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資產為本社區發展
Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)
傳承的社區體現
香港小童群益會
陳國邦 吳思朗 5/2015
kb.chan@bgca.org.hk
bongsir@gmail.com
Who am I?
 Trained in Social Work and Counselling
 A Registered Social Worker, and thus a “left
plastic”
 Working in a ...
Community and Identities
Communitarianism
Two major attacks made against on liberalism:
The premises of individualism, such as the
rational being ...
Communitarians make it clear that:
 Our attachments to communities is not
voluntary
 Social attachments are not normally...
Community and Identities
“...our deeply felt attachments to a number of communities
constitute our identity. This allows u...
如果傳承是在社區
重拾一份恆久的親密
"The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some
"The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some
 Community is the Spirit, the guiding light of the tribe, whereby
people come tog...
"The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some
 And without the community, the individual is left
without a place where he can c...
"The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some
 This disempowers the psyche, making you
vulnerable to consumerism and all the th...
資產為本社區發展
Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)
何謂社區??
地域性 / 功能性 ??
人 / 生活 / 聯繫 ??
歷史 / 文化 ??
認同 / 共同 ??
記憶 / 想像 ??
延續 / 發展 ??
「需要為本」 VS 「資産為本」
以需要為本的盲點
 當社區面對社會及經濟的挑戰時,很多
時社區的成員不其然會想起「需要」、
「問題」、和「不足」----例如缺乏工
作職位、缺乏給青年人的機會、老人/
非生産人口過多、低技術、低學歷、缺
乏投資。
 美國西北大學的Kretz...
空虛的社區要依賴外援
 將社區看成是半滿還是半空有很重要的
不同:
 一個鄰舍/社區若只被看成是「有需要」
及「有問題」的,很容易成為一個「空
虛」的社區,那麽這社區便會接受到很
多由外來專家設計及推行的服務。居民
便處於被動、無力、及依賴...
以
需
要
為
本
的
地
圖
地理環境
社會環境
個人
失業
綜援
家庭暴力
毒品
賭博
新來港
自殺
貧窮
露宿者
虐兒
精神病
犯罪
單親家庭/ 家庭解體
高輟學率/ 雙失青年
沒有希望/前途/方冋
舊樓破落失
修
人口擠迫
環境/設施被...
資產為本社區發展:一個新的角度
 以資産爲本來考察的角度社區,並不是認爲
社區及區內的人再沒有事件或問題,而是打
開了一種新的方向來面對挑戰。
 這表示將同一人或同一事從另一角度來看待 :
1)一個失業工友成爲一個有經驗可以貢獻社區的人
2...
資產為本社區發展的主要信念
 相信由社區及其居民引發的轉變,才是對他們有
意義及可持續的
 關注社區的可用資源及能力,而不是糾纏於社區
的問題與不足。
 徹頭徹尾的樂觀態度:─肯定天生我材必有用、
好的生活取決於「人盡其才」、 「物盡其用...
資源豐富的社區可以回應問題
 當一個社區被描述為資源豐富、得天獨厚的
社區,那麽居民所擁有的技術便更有可能用
來回應社區的議題。
 社區可能仍有需要接受外界的協助或資源,
但要點必須由居民來決定。
 身處在資源豐富的社區,都是有參與的公民...
資産爲本的社區發展
Asset Based Community Development
 Kretzmann與 McKnight 強調,在社區內,所
有人都是得天獨厚、資源豐富及有能力的,
包括社經地位被邊緣化的社群。
 他們計劃將「需要地...
ABCD的要旨
ABCD的三大原則
Kretzmannh與 McKnight指出ABCD的三大原則:
(1) 以資産爲本(Asset Based): 社區發展的策略是
從社區出發—居民及勞動人口的能力、地區組
織及團體;並不是探討社區中缺乏什麽,或是
出現了什...
ABCD的三大原則
Kretzmannh與 McKnight指出ABCD的三大原則:
(2)「以內部爲焦點」(internally focused):著重
由居民去發現議題、發掘資源及能力
‘All the historic evidence ...
Kretzmannh與 McKnight指出ABCD的三大原則:
(3)「以關係作推動」(relationship driven):
重視建立及延續本地居民、組織及團體之間的關係
Much hard evidence has accumulat...
「社區資本」
 物質資本:原料、工具
 人力資本:個人技術與知識
 文化資本:個人及其家庭階級所繼承的
語言和文化能力
 社會資本:人與人的關係
 環境資本:物我平等,人與環境和諧……
社會資本 Social Capital
“the fabric
that holds
the community together”
(Robert Putnam)
 從個人/微觀出發,社會資本是指個人透過與他
人的社會聯繫而獲得的經濟資源、...
環境資本
 可持續發展(Sustainability Development)
經濟的可行性 ECONOMIC VIABILITY
環境的完整性 ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY
社區的福祉 COMMUNITY WELL-...
蒐集社區資源
 人:協助蒐集資源及信息的關鍵人士
 事:社區的生活事件
 地:社區的自然與文化環境,當中的生活/
活動模式,可以成為議題的場所
 物:社區活動的成果
 時:人、地、事、物在社區的變化與發展
社區踏查,建立社區伙伴關係
建立伙伴資料庫
 社交網站 (Facebook)
 GIS網站(Google Map)
 社交 + GIS網站(OpenRice)
 包括:
 服務機構資料 (受資助 / 非受資助 )
 政府部門資料
 地區團體 /地區領袖資料
...
端午糭子送長者
糭子材料
 健康食譜(長者中心/營養師)
 贊助(商界:煤氣公司)
 贊助(商戶:街市商戶 )
預備糭子
 教授(社區長者 / 家長)
 煮(大爐頭 / 器皿: 酒樓 /
安老院)
探訪長者
 名單
老人中心
安老院...
建立社區資產地圖
ABCD的推動策略
ABCD策略一:
形塑個人技能和能力
MAPPING INDIVIDUAL SKILLS AND CAPACITIES
形塑個人技能和能力
 技能 Skill information
 社區參與/服務經驗 Community experiences
 工作經驗 Employment/business interests and
experience
 恩...
如何製作「資產為本地圖」
 計劃流程
 成立工作小組
 訂立明確目標
 選擇「地圖」包含的群組
 選擇合適的方法
 設計地圖
 收集資訊
 組織及編制地圖
 運用資訊
 分享信息
 分配資源、營造資產
以下是有關:俄亥俄州教會的的調查準則
NEW PROSPECT BAPTIST CHURCH
Cincinnati, OH
Survey Guidelines
INTRODUCTION
My name is ___________. What ...
以下是有關:俄亥俄州教會的的調查準則(續)
NEW PROSPECT BAPTIST CHURCH
Cincinnati, OH
Survey Guidelines
SKILLS
 Sometimes we have talents that...
繪製「資產為本的地圖」時,
要珍而重之的是當中所建立的關係,
而非搜集到的資料
‘Perhaps most important in the
whole asset mapping venture is not
the outcome of d...
ABCD策略二:
共同建構成功的歷史
ABCD策畧二:
建構共同成功的歷史
 欣賞性的訪尋 (Appreciative inquiry)
針對以往成功及令人振奮的經驗,促進機構
和社區的正面轉變
透過訪問及講故事的方法尋找正面的回憶
共同對成功要素進行分析
這分析將為未來...
什麼是欣賞性的訪尋?
 欣賞性的訪尋(AI)正好是一種邀請,邀請社
區成員進行集體探索,為社區及每位成員尋
找到最具活力、最有效率的一面,開發及強
化個人及社區的正向優勢 (heighten
positive potential)。
 將這...
「欣賞性訪尋」的假設……
 AI是要揚棄“查找不足、解決問題”的行徑,強調抱持希望,
持續尋找社區及其成員的活力泉源。
 在每個社會、組織或團隊,一定有某些行得通的運作方法
 我們注意的焦點,會成為我們的實境。
 只要對團體或組織提出問...
以下有兩種不同的提問方法─
(一)
我們的社區有什麼錯誤?
有什麼問題是要解決的?
我們的社區有什麼需要?
破壞了什麼?
或者
(二)
我們的社區有什麼強項?
試分享一段你在社區裡感到最捧的地方?
你認識社區最有價值的地方是什麼?
我們社區有什...
ABCD –
青年工作者的任務與角色
Paradigm Change regarding
Adolescents extracted from Bank of I.D.E.A
Problem
Client
Recipient
At risk Population to
be dea...
以社區作教室及在地實踐
環顧社區的教育
 Education about the community
關注社區的教育
 Education for the community
投入社區的教育
 Education in / thro...
Critical Praxis of Communitarian
ideas to Education?
The key task for education is to teach young people
to respect worthy...
批判性實踐(Critical Praxis)的向度
 批判性實踐 vs. 複製性實踐 / 工具性實踐
 社會脈絡、解霸權、實踐與反省
 提問式教育 vs. 囤積式教育
Problem-posing education vs. Bankin...
Be Community Learners in community
Learning in community is a continuous lesson.
Teachers as community learners implies te...
Be Problem-posers in education
…as “men and women develop their power to
perceive critically the way they exist in the
wor...
The aim of Problem-posing is to
demythologize;
“we need to place the knowledge that we
teach, the social relations that do...
促進者 FACILITATION
"To make easy, promote, help forward an action or result,
to remove difficulties,
Promote ease or readine...
PRINCIPLES TO ENABLE EFFECTIVE
YOUTH PARTICIPATION
enable fun, challenge and excitement;
allow participation by choice;
...
create opportunities for young women and men to lead 
and teach;
maximise decision making and accountability by young
pe...
1. Always start with the gifts, talents, knowledge and skills of
young people – never with their needs and problems.
2. Al...
6. Start to get away from the principal of aggregation of people by
their emptiness. Don’t put everyone who can’t read tog...
With
5O THINGS ADULTS CAN DO FOR YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN
1. Have a real conversation with a group of young people. Ask young p...
12. Respect young people as you would a peer, and talk to them as you would talk to an adult.
13. Work with young people t...
25. Work with young people to establish a Youth Council within the community.
26. Insist that any development committees o...
38. Join (or form) with young people a community task force to develop ideas and implement actions
to improve community op...
我們的小錦囊:
 熱愛社區,把緊機遇,創建未來
 社區精神:人人為我,我為人人
 諦造社區回憶,分享參與成果
 以故事夢想,感召群眾
 踢走專家,重現智慧
 開放組織,編織網絡
 因為難,所以好玩
 獨樂樂,不如眾樂樂
 邊做...
“There are only two lasting bequests
we can hope to give our young
people – one of these is roots, the other
is wings”
‘只有...
It needs a village to raise a child,
- African proverb
and only one child could
change a village.
Circle of Friendship. Picasso, 1959
Future is
“Future is the embodiment of the
synthesis and hybridization of the old
and the emerging new.”
“ The Best Way ...
本著作係採用創用 CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享 4.0 國際授權條款授權
Thank You!
 黃洪博士(2006) : “資產為本社區發展與青年” 小童群益會荃葵
區同工訓練會議簡報
 蘇.安妮斯.哈蒙 ( 2006 ):團隊成功的yes基因-肯定式探詢一點就
通 (譯者:陳淑婷、許逸臻)
 Bank of I.D.E.A.S....
Apple, M.W. (1990). Ideology and Curriculum London. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Bell D.A. (1993). Communitarianism and...
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資產為本社區發展傳承的社區體現

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資產為本社區發展
傳承的社區體現

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資產為本社區發展傳承的社區體現

  1. 1. 資產為本社區發展 Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) 傳承的社區體現 香港小童群益會 陳國邦 吳思朗 5/2015 kb.chan@bgca.org.hk bongsir@gmail.com
  2. 2. Who am I?  Trained in Social Work and Counselling  A Registered Social Worker, and thus a “left plastic”  Working in a NGO, an experienced Youth Worker  Born and bred in Hong Kong  Married with no kids  Conscious Bourgeois  Once upon a time, social worker in TWS
  3. 3. Community and Identities
  4. 4. Communitarianism Two major attacks made against on liberalism: The premises of individualism, such as the rational being who choose freely, are wrong and that the only way to refer to individuals is in their social context The premises of individualism give rise to morally unsatisfactory consequences (Avineri & De-shelit, 1992) Gradually emerged in the 1970 to challenge liberalism.
  5. 5. Communitarians make it clear that:  Our attachments to communities is not voluntary  Social attachments are not normally chosen ones (e.g. family, nationality, etc.)  Our upbringing and the values we adopt and live by are often acquired involuntarily by being picked up rather than being a matter of rational choice by individual Communitarianism (Aurthur, 1998)
  6. 6. Community and Identities “...our deeply felt attachments to a number of communities constitute our identity. This allows us to experience our life as bound up with the good of these communities” “…these “constitutive communities” define the sense of who we are and provide a largely background way of our being in the world of thinking, acting and deciding……to reject them leads to an identity crisis or an acute form of disorientation which will damage our identity…” “…we can answer the question of what these “constitutive communities” are by asking a question of ourselves: “Who are you?”. The answer will certainly include: family name, nationality, language, culture and religion – all of which derive from community” (Bell, 1996)
  7. 7. 如果傳承是在社區 重拾一份恆久的親密 "The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some
  8. 8. "The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some  Community is the Spirit, the guiding light of the tribe, whereby people come together in order to  fulfill a specific purpose,  to help others fulfill their purpose,  and to take care of one another.  The goal of the community is to make sure that each member of the community  is heard  and is properly giving the gifts he has brought to this world.  Without this giving, the community dies.
  9. 9. "The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some  And without the community, the individual is left without a place where he can contribute. The community is that grounding place where people come and share their gifts and receive from others.  When you don't have community, you are not listened to;  you don't have a place you can go to and feel that you really belong.  You don't have people to affirm who you are  and to support you in bringing forward your gifts.
  10. 10. "The Spirit of Intimacy“ - Sobonfu Some  This disempowers the psyche, making you vulnerable to consumerism and all the things that come along with it.  Also, it leaves many people who have wonderful contributions to make holding back their gifts not knowing where to put them.  And without the unloading of our gifts we experience a blockage inside, which affects us spiritually, mentally, and physically in many different ways.  We are left without a home to go to when we need to be seen.
  11. 11. 資產為本社區發展 Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)
  12. 12. 何謂社區?? 地域性 / 功能性 ?? 人 / 生活 / 聯繫 ?? 歷史 / 文化 ?? 認同 / 共同 ?? 記憶 / 想像 ?? 延續 / 發展 ??
  13. 13. 「需要為本」 VS 「資産為本」
  14. 14. 以需要為本的盲點  當社區面對社會及經濟的挑戰時,很多 時社區的成員不其然會想起「需要」、 「問題」、和「不足」----例如缺乏工 作職位、缺乏給青年人的機會、老人/ 非生産人口過多、低技術、低學歷、缺 乏投資。  美國西北大學的Kretzmann與 McKnight 教授則認爲上述看法只是將圖一中的半 杯水說成是半空的。  以需要為本的角度忽略了在社區早已存 在的「資源」、「技術」及「能力」 這杯水是半滿 還是半空呢?
  15. 15. 空虛的社區要依賴外援  將社區看成是半滿還是半空有很重要的 不同:  一個鄰舍/社區若只被看成是「有需要」 及「有問題」的,很容易成為一個「空 虛」的社區,那麽這社區便會接受到很 多由外來專家設計及推行的服務。居民 便處於被動、無力、及依賴外在協助及 援助的位置。
  16. 16. 以 需 要 為 本 的 地 圖 地理環境 社會環境 個人 失業 綜援 家庭暴力 毒品 賭博 新來港 自殺 貧窮 露宿者 虐兒 精神病 犯罪 單親家庭/ 家庭解體 高輟學率/ 雙失青年 沒有希望/前途/方冋 舊樓破落失 修 人口擠迫 環境/設施被破 壞 屋邨環境破舊/老 化 色情 場所/ 娼妓 嚴重 居民 冷漠 大型填 海及工 程 海岸線消失 嘈音污染 交通 擠塞 缺乏大 型公園 空氣污染 鼠患 清潔 問題 空置店舖 醫療 不足 空置工廠大廈 文康設施分 佈不平均
  17. 17. 資產為本社區發展:一個新的角度  以資産爲本來考察的角度社區,並不是認爲 社區及區內的人再沒有事件或問題,而是打 開了一種新的方向來面對挑戰。  這表示將同一人或同一事從另一角度來看待 : 1)一個失業工友成爲一個有經驗可以貢獻社區的人 2)一個獨居老人成爲一個慈愛及有見地的長者 3)一幢空置的樓宇成爲社區中可能有用的資源 這杯水是 半滿還是 半空呢?
  18. 18. 資產為本社區發展的主要信念  相信由社區及其居民引發的轉變,才是對他們有 意義及可持續的  關注社區的可用資源及能力,而不是糾纏於社區 的問題與不足。  徹頭徹尾的樂觀態度:─肯定天生我材必有用、 好的生活取決於「人盡其才」、 「物盡其用」  有力的社區直接取決於區內居民對社區的貢獻及 投入程度。
  19. 19. 資源豐富的社區可以回應問題  當一個社區被描述為資源豐富、得天獨厚的 社區,那麽居民所擁有的技術便更有可能用 來回應社區的議題。  社區可能仍有需要接受外界的協助或資源, 但要點必須由居民來決定。  身處在資源豐富的社區,都是有參與的公民, 他們能夠為自己塑造將來。
  20. 20. 資産爲本的社區發展 Asset Based Community Development  Kretzmann與 McKnight 強調,在社區內,所 有人都是得天獨厚、資源豐富及有能力的, 包括社經地位被邊緣化的社群。  他們計劃將「需要地圖」(need map)- 轉成 爲「資産地圖」(assets map)。
  21. 21. ABCD的要旨
  22. 22. ABCD的三大原則 Kretzmannh與 McKnight指出ABCD的三大原則: (1) 以資産爲本(Asset Based): 社區發展的策略是 從社區出發—居民及勞動人口的能力、地區組 織及團體;並不是探討社區中缺乏什麽,或是 出現了什麽問題,有什麽需要等等。 ‘The root idea of community development is to identify local capacities and mobilise them, which involves connecting people with capacities to other people, associates, institutions and economic resources.’ (Jody Kretzman and John McKnight)
  23. 23. ABCD的三大原則 Kretzmannh與 McKnight指出ABCD的三大原則: (2)「以內部爲焦點」(internally focused):著重 由居民去發現議題、發掘資源及能力 ‘All the historic evidence indicates that significant community development only takes place when local community people are committed to investing themselves and their resources in the effort. That’s why you can’t develop communities from the top down, or from the outside in’ (John McKnight, John Kretzmann)
  24. 24. Kretzmannh與 McKnight指出ABCD的三大原則: (3)「以關係作推動」(relationship driven): 重視建立及延續本地居民、組織及團體之間的關係 Much hard evidence has accumulated that civic engagement and social connectedness are practical preconditions for better schools, safer streets and even healthier and longer lives (Robert Putnam)‘ ‘As a rule of thumb, INVOLVE EVERYONE IN EVERYTHING’ (Tom Peters – writer of In Search of Excellence)
  25. 25. 「社區資本」  物質資本:原料、工具  人力資本:個人技術與知識  文化資本:個人及其家庭階級所繼承的 語言和文化能力  社會資本:人與人的關係  環境資本:物我平等,人與環境和諧……
  26. 26. 社會資本 Social Capital “the fabric that holds the community together” (Robert Putnam)  從個人/微觀出發,社會資本是指個人透過與他 人的社會聯繫而獲得的經濟資源、資訊或機會。  從社會、團體組織/宏觀出發,社會資本指一個 社會或組織透過其規範、網路與信任,來促進集 體行動來實現共同利益
  27. 27. 環境資本  可持續發展(Sustainability Development) 經濟的可行性 ECONOMIC VIABILITY 環境的完整性 ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY 社區的福祉 COMMUNITY WELL-BEING  人地球繁榮 PEOPLE, PLANET AND PROSPERITY
  28. 28. 蒐集社區資源  人:協助蒐集資源及信息的關鍵人士  事:社區的生活事件  地:社區的自然與文化環境,當中的生活/ 活動模式,可以成為議題的場所  物:社區活動的成果  時:人、地、事、物在社區的變化與發展
  29. 29. 社區踏查,建立社區伙伴關係
  30. 30. 建立伙伴資料庫  社交網站 (Facebook)  GIS網站(Google Map)  社交 + GIS網站(OpenRice)  包括:  服務機構資料 (受資助 / 非受資助 )  政府部門資料  地區團體 /地區領袖資料  商界 / 商戶資料  老師回饋 / 使用者回饋 / 伙伴回饋  以OLE分類為本 / 服務分類為本的 分類搜尋
  31. 31. 端午糭子送長者 糭子材料  健康食譜(長者中心/營養師)  贊助(商界:煤氣公司)  贊助(商戶:街市商戶 ) 預備糭子  教授(社區長者 / 家長)  煮(大爐頭 / 器皿: 酒樓 / 安老院) 探訪長者  名單 老人中心 安老院 房署 / 房協長者屋 區議員  探訪訓練 老人中心
  32. 32. 建立社區資產地圖
  33. 33. ABCD的推動策略
  34. 34. ABCD策略一: 形塑個人技能和能力 MAPPING INDIVIDUAL SKILLS AND CAPACITIES
  35. 35. 形塑個人技能和能力  技能 Skill information  社區參與/服務經驗 Community experiences  工作經驗 Employment/business interests and experience  恩賜/本事 Gifts/assets  夢想 Dreams  個人資料 Personal information
  36. 36. 如何製作「資產為本地圖」  計劃流程  成立工作小組  訂立明確目標  選擇「地圖」包含的群組  選擇合適的方法  設計地圖  收集資訊  組織及編制地圖  運用資訊  分享信息  分配資源、營造資產
  37. 37. 以下是有關:俄亥俄州教會的的調查準則 NEW PROSPECT BAPTIST CHURCH Cincinnati, OH Survey Guidelines INTRODUCTION My name is ___________. What is your name? Thank you for coming over. Did someone talk to you about what the ‘Gift Exchange’ is all about? What do you understand it to be? Basically, we believe that everyone has God-given talents and gifts that can be used to benefit the community. I’d like to spend a few minutes talking to you about your gifts and skills. GIFTS Gifts are abilities that we are born with. We may develop them, but no one has to teach them to us. What positive qualities do people say you have? Who are the people in your life that you give to? How do you give to them? When was the last time you shared with someone else? What was it? What do you give that makes you feel good?
  38. 38. 以下是有關:俄亥俄州教會的的調查準則(續) NEW PROSPECT BAPTIST CHURCH Cincinnati, OH Survey Guidelines SKILLS  Sometimes we have talents that we’ve acquired in everyday life such as cooking and fixing things.  What do you enjoy doing?  If you could start a business what would it be?  What do you like to do that people would pay you to do?  Have you ever made anything? Have you ever fixed anything? DREAMS  Before you go, I want to take a minute and hear about your dreams – those goals you hope to accomplish.  What are your dreams?  If you could snap your fingers and be doing anything, what would it be? CLOSING  First, I’d like to thank you. We’re talking to as many people as we can and what we’d like to do is begin a Wall of Fame here in the Soup Kitchen highlighting the gifts, skills and dreams of as many people as possible. The ultimate goal is to find a way to use those gifts in rebuilding the community. Before you go, can I get your full name? Address? Age?
  39. 39. 繪製「資產為本的地圖」時, 要珍而重之的是當中所建立的關係, 而非搜集到的資料 ‘Perhaps most important in the whole asset mapping venture is not the outcome of data within the mappings but the relationships built in the process. Asset mapping is a good way to rebuild communities one relationship at a time.’ The Connecticut Assets Network, Summer 1999
  40. 40. ABCD策略二: 共同建構成功的歷史
  41. 41. ABCD策畧二: 建構共同成功的歷史  欣賞性的訪尋 (Appreciative inquiry) 針對以往成功及令人振奮的經驗,促進機構 和社區的正面轉變 透過訪問及講故事的方法尋找正面的回憶 共同對成功要素進行分析 這分析將為未來行動的起步點 欣賞性的訪尋事實上是尋找改變的動力 回憶及想像是兩大元素
  42. 42. 什麼是欣賞性的訪尋?  欣賞性的訪尋(AI)正好是一種邀請,邀請社 區成員進行集體探索,為社區及每位成員尋 找到最具活力、最有效率的一面,開發及強 化個人及社區的正向優勢 (heighten positive potential)。  將這些正向優勢連繫起來,就成了積極的變 革核心(positive change core) ,會為社區帶 驚喜的轉變。
  43. 43. 「欣賞性訪尋」的假設……  AI是要揚棄“查找不足、解決問題”的行徑,強調抱持希望, 持續尋找社區及其成員的活力泉源。  在每個社會、組織或團隊,一定有某些行得通的運作方法  我們注意的焦點,會成為我們的實境。  只要對團體或組織提出問題 都會在某個層次上影響這個團體  我們使用的語言,創造出我們的實境。 當人們能夠攜帶他們的 過去(已知)向未來(未知)邁進,它們就會更有信心,也更 自在。  AI是彰顯未來的可能,而非歸究以往之不足。如果我們要帶著 過去的一部份走向未來,那就應該帶最好的那一部份。  重視彼此的差異,是非常重要的。  探詢與行動是不可分割的。  探詢與改變是合而為一 。
  44. 44. 以下有兩種不同的提問方法─ (一) 我們的社區有什麼錯誤? 有什麼問題是要解決的? 我們的社區有什麼需要? 破壞了什麼? 或者 (二) 我們的社區有什麼強項? 試分享一段你在社區裡感到最捧的地方? 你認識社區最有價值的地方是什麼? 我們社區有什麼特質令它變得強大及獨特?
  45. 45. ABCD – 青年工作者的任務與角色
  46. 46. Paradigm Change regarding Adolescents extracted from Bank of I.D.E.A Problem Client Recipient At risk Population to be deal with Tomorrow’s Leaders Adult in the making Problem Solver Change Maker Co-participant Leadership asset to be cultivated Part of today’s leadership team A citizen today
  47. 47. 以社區作教室及在地實踐 環顧社區的教育  Education about the community 關注社區的教育  Education for the community 投入社區的教育  Education in / through the community
  48. 48. Critical Praxis of Communitarian ideas to Education? The key task for education is to teach young people to respect worthy traditional values, whilst enabling them to develop their critical capacity so that they can through democratic deliberations with others identify and strip away the prejudices which undermine doctrines of the past. (Tam,1996)
  49. 49. 批判性實踐(Critical Praxis)的向度  批判性實踐 vs. 複製性實踐 / 工具性實踐  社會脈絡、解霸權、實踐與反省  提問式教育 vs. 囤積式教育 Problem-posing education vs. Banking Model of Education  辯證性對話  問題陳顯 vs. 問題解決 Problem-posing vs. Problem-solving  意識化(conscentization)與意向性(intentionality)  知識主體的特殊性;將人導向對象、導向行動
  50. 50. Be Community Learners in community Learning in community is a continuous lesson. Teachers as community learners implies teachers are moving from “teaching knowledge for” the community to “realizing knowledge with” the community. This is a “know-how” to “know-why” shift. In this move, teachers engage continuously in the collective inquiries with community members, which in turn facilitates teachers to generate meaningful and contextual questions for student learning in the course of CIC. Chan, Kwok-bong (2009). “Classroom in community: Serving the Elderly People, Learning from Senior Citizens. A community-based Service Learning for Secondary School students in Hong Kong.” New Horizons in Education, 57, No.3
  51. 51. Be Problem-posers in education …as “men and women develop their power to perceive critically the way they exist in the world which and in which they find themselves; they come to see the world not as a static reality but as a reality in the process of transformation” (Macedo, 1993. Introduction. Pedagogy of the oppressed. )
  52. 52. The aim of Problem-posing is to demythologize; “we need to place the knowledge that we teach, the social relations that dominate classrooms, the school as a mechanism of cultural and economic preservation and distribution, and finally, ourselves as people who work in these institutions, back into the context in which they all reside.” (Apple, 1990. Ideology and Curriculum)
  53. 53. 促進者 FACILITATION "To make easy, promote, help forward an action or result, to remove difficulties, Promote ease or readiness with aptitude, dexterity or fluency" (Dictionary definition) 促進者的角色 營造積極樂觀氣氛 打破迷思:令概念、運作及策略變得清晰可行 善用團隊/個人的知識及專長 作為“中間人”,把經驗、方法、網絡、資源傳遞予 有關人士 鼓勵團體和網絡間的協作及努力 Be facilitators
  54. 54. PRINCIPLES TO ENABLE EFFECTIVE YOUTH PARTICIPATION enable fun, challenge and excitement; allow participation by choice; avoid pigeonholing of young men and women and generalising about their behaviour, opinions or ideas; maximise the opportunity of success through adequate provision of information, training, support, resources, time and space; address opportunities, needs and issues that are valued and respected by young people, their peers and the community; start with the talents, capacities, assets and skills of young people, rather than their problems and deficiencies; involve young men and women from the start;
  55. 55. create opportunities for young women and men to lead and teach; maximise decision making and accountability by young people; develop young peoples awareness of the social, political, economic, cultural and personal aspects of the issues affecting them; make sense of, and demystify adult structures and processes; build active and supportive working relationships between young people and other members of the community; provide opportunities for training and skill development; and encourage opportunities to reflect and analyse their experiences. (According to the Bank of I.D.E.A.S)
  56. 56. 1. Always start with the gifts, talents, knowledge and skills of young people – never with their needs and problems. 2. Always lift up the unique individual, never the category to which the young person belongs. It is “Frank” who sings so well, or Maria the great soccer; never the “at-risk youth” or the “pregnant teen”. 3. Share the conviction that: (a) Every community is filled with useful opportunities for young people to contribute to the community; and (b) there is no community institution or association that can’t find a useful role for young people. 4. Try to distinguish between real community building work, and games or fakes – because young people know the difference. 5. Fight – in every way you can – age segregation. Work to overcome the isolation of young people. Ten Commandments For Involving Young People In Community Building
  57. 57. 6. Start to get away from the principal of aggregation of people by their emptiness. Don’t put everyone who can’t read together in the same room. It makes no sense. 7. Move as quickly as possible beyond youth “advisory boards” or councils, especially those boards with only one young person on them. 8. Cultivate many opportunities for young people to teach and to lead. 9. Reward and celebrate every creative effort, every contribution made by young people. Young people can help take the lead here. 10.In every way possible, amplify this message to young people: “We need you! Our community cannot be strong and complete without you”. (According to Jody Kretzmann, Institute for Asset Based Community Development)
  58. 58. With 5O THINGS ADULTS CAN DO FOR YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN 1. Have a real conversation with a group of young people. Ask young people what they want to do and how you can assist to make that happen. 2. Support community organizations that involve young people in meaningful roles. 3. Start a resource library of videos, photographic and printed materials on youth involvement in your community. 4. Financially and personally support organizations that train young people and adults to work together. 5. Develop a mutual mentorship program between adults and young people. 6. Co-create or support along with young people a community centre or place for young people and adults to gather and do constructive things together. 7. Listen to young people express their concerns and perspectives about community issues and opportunities and help them take action. 8. Be an advocate for young men and women by making sure they’re at the table when you are discussing them. 9. Highlight in the local newspapers the positive contribution of young men and women. 10. Introduce the 'Youth at the Centre' tools as a way of helping young people study and audit their opportunities and challenges of the community, and then to plan and implement projects that will enhance the community. 11. Write a letter to a newspaper editor about youth issues with a young person.
  59. 59. 12. Respect young people as you would a peer, and talk to them as you would talk to an adult. 13. Work with young people to plan a community focussed project. 14. Hold a breakfast and invite young people to come and discuss their community, and what they would like to see happen. 15. In planning youth development activities, start with the talents, assets and skills of young people, rather than their problems and deficiencies. 16. Involve interested young people as consultants, interns, apprentices, and staff. 17. Be consistent and clear about your expectations of young people and adults in your home. 18. Team up with young men and women and youth-led groups to have a town meeting on a vision for young people in your community. 19. Identify and network with young people in your community who are interested in youth and community issues. 20. Network and connect with other adult committed to genuine youth participation principles. 21. Provide transportation to young people who would not otherwise be able to participate in community activities. 22. Team up with young people to support political candidates at local, state, and national levels who make listening to, and working with young people a priority! 23. Help arrange for a radio station to sponsor a call-in show led by young people that allows them to talk about their ideas. 24. Help arrange for young people to have a regular audience with the mayor and local council to highlight their ideas for improving social and social opportunities.
  60. 60. 25. Work with young people to establish a Youth Council within the community. 26. Insist that any development committees operating within the community must reserve several committee places for young people. 27. Only go to meetings where youth are invited or you can bring young people with you. 28. Create opportunities for young women and men to lead, teach and mentor. 29. Advocate for youth-led experiences in the schools so students can learn through hands-on experience. 30. Make your home a comfortable, safe, and affirming place where young people are welcome. 31. Help young people create a newsletter for your community on youth issues and perspectives. 32. Help young people compile a list of all opportunities for youth involvement in your community. Post it in your local library and schools. Have estate agents give it to new families in town. 33. Involve young people as mentors to community and business members in the use of the Internet and E commerce opportunities. 34. Email editions of community newspapers to all local young people studying away from the town. 35. Maintain a data base of all ex students from the community and communicate each year about the community and its opportunities and solicit development ideas. 36. Raise funds for a youth-led organization. 37. Avoid pigeon holing of young women and men and generalising about their behaviour, opinions or ideas.
  61. 61. 38. Join (or form) with young people a community task force to develop ideas and implement actions to improve community opportunities. 39. Support young people in an audit of local businesses in terms of their youth friendliness. 40. Cancel a meeting or engagement so you can spend time with a young person in your family or community. 41. Confide in a young person. Ask their advice on issues that you’re struggling with. 42. Be an advocate for youth/adult partnerships in your workplace. 43. Maximise the opportunity for success by youth led projects by ensuring adequate provision of information, training, support, resources, time and space. 44. Value young people’s work and pay them for their work. Don’t assume that just because someone is young they are a volunteer. 45. Write notes of appreciation for young people who contribute to the community or achieve in the arts, sports and service. 46. Attend events in the area where young people are actively engaged. 47. Monitor regional, state and national youth leadership development experiences, and promote participation by local young people. 48. Advocate the local community commit resources for local youth leadership development experiences. 49. Avoid interrupting young people. 50. DO involve young people in all states of planning, managing and evaluating youth related events and projects. (Compiled by the Bank of I.D.E.A.S. Adapted from similar lists by the Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development of the National 4H Council and Search Institute, USA)
  62. 62. 我們的小錦囊:  熱愛社區,把緊機遇,創建未來  社區精神:人人為我,我為人人  諦造社區回憶,分享參與成果  以故事夢想,感召群眾  踢走專家,重現智慧  開放組織,編織網絡  因為難,所以好玩  獨樂樂,不如眾樂樂  邊做邊學,常懷幽默  古道熱腸,謙卑服侍  營造資產,永續發展
  63. 63. “There are only two lasting bequests we can hope to give our young people – one of these is roots, the other is wings” ‘只有兩種永恆的遺產是可以給孩子的: 其一是根源,其二是翅膀’ (Hodding Carter)
  64. 64. It needs a village to raise a child, - African proverb and only one child could change a village.
  65. 65. Circle of Friendship. Picasso, 1959
  66. 66. Future is “Future is the embodiment of the synthesis and hybridization of the old and the emerging new.” “ The Best Way to predict the future is to create it” Ellyard, Peter (1998). Ideas for the New Millennium.
  67. 67. 本著作係採用創用 CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享 4.0 國際授權條款授權 Thank You!
  68. 68.  黃洪博士(2006) : “資產為本社區發展與青年” 小童群益會荃葵 區同工訓練會議簡報  蘇.安妮斯.哈蒙 ( 2006 ):團隊成功的yes基因-肯定式探詢一點就 通 (譯者:陳淑婷、許逸臻)  Bank of I.D.E.A.S.: http://bankofideas.com.au/resources/  Community Tool Box: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents  The citizen’s Handbook: http://www.citizenshandbook.org/  The community planning website: http://www.communityplanning.net/index.php  Appreciative Inquiry common : https://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/  中華民國社區營造學會: www.peopo.org/cesroc/ 參考資料
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