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Challenges and opportunities for adolescent


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Challenges and opportunities for adolescent

  1. 1. Challenges and opportunities for adolescent Chan Kwok Bong [email_address] 2012-02-16
  2. 2. Who am I? <ul><li>Trained in Social Work and Counselling </li></ul><ul><li>A Registered Social Worker </li></ul><ul><li>Working in a NGO, an experienced Youth Worker </li></ul><ul><li>Born and bred in Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Married with no kids </li></ul><ul><li>Once upon a time was an adolescent </li></ul><ul><li>…… </li></ul>
  3. 3. How this lecture relevant to you <ul><li>This lecture is relevant to you because </li></ul><ul><li>you are:- </li></ul><ul><li>a adolescent (at least from Erikson’s viewpoint: ages 11-21) </li></ul><ul><li>a prospective teacher teaching LS </li></ul><ul><li>a prospective teacher who will work with adolescents </li></ul>
  4. 4. How this lecture relevant to you (Cont’d) <ul><li>Self-understanding (for personal growth and life planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Learnt the subject matters so that you can teach (pass on knowledge to students) </li></ul><ul><li>Learnt more about the adolescents so that you can work with them (the known-hows of educating and helping adolescent) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Challenges and opportunities for adolescent <ul><li>Adolescent : a young person who is developing into an adult. (teen, teenager, juvenile…) -Cambridge on-line dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence : </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional stage from Puberty to Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social Invention” / Social Construction </li></ul><ul><li>(such as Bakan, 1972; Fasick, 1994; Hine, 2000; Good & Nichols 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical social analysis </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Developmental Perspective: Life in 30 seconds <ul><ul><li>Life tasks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant relationships? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are missed in the video? </li></ul></ul>http:// =A1UyWaMkM1A
  7. 7. <ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>James Marcia </li></ul>A very brief review: Developmental Perspective
  8. 8. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development <ul><li>Influenced by Freund’s Psychosexual development theory </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborated Freund’s Genital Stage (Puberty) to Adolescence; plus 3 more stages of Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Each stages are marked by a “Conflict”; successfully resolved it will result in a favorable outcome, “Virtue” </li></ul><ul><li>Recent views of Erikson about Identity Formation: In our industrial society, process of identity formation is prolonged (to ages 25-30), because it takes us so long to gain the skills needed for adulthood’s tasks in our technological world. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>School-age / 6-11  - Industry vs. Inferiority - Competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Question: &quot;How can I be good?&quot; , How can I &quot;being responsible, being good and doing it right.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Inferiority: Teachers and Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent / 11 - 21  - Identity achievement vs. Role Confusion - Fidelity. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Question: &quot;Who am I and where am I going in life?“ </li></ul><ul><li>Self-image, School and Career Identities, Sexual Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Young adult / 21-40 - Intimacy vs. isolation - Love </li></ul><ul><li>Main Question: “Can I love?&quot; or &quot;Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Dating, marriage, family and friendships alone. </li></ul>Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
  10. 10. The four identity statuses by James Marcia <ul><li>Agreed with Erikson’s notion of normative crisis for adolescent; but Identity Formation is not a “either-or”, i.e. either Identity Resolution or Identity Confusion; </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to be understood in a variety of life domains of an adolescent including Politics, Occupation, Religion, Intimate Relationships, Friendships and Gender roles; </li></ul><ul><li>to the extent that s/he has both explored and committed in these life domains. </li></ul>Identity achievement has 2 distinct parts: (1) time of choosing or crisis , and (2) a commitment in the life domains, among others, Ideology and Occupation. 
  11. 11. The four identity statuses by James Marcia <ul><li>Foreclosure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a commitment is made without exploring alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on parental ideas and beliefs that are accepted without question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neither explore nor make commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may become socially isolated and withdrawn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moratorium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characterized by the active exploration of alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experienced a crisis, undergone identity explorations and made commitments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from diffusion through moratorium to identity achievement </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Social Invention / Social Construction of adolescen ce <ul><li>A simple survey: in a state of strong </li></ul><ul><li>“ storm and stress”? </li></ul><ul><li>You, yourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Your friends </li></ul><ul><li>Messages you received </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Invention of adolescen ce <ul><li>Invention of adolescence (Fasick, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>The structural changes contributed to &quot;invention&quot; adolescence, among others, include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of adolescents from the workplace to the school, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the dependence of adolescents on their parents, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the growth of commercial enterprises geared to adolescents, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the diversification of occupations, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urbanization. </li></ul></ul>… although puberty has been a feature of development for as long as humans have lived, it was not until the rise of obligatory education that we began treating adolescents as a distinct (social) group. (Bakan, 1972)
  14. 14. Social Invention of adolescen ce <ul><li>“ Young people became teenagers because we had nothing better for them to do. We began seeing them not as productive, but as gullible consumers .” </li></ul>Hine (1999) in The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager  talks about how Industrial Revolution brought about the rise of consumerism that in turn “invent” teenagers
  15. 15. Social Construction of adolescen ce <ul><li>“… Adult conceptions of youth are pejorative…and the negative beliefs have grown  more prevalent  over the past 50 years… [it can] be traced as 1900, when adolescents began to be viewed as a separate and strange culture.  G. Stanley Hall introduced the concept of adolescent “storm and stress” to explain the strangeness of youth…” </li></ul><ul><li>“… This powerful argument has become difficult to reverse… [though] in the 1960s Albert Bandura reported that the then popular view of adolescence as a time of storm and stress was unwarranted …” </li></ul><ul><li>“… One reason for the widespread belief in the storm-and-stress phenomenon is that the mass media sensationalizes adolescent behavior.”  </li></ul>Good & Nichols (2004) in The Continuing Myth of Adolescence, explore the origins of youth devaluation in United States:-
  16. 16. Social Construction of Adolescence <ul><li>mainly consumerism and mass media after industrialization, </li></ul><ul><li>led the formation of adolescence as a social group / social class who are no longer considered children, but </li></ul><ul><li>do not have the duty, status quo, or social power of adults. </li></ul><ul><li>if this continues, young people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>untapped potential is wasted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will lose even more social power. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Challenge : (the situation of being faced with) something needing great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and which therefore tests a person's ability. </li></ul>Challenges and opportunities for adolescent Opportunity : an occasion or situation which makes it possible to do something that you want to do or have to do , or the possibility of doing something. - Definitions from on-line Cambridge Dictionary
  18. 18. Challenges and opportunities for adolescent are issues about: <ul><li>Personal Competence and Social Efficacy , </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital and Social Network </li></ul><ul><li>of adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>when facing </li></ul><ul><li>the Social arrangements and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>meet </li></ul><ul><li>External demands, and </li></ul><ul><li>pursue </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Goals and aspirations </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Developmental Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Self-image </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies / Interests / Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Career planning </li></ul><ul><li>Peer relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Love and courtship </li></ul><ul><li>Social Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship (National Identity, Global Citizen…) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Political Belief… </li></ul>Challenges and opportunities for adolescent – Developmental perspective
  20. 20. <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Community / Neighborhood bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Political Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Challenges and opportunities for adolescent – Developmental perspective <ul><li>Significant Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Boy Friend / Girl Friend </li></ul><ul><li>Friends / Neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers / Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Parents / Family </li></ul><ul><li>Role Models / Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors / Enemies </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  21. 21. The 6 Most Important Decisions You’ll Ever Make – A Guide for Teens <ul><li>6 Decisions to make about : </li></ul><ul><li>Surviving and Thriving in Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Making and Being a Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Closing the gap with Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Dating and Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Addictions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-worth </li></ul>Sean Covey (2006)
  22. 22. <ul><li>SEN students </li></ul><ul><li>South Asians, Ethnic Minorities students </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Orientation, Homosexual Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents in Poverty families </li></ul>Challenges and opportunities for adolescent – Critical Analysis In Hong Kong, how do social arrangements and conditions set barriers for these groups of adolescents when they pursue their goals? And how barriers are set by social arrangements and conditions for adolescents also?
  23. 23. … Did you know Shift Happens over the globe? How do you feel about it? How do you describe the shift? http:// =xTIuJ8KB98w&feature= fvwrel
  24. 24. New Challenges and Opportunities of adolescent <ul><li>To be written by every of us… </li></ul>
  25. 25. Undesirable forms of Growth Around the World <ul><li>Report produced by the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Jobless Growth: Old jobs are disappearing. New Jobs are not created fast enough to replace them. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruthless Growth: Gap between rich and poor increases </li></ul><ul><li>Voiceless Growth: Development of democracy cannot catch up with the economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Rootless Growth: Marginalization and elimination of cultural groups by dominant cultural groups </li></ul><ul><li>Futureless Growth: Due to unsustainable practices </li></ul>
  26. 26. Undesirable forms of Growth Around the World <ul><li>Some rough figures about HK in mind … </li></ul><ul><li>Gini coefficient >0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity > 10% in pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Heart diseases: 2nd most alarming diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety > 10% in youth group </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate > 7% in Youth group </li></ul><ul><li>Degree depreciation / certificate depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Labor shortage in 2018 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ideas of Well-being, World Health Organization (WHO) <ul><li>Well-being as a holistic concept of the six domains </li></ul><ul><li>physical health </li></ul><ul><li>psychological state </li></ul><ul><li>spirituality/religion/personal beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>level of independence </li></ul><ul><li>social relations </li></ul><ul><li>relationship to salient features of the environment </li></ul>
  28. 28. New Challenges and Opportunities of adolescent <ul><li>As a Youth Worker, my version of adolescents are : </li></ul><ul><li>net Geners (Tapscott, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>“ green” </li></ul><ul><li>in-born “multi-tasking” guys </li></ul><ul><li>good collaborators </li></ul><ul><li>prosumers (consumer + producer) </li></ul><ul><li>longing for social participation </li></ul>
  29. 29. How this lecture relevant to you <ul><li>This lecture is relevant to you because you are:- </li></ul><ul><li>a adolescent </li></ul><ul><li>a prospective teacher teaching LS </li></ul><ul><li>a prospective teacher who will work with adolescents </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>We explore it from </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Social Invention / Social Construction </li></ul><ul><li> Personal Goals and aspirations </li></ul>Challenges and opportunities for adolescent We see some global shifts, take the global perspective, and elaborate how it forms the context and content for the challenges and opportunities for adolescent.
  31. 31. 20 mins break…
  32. 32. If shift happens, how will education / we shift in the ways that prepare adolescents for these challenges and opportunities? http:// =dMsNct4X_GU
  33. 33. Your “Shift” list <ul><li>From banking model to inquiry-based of teaching </li></ul>
  34. 34. Prepare adolescents for their FUTURE, not for their past. But, what the future will be?
  35. 35. The 3 Futures <ul><li>Probable future : What will be the consequences of carry on with business as usual, with our current mindsets, practices and pattern? </li></ul><ul><li>respond to changes / Problem-Centered strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Natural vision of Manager </li></ul>Ellyard, Peter (1998, 2008) <ul><li>Preferred future : What should happen? What is our dreams? It creates hope. Hope leads inspiration and, hence, commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>create changes / Mission-oriented strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Vision of Leader </li></ul>
  36. 36. The 3 Futures <ul><li>Possible future : What can happen? A synthesis of the probable and preferred futures, which reflects ; </li></ul><ul><li>the availability of resources , </li></ul><ul><li>makes value judgments on the relative power and ability of the visionary to shape the future , and the threats and opportunities created by the external environment . </li></ul><ul><li>“… the embodiment of the synthesis and hybridization of the old and the emerging new.” </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt to changes and create changes </li></ul><ul><li>Part-manager and part-leader </li></ul>
  37. 37. What are the implications of Ellyard’s future perspective for you to teach LS, Globalization, National Identity, Citizenship and IES ?
  38. 38. Greeners Action Green (Secondary) Student Council /
  39. 39. My “Shift” List <ul><li>P ossible future to future / changes </li></ul><ul><li>New Paradigm regarding adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Communitarian ideas to education </li></ul><ul><li>Critical pedagogy / Praxis to education </li></ul><ul><li>Engage adolescents , work with them together. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Paradigm Change regarding Adolescents extracted from Bank of I.D.E.A <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient </li></ul><ul><li>At risk Population to be deal with </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow’s Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Adult in the making </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solver </li></ul><ul><li>Change Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Co-participant </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership asset to be cultivated </li></ul><ul><li>Part of today’s leadership team </li></ul><ul><li>A citizen today </li></ul>
  41. 41. Make a Difference (MaD Asia)
  42. 42. Communitarian ideas to Education
  43. 43. Communitarianism <ul><li>Two major attacks made against on liberalism: </li></ul><ul><li>The premises of individualism, such as the rational being who choose freely, are wrong and that the only way to refer to individuals is in their social context </li></ul><ul><li>The premises of individualism give rise to morally unsatisfactory consequences </li></ul><ul><li>(Avineri & De-shelit, 1992) </li></ul>Gradually emerged in the 1970 to challenge liberalism.
  44. 44. <ul><li>Communitarians make it clear that: </li></ul><ul><li>Our attachments to communities is not voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Social attachments are not normally chosen ones (e.g. family, nationality, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Our upbringing and the values we adopt and live by are often acquired involuntarily by being picked up rather than being a matter of rational choice by individual </li></ul>Communitarianism (Aurthur, 1998)
  45. 45. Identities and Community <ul><li>“ ...our deeply felt attachments to a number of communities constitute our identity. This allows us to experience our life as bound up with the good of these communities” </li></ul>“… these “constitutive communities” define the sense of who we are and provide a largely background way of our being in the world of thinking, acting and deciding……to reject them leads to an identity crisis or an acute form of disorientation which will damage our identity…” “… we can answer the question of what these “constitutive communities” are by asking a question of ourselves: “Who are you?”. The answer will certainly include: family name, nationality, language, culture and religion – all of which derive from community” (Bell, 1996)
  46. 46. Communitarian ideas to Education <ul><li>The purpose of education is to foster the growth of loving persons , who are aware both of their own individuality and of their membership one of another; who accept on another, and who, understanding their own interdependent nature , choose to use their experience creatively in cooperation with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeble (1981) Community and Education </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>The education goals for comprehensive schools (Hargreaves, 1982) sought to increase greater democratic participation, stimulate greater social solidarity and help resolve conflict between different communities. </li></ul>Communitarian ideas to Education Similar to many communitarians, he suggested a community-centre curriculum of which community studies, including practical community service, were an integral part as a solution. He proposed that it should be compulsory for all , made use of internal assessment (to avoid influences of public examination over the curriculum) and cross-subjects employing team teaching strategies .
  48. 48. It needs a village to raise a child, - African proverb and only one child could change a village.
  49. 49. Connecting Adolescents, Curriculum and Community ruMAD? Are You Make a Difference in Australia Connecting student-led learning to the community benefits both the learner and the community.
  50. 50. <ul><li>Without the community , the individual is left without a place where he can contribute . The community is that grounding place where people come and share their gifts and receive them from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Sobonfu Some </li></ul>
  51. 51. Critical Praxis of Communitarian ideas to Education? <ul><li>The key task for education is to teach young people to respect worthy traditional values , whilst enabling them to develop their critical capacity so that they can through democratic deliberations with others identify and strip away the prejudices which undermine doctrines of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>(Tam,1996) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Critical pedagogy / Praxis to education
  53. 53. Critical pedagogy / Praxis to education <ul><li>Scholar, Yu An Bong (2002, 2005 & 2008) in his series Classroom in Community, CIC ( 社區有教室 , in Chinese), suggests the critical praxis of CIC to rule out any return to “tradition values”, or to “native education” as pure nostalgia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the sense that while school could have structural impediments to remove oppressive reproduction of dominant cultural practices. CIC curriculum could cultivate education around greater role of agency among teachers and individuals with the community. In order to do so, the reflexivity of practitioners is the key. He goes on suggesting that teachers should be: </li></ul><ul><li>Community Learners , and </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-posers in education </li></ul>
  54. 54. Teachers as Community Learners in education <ul><li>Learning in community is a continuous lesson. Teachers as community learners implies teachers are moving from “teaching knowledge for ” the community to “realizing knowledge with ” the community. This is a “know-how” to “know-why” shift. In this move, teachers engage continuously in the collective inquiries with community members, which in turn facilitates teachers to generate meaningful and contextual questions for student learning in the course of CIC. </li></ul><ul><li>Chan, Kwok-bong (2009). “Classroom in community: Serving the Elderly People, Learning from Senior Citizens. A community-based Service Learning for Secondary School students in Hong Kong.” New Horizons in Education , 57, No.3 </li></ul>
  55. 55. Teachers as P roblem-posers in education <ul><li>… as “men and women develop their power to perceive critically the way they exist in the world which and in which they find themselves; they come to see the world not as a static reality but as a reality in the process of transformation ” (Macedo, 1993 . Introduction. Pedagogy of the oppressed. ) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Problem-posing education is to demythologize; <ul><li>“ we need to place the knowledge that we teach, the social relations that dominate classrooms , the school as a mechanism of cultural and economic preservation and distribution, and finally, ourselves as people who work in these institutions, back into the context in which they all reside.” (Apple, 1990 . Ideology and Curriculum ) </li></ul>
  57. 57. A tiny example of critical praxis in Service Learning <ul><li>Service Learning project for F2 students </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Home Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Theme: Healthy Life for Elderly People </li></ul><ul><li>Services: 1. Design healthy eating receipt 2. Promote it to elderly people </li></ul><ul><li>Original receipt: Turkey Sandwiches - FAIL </li></ul><ul><li>Having learnt from elderly people, revised receipt is Low Sugar Chinese Pudding - OK </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Teachers and students learnt from community , i.e., the elderly people </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and students critically re-examined the nature of knowledge of Home Economic, which is static, and is based on western culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and students refined the knowledge of HE , and renewed the receipt based on community learning </li></ul>A tiny example of critical praxis in Service Learning In this case, power position of discipline knowledge , i.e. HE knowledge and social condition of elderly people were brought into concern by students and teachers and reconsidered by them. Teacher’s habitus was moved. Students then acted as change agent , induced social changes. (Social Cohesion, Reciprocity, Empowerment)
  59. 59. The last remark: Engaging Adolescents, work with them together http:// =ZokqjjIy77Y
  60. 60. Thank You ! 以 共享創意署名 - 非商業性 - 相同方式共享 3.0 香港 授權條款 釋出
  61. 61. References <ul><li>Apple, M.W. (1990). Ideology and Curriculum London. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. </li></ul><ul><li>* Arthur, James (1998). Communitarianism: What are the implications for education? Educational Studies ; Nov 1998; 24, 3; ProQuest Education Complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur, James. (2000). School and Community: The Communitarian Agenda in Education. London:Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Avineri S. & De-Shelit A. (Eds) (1992) Communitarianism and Individualism . Oxford University Press, Oxford. </li></ul><ul><li>Bakan, D. (1972). Adolescence in America: From idea to social fact. In J. Kagan and R. Coles Twelve to sixteen: Early adolescence. New York: Norton. </li></ul><ul><li># Bell D.A. (1993). Communitarianism and its Critics. Clarendon Press, Oxford. </li></ul><ul><li>Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital. In J. Richardson(Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York, Greenwood, pp241-258. </li></ul><ul><li>*# Bourdieu, P. (1992). Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. </li></ul><ul><li>* Chan, Kwok-bong (2009). Classroom in community: Serving the Elderly People, Learning from Senior Citizens. A community-based Service Learning for Secondary School students in Hong Kong. New Horizons in Education , 57, No.3 (Special Issue), Dec 2009,n15:82-96 . HK: Hong Kong Teachers Association </li></ul><ul><li>* Codispoti, F. (2004). A justification of the Communitarian Model. Service-Learning History, Theory, and Issues. CA: Praeger Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>*# Covey, Sean (2005), The Most Important Decisions You’ll Ever Make: A Guide for Teens. FraklinCovey: London </li></ul><ul><li>Dumais, S., (2002) “Cultural Capital, Gender, and School Success: the role of habitus” in Sociology of Education ,v.75, i.1, pp.44–68 </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson, Erik H. (1959) Identity and the Life Cycle . New York: International Universities Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson, Erik H. (1968) Identity, Youth and Crisis . New York: Norton. </li></ul><ul><li>* Ellyard, Peter (1998). Ideas for the New Millennium. Melbourne University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>* @ Eyllard, Peter (2008) Designing 2050 Pathways to Sustainable Prosperity on Spaceship Earth . Port Campbell Press </li></ul><ul><li>Frank A. Fasick (1994). Invention of adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence  February 1994vol. 14 no. 1 6-23 </li></ul><ul><li>* Good, Thomas L. and Nichols, Sharon L (2004). The Continuing Myth of Adolescence.  America's Teenagers--Myths and Realities: Media Images, Schooling, and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference . By Sharon L. Nichols and Thomas L. Good. ; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates </li></ul>
  62. 62. References <ul><li>*Halpin, Mikki (2004). It’s your world – if you don’t like it, change it. Activism for Teenagers. NY: Simon Pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Hargreaves, D.H. (1982). The Challenge for the Comprehensive School: Culture, Curriculum and Community. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. </li></ul><ul><li>Hargreaves D.H. (1994) The Mosaic of Learning - schools and teachers for the next millenium . Demos, London </li></ul><ul><li>*#@ James C. Kielsmeier (2002) “Recasting the Role of Youth in the 21st Century: Active Learning and Civic Engagement” Paper presented in the National Service-Learning Conference 2002: National Youth Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeble, R. (1981)  Community and Education. Some relationships and some issues, Leicester: National Youth Bureau. </li></ul><ul><li>Kertzman, J., & McKnight, J. (1993). Building Community from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community’s assets. Chicago: ACTA Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>King, A., “Structure and Agency” in Harrington, A., (ed) (2005) Modern Social Theory: an introduction , Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.215–232 </li></ul><ul><li>*King, John T. (2004). Service-Learning as a Site for Critical Pedagogy: A Case of Collaboration, Caring, and Defamiliarization across Borders. Journal of Experiential Education, 26 n3 : 121-137. </li></ul><ul><li>Linda Camino and Shepherd Zeldin (2002) From Periphery to Center: Pathways for Youth Civic Engagement in the Day-To-Day Life of Communities Applied Developmental Science 2002. Vol. 6, No. 4, 213–220. </li></ul><ul><li>*#@ Lynn Montrose (2001). “Building Community & World-Ready Youth” Paper Presented in the National Service-Learning Conference 2001: National Youth Council </li></ul><ul><li>Macedo, D. P. (1993). Introduction. Pedagogy of the oppressed . London: Continuum International Publishing Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Marcia, J. E., (1966), Development and validation of ego identity status,  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology  3, pp. 551-558 </li></ul><ul><li>*Ogden, C., & Claus, J.(1999) An Empowering, Transformative Approach to Service. Service Learning for Youth Empowerment and Social Change. NY: Peter Lang Publishing Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Putnam, R. D., Leonardi, R. & Nanetti, R. Y. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy . NJ:Princeton University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>*Tam H. (1996) ‘Education and the Communitarian Movement’, Pastoral Care in Education. 14 (3) pp. 28-31. </li></ul><ul><li>Tam H. (1998) Communitarianism: A New Agenda for Politics and Citizenship . Macmillan Press, London </li></ul>
  63. 63. References <ul><li>*#Tapscott, Don (2009) Grown Up Digital How the Net Generation Is Changing Your World. McGraw-Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hine (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager  NY: Happercollin </li></ul><ul><li>*# 余安邦等著( 2002 ) . 社區有教室:學校課程與社區總體營造的遭逢與對話 遠流 . 台灣 </li></ul><ul><li>*# 余安邦等著( 2005 ) . 社區有教室的批判性實踐 遠流 . 台灣 </li></ul><ul><li>*# 余安邦等著 (2008). 社區有教室的在地轉化 打造有文化品味的課程與教學 . 五南 </li></ul><ul><li>*The Bank of I.D.E.A.S Website. http:// </li></ul><ul><li>* Suggested readings </li></ul><ul><li># Translated in Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>@ Ecopy available on web </li></ul>