Transfer Of Learning Concepts, Process And Principles


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Transfer Of Learning Concepts, Process And Principles

  1. 1. Transfer of Learning: Concepts, Process and Principles Chan Kwok Bong 6-2009 [email_address] The Boys’ and Girls’ Clubs Association of Hong Kong
  2. 2. Transfer of Learning <ul><li>Six Levels of Transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near Transfer (transfer to similar situations)  Far Transfer (Transfer to quite dissimilar situations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near Transfer (Routine Expertise)  Far Transfer (Adaptive expertise and creativity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Haskell (2001) “Transfer of Learning”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Five Stages of Transfer Marguerite Foxon (1994) <ul><ul><li>Intention to transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation (Acceptable Transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial Transfer (Acceptable Transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious Maintenance  Optimal Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-training motivation affects both the learning and post-training intention to transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level of intention to transfer  More likely to initiate transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factors inhibiting transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization climate Factors (42%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training design factors, such as course content (22%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Learner Characteristics (21%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training delivery factors, such as PowerPoint (13%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>“ Transfer has become an overload word. This is becomes all too clear when “near transfer” language (fixed, permanent) is applied to “far transfer” change (adaptiveness, creativity and new learning). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have attempted to resolve this problem in a practical way by recommending the use of both “action plans” (useful for near transfer) and “learning plans” (useful for far transfer)” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photo (least processed)  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chart  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan (most processed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Roger Greenaway – Reviewing Skills </li></ul></ul></ul>Process of transfer
  5. 5. Transfer of learning <ul><li>Before </li></ul>After During New Knowledge / Action Life experiences Construction of Knowledge and experiences
  6. 6. The transfer of training Matrix <ul><ul><li>Before, During, After the Learning Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager, Trainer, Trainee (School, NGO, Student) </li></ul></ul>The PRIME II Project (2002) “Transfer of Learning--A Guide for Strengthening the Performance of Health Care Workers School Before NGO Before Student Before School During NGO During Student During School After NGO After Student After
  7. 7. 11 principles of transfer <ul><li>Acquire a large primary knowledge base in the area in which transfer is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire some level of knowledge base in subjects outside the primary area. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what transfer of learning is and how it works. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the history in the area(s) that transfer is wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire motivation, or more specifically, a “spirit of transfer”. </li></ul>Robert E. Haskell (2000) “Transfer of Learning: Cognition and Instruction”
  8. 8. 11 principles of transfer, cont’d <ul><li>Develop an orientation to think and encode learning in transfer terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Create cultures of transfer or support systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the theory underlying the area(s) in which we want to transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in hours of practice and drill. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for the learning to incubate. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, and most importantly, learners must observe and read the works of people who are exemplars of transfer thinking. This means reading systems thinkers, accounts of scientific discoveries, of invention and innovation; it means reading the great poets. Poets are masters of transfer.” </li></ul>Robert E. Haskell (2000) “Transfer of Learning: Cognition and Instruction”
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  10. 10. 參考資料 <ul><li>Marguerite Foxon (1994) “Using action planning to facilitate the transfer of training”. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, A process approach to the transfer of training ,Part 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Pfeiffer and Jones (1974) “Handbook of Structured Experiences”. </li></ul><ul><li>The PRIME II Project (2002) “Transfer of Learning--A Guide for Strengthening the Performance of Health Care Workers”. </li></ul><ul><li>Rahima C. Wade (ed.) 1997. Community service-learning : a guide to including service in the public school curriculum. Albany : State University of New York Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Greenaway. (1983) “Reviewing Skills Training”. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Haskell (2000) “Transfer of Learning: Cognition and Instruction” </li></ul>