we fix? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the needs of our community? </li></ul><ul><li>What is broken ? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the strengths of our community? </li></ul><ul><li>Share a time when you felt our community was at it’s best ? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you value most about our community? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the essence of our community that makes it </li></ul><ul><li>unique and strong? </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Art of the Question <ul><li>What ’ s the biggest problem here? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did I have to be born in such a troubled family? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you blow it so often? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we still have those problems? </li></ul><ul><li>What possibilities exist that we have not yet considered? </li></ul><ul><li>What ’ s the smallest change that could make the biggest impact? </li></ul><ul><li>What solutions would have us both win? </li></ul>
  40. 40. 4-D: Discovery The appreciative inquiry interview…..
  41. 41. The Appreciative Interview: Guidelines <ul><li>Have fun! </li></ul><ul><li>Listen intently and ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Try to understand behavior and values </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Seek stories by asking who, what, when, where, why, and how </li></ul><ul><li>Take good notes of the stories and what you find most compelling </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Power of AI Stories <ul><li>Stories stick like glue… </li></ul><ul><li>Make information easier to remember… “Whole brain” </li></ul><ul><li>Builds identities and fosters relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Medium for conveying values, visions </li></ul><ul><li>Moves the internal dialogue of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Human Hope… </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Appreciative Interview: Dealing with Negatives <ul><li>By all means listen </li></ul><ul><li>Be empathic </li></ul><ul><li>Find the underlying hope or the missing ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Guide the person back </li></ul>
  44. 44. Starting AI Interview (dialogue in pairs) <ul><li>A-->B (10 min) </li></ul><ul><li>B-->A (10 min ) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Take brief notes </li></ul><ul><li>At the end.. summary & thanks </li></ul><ul><li>Return </li></ul>
  45. 45. Question 1 Peak Church / Group Experience <ul><li>Take a minute to reflect upon your involvement and relationship with your current church / Group. You most likely have had some high-point experiences with this community of believers / group peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about a moment that truly stands out as a “peak experience” at your church / group-- a time when you felt most engaged, worthwhile, loved, committed, connected, or close to God. </li></ul><ul><li>Please share the story…what happened? When? Where? What was it about you, the others around you, or your relationship with Christ / the group , that made it a high point? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Question 2 Dynamic Organizations <ul><li>Think about organizations that have deeply impressed you. </li></ul><ul><li>What it is that makes these organizations stand out in your mind? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it the leadership philosophy, creative approach to its mission, unique delivery of its product or services, flexible organizational design, or some other qualities? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes them so exceptional? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you share a story about these qualities in action? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Question 3 - Relationship in the Midst of Differences <ul><li>Tell a story of an experience you have had when you were part of an enriching and prosperous relationship with another person, at work, or in your personal, community, or church life, despite having significantly different beliefs, outlooks on life, or ways of being. </li></ul><ul><li>Who was involved? </li></ul><ul><li>What was present in the relationship that allowed it to flourish? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the outcomes and benefits that you experienced? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Q4: Mini-Interview “Core” Questions <ul><li>Tell me the experience or high point in your professional life …a time when you felt most alive, most engaged, and really pound of yourself and your work. </li></ul><ul><li>Without being humble, what do you most value about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yourself, and the way you do your work? What unique skills and gifts do you bring to this team and organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your team? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your organization, and its larger contribution to society or the world? </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Q4: Mini-Interview “Core” Questions Cont’d. <ul><li>3. What are the core factors that give life to this organization, when it is at its best? </li></ul><ul><li>4. If you had a magic wand, and could have any three wishes granted to heighten the health and vitality of this organization, what would they be? </li></ul>
  50. 50. Structure of AI interview question <ul><li>Backward Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember high-point experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inward Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make meaning from high-point experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forward Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solicit hopes, dreams and inspirations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image the future as best as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrospective reflections from the imagined future state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the first steps and transitions from current reality to the imagined futures </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Good Appreciative Interview Questions <ul><li>Help to forge personal connections between interviewers and interviewees </li></ul><ul><li>Invite stories, rather then abstract opinions or theories </li></ul><ul><li>Are personal and affective – almost intimate </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on people’s life and work experience </li></ul><ul><li>Invoke a mental scan </li></ul><ul><li>Are sometimes ambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Work people through an inner journey </li></ul><ul><li>Are uplifting </li></ul><ul><li>Give free rein to imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest Action </li></ul><ul><li>Have an emotional and logical flow to them </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity & Call </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Core </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Dream </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>New Story </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Provocative Propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Destiny </li></ul><ul><li>People &Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning & Improvisation </li></ul>AI “4-D” Cycle
  53. 53. 4-D: Dream Vision and Voices of the Future…..
  54. 54. Positive Cores and the Vision Picture <ul><li>Extract Positive Cores/Elements From the Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>What are the positive cores/elements from the interviews that constitute a peak experience for the Asian Facilitator Community making a difference with facilitation? </li></ul><ul><li>With all the positive cores/elements, what would be the best image of success that we see for…..? </li></ul><ul><li>What will we have? What will we do? Who will we be? </li></ul>
  55. 55. 4-D: Design Giving Form to Values and Ideals
  56. 56. Design <ul><li>Develop Provocative Propositions to describe the desired futures </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratively create what could be </li></ul>
  57. 57. Checking Your Provocative Propositions <ul><li>Just imagine, when this element of the dream come true, is it… </li></ul><ul><li>Provocative? Does it stretch, challenge, or interrupt the status quo? </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded? Are there examples from your stories that illustrate the ideal as a real possibility? </li></ul><ul><li>Desired? If it could be fully actualized, would you and would your organization really want it? Does it truly lead to your dream? </li></ul><ul><li>Stated in Affirmative and Bold terms as if it is now? Is it a Strong and positive statement? </li></ul>
  58. 58. Design: Collaboratively create what could be <ul><li>Who will involve? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the effectiveness of the four common approaches to change: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top Down Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom Up Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representative Cross-Section Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider how to use your empowering questions for the: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole department </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole organisation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Identify friends and enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Involve them as early as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Involve everyone in everything </li></ul><ul><li>Diversities make the difference </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen R.Covey (1989). The 7 Habits of highly effective people: restoring the character ethic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek first to understand, then to be understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think win-win </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Synergize </li></ul></ul>Working with Stakeholders
  60. 60. Finding the most empowering questions: <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>What possibilities exist that we have not thought about yet? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the smallest change that could make the biggest impact? </li></ul><ul><li>What solutions would have benefits for all stakeholders? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes my questions inspiring, energizing, and mobilizing? </li></ul>
  61. 61. 4-D:Destiny Inspired Action and Improvisation
  62. 62. Appreciative Inquiry: stage four <ul><li>Destiny: Creating a Positive Change Network </li></ul><ul><li>As you imagine and think about “high leverage” ways that appreciative inquiry can add value and strength to you….what are the high potential things you could do? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the actions you could take at the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whole system level: (important topics/issues/opportunities)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smaller unit level…things I/we could do? </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Destiny: Step by step <ul><li>Review, Communicate, Celebrate Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Generate a List of Potential Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organize for Inspire Action Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Support Success of Self-Organized Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Application of AI </li></ul>
  64. 64. References <ul><li>Ellyard, Peter (1998). Ideas for the New Millennium. Melbourne University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Petersen, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification . Washington, D.C.: APA Press and Oxford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen R.Covey (1989). The 7 Habits of highly effective people: restoring the character ethic. New York: Franklin Covey Co. </li></ul><ul><li>Diana Whitney & Amanda Trosten-Bloom (2003). The power of Appreciative Inquiry. US: Berrett-Koehler Pub. </li></ul><ul><li>The appreciative Inquiry Commons http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/vwiles/ai-presentation </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/cmcculloch/ai-the-strategic-questions-for-learnscope </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/eastleaf/appreciative-inquiry-intro-for-i-a-f-asian-conference-86679 </li></ul>
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