Fundamentals of Computer


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Fundamentals of Computer

  1. 1. History of the ComputerComputer GenerationClassification of ComputerElements of the ComputerComputer NetworksInternet Exam
  2. 2. Manual – MechanicalElectromechanicalElectronic
  3. 3. devices powered by handand requires physical effortfrom the user
  4. 4. the first manual data processingdevicemechanical calculating device firstused around 2200 B.C. to add andsubtractdeveloped in China in 12th century
  5. 5. invented by John Napier in 1617a set of rods, made of bone or other material,each divided into nine spacescontains the numbers of a column of themultiplication tablecontrivance of Baron Napier, the inventor oflogarithms, for facilitating the operations ofmultiplication and division
  6. 6. invented by William Oughtred in 17th centurya rule upon which are marked several graduatedscales that may be moved relative to oneanother, so that certain calculations may becarried outDepending on the scales so marked, thesecalculations may include multiplication, division,logarithmic and trigonometric functions
  7. 7. invented by Blaise Pascal in1642a mechanism to calculatewith 8 figures and carrying of10s , 100s, and 1000s
  8. 8. invented by Baron GottfriedWilhelm Von Leibniz in 1674utilizes the same techniques foraddition and subtraction asPascal’s device but could alsoperform multiplication and division& extract square roots
  9. 9. invented by Charles Babbage in 1822designed to use two types of cards:1. operation cards to indicate the specific functions to be performed2. variable cards to specify the actual data
  10. 10. devices powered by anelectric motor and usesrelays and switches
  11. 11. invented by Herman Hollerithin 1880 a machine to tabulate censusdata more efficiently than bytraditional hand methods
  12. 12. invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804used punched cards to create patterns onfabric woven on a loomthe hole punches directed the threads up ordown, thus producing the patternsforerunner of the keypunch machine
  13. 13. invented by Howard Aiken in 1943Mark I could perform the four basic arithmeticoperationscould locate information stored in tabular formalso known as the Mark I digital computerofficial name of the Mark I was Automatic SequenceControlled Calculator51 feet long, 8 feet high, and 2 feet thickhad 750,000 parts and 500 miles wireweighed 5 tons
  14. 14. these are devices whichuse only electricalswitches and circuitryinstead of mechanicalrelays consists of circuitboards, transistors orsilicon chips
  15. 15. invented by John Atanasoffin 1942 the first digital computer that used binary logic circuitry and had regenerativememory
  16. 16. invented by Presper Eckert Jr. and JohnMauchly in 1943 to 1946the first large-scale vacuum-tube computerconsisted of over 18,000 vacuum tubes andrequired the manual setting of switches toachieve desired resultscould perform 300 multiplications per second
  17. 17. a vast improvement uponENIACMauchly and Eckert startedworking on it two years beforeENIAC even went into operationTheir idea was to have theprogram for the computer storedinside the computer
  18. 18. the first full-scale computer withelectronic stored programsMaurice V. Wilkes and his teamat the university of Cambridgeconstructed the EDSACdesign was based on that of vonNeumann
  19. 19. a computer milestone achievedby Dr. Presper Eckert and Dr.John Mauchly, the team thatinvented the ENIAC computerthe first commercially availablecomputer
  20. 20. First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum TubesSecond Generation - 1956-1963: TransistorsThird Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated CircuitsFourth Generation - 1971-Present: MicroprocessorsFifth Generation - Present and Beyond: ArtificialIntelligence
  21. 21. The first computers used vacuum tubesfor circuitry and magnetic drums formemory, and were often enormous,taking up entire roomsvery expensive to operateuse a great deal of electricitygenerated a lot of heat, which was oftenthe cause of malfunctions
  22. 22. UNIVAC and ENIAC computersare examples of first-generationcomputing devicesUNIVAC was the firstcommercial computer deliveredto a business client, the U.S.Census Bureau in 1951
  23. 23. Transistors: replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors
  24. 24. 2nd generation computers moved fromcryptic binary machine language to symbolic,or assembly, languages, which allowedprogrammers to specify instructions in wordsHigh-level programming languages were alsobeing developed at this time (e.g. earlyversions of COBOL and FORTRAN.COBOL and FORTRAN - the first computersthat stored their instructions in their memory,which moved from a magnetic drum tomagnetic core technology
  25. 25. The development of the integrated circuit was thehallmark of the third generation of computersTransistors were miniaturized and placed on siliconchips, called semiconductors, which drasticallyincreased the speed and efficiency of computers.
  26. 26. first generation filled an entire room 4 thgeneration could now fit in the palm of thehandThe Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971,located all the components of the computer -from the central processing unit and memoryto input/output controls on a single chip
  27. 27. in 1981 IBM introduced its first computer forthe home userin 1984 Apple introduced the MacintoshMicroprocessors also moved out of the realmof desktop computers and into many areas oflife as more and more everyday productsbegan to use microprocessors.
  28. 28. still in development, thoughthere are some applications,such as voice recognition, thatare being used todaythe use of parallel processingand superconductors is helpingto make artificial intelligence areality
  29. 29. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd1st
  30. 30. According to PurposeGeneral Purpose ComputerSpecial Purpose Computer
  31. 31. are designed to handle a variety of tasks. This is possible by utilizing the stored-program concept. That is, a program or series of instructions is prepared for each application and input to and temporarily stored in the computer
  32. 32. Special-Purpose Computer also known as dedicated computers, are designedaround a specific application or type of application
  33. 33. According to Data Handled Analog Computer Digital Computer Hybrid Computer
  34. 34. operates in a completely opposite way tothe digital computer. all operations in an analog computer areperformed in parallel. data are represented in an analogcomputer as voltages, a very compact butnot necessarily robust form of storage(prone to noise corruption). A single capacitor (equivalent to thedigitals computer use of a transistor) in ananalog computer can represent onecontinuous variable
  35. 35.  a machine that specialize in counting of items that are distinct from one another. e.g. text, integers
  36. 36. in which a digital computer is used to control and organize inputs and outputs to and from attached analogue devices; for instance analogue devices might be used to help generate initial values for iterations
  37. 37. According to Capacity Microcomputer Minicomputer Mainframe Computer Super Computer
  38. 38. is generally synonymous with personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on amicroprocessor. Microcomputers are designed to be used byindividuals, whether in the formof PCs, workstations or notebook computers
  39. 39. a midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes
  40. 40. a very large and expensivecomputer capable of supportinghundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. The distinction between smallmainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really onhow the manufacturer wants to market its machines
  41. 41. the fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations
  42. 42. a complete, working computer. The computer system includes not only the computer, but also any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function
  43. 43. It refers to the physical equipment or components ofan electronic data processing.
  44. 44. It gives information to thecomputer system so that it can perform its tasks
  45. 45. is similar to that of a standard typewriter, but it includes extra keys such as function keys and the numeric pad
  46. 46. a device that controls themovement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen; originally designed by Xerox
  47. 47. which performs the same tasks as the mouse, operates with a rotatingmetal ball inset in a small, boxlike device and does not require a desktop
  48. 48. is a pressure-sensitive pad that is smaller, more accurate, thinner, and less expensive to build than the trackball
  49. 49. was designed initially toread penciled or graphic information on exam answer sheets.
  50. 50. a device that can read text orillustrations printed on paper and translate the information into a form the computer can use. A scanner works by digitizing an image -- dividing it into a grid of boxes and representing each box with either a zero or a one, depending on whether the box is filled in
  51. 51. record images in digital form
  52. 52. are small mobile computers that accept input through a penlike instrument called a stylus that you use to write on the computer’s screen
  53. 53. device for converting sound waves into electrical energy
  54. 54. is a camera that is in someway connected to the World Wide Web, or Internet
  55. 55. a small, touch-sensitive pad, usually a couple of inches square, which acts as an alternative to a mouse on somenotebook/palmtop computers. It works by sensing fingertip pressure
  56. 56. a manual control consisting of a vertical handle that can move freely in two directions; used as an input device to computers or to devices controlled by computers
  57. 57. a type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. Instead of using a pointing device such as a mouse or light pen, you can use your finger to point directly to objects on the screen
  58. 58. An input device that utilizes alight-sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen. A light pen is similar to a mouse,except that with a light pen youcan move the pointer and selectobjects on the display screen by directly pointing to the objects with the pen
  59. 59. an input device that enables you to enter drawings and sketches into a computer. A digitizing tablet consists of an electronic tablet and a cursor or pen. A cursor (also called a puck) is similar to a mouse, except that it has a window with cross hairs for pinpoint placement, and it can have as many as 16 buttons.
  60. 60. a pointing and drawingdevice shaped like a pen. You use a stylus with adigitizing tablet or touch screen
  61. 61. is an input device used to scan a pattern of lines using optical sensing techniques. The line attern is coded information about the item to which it relates (e.g. the price and description of an item of merchandise)
  62. 62. is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal
  63. 63. permits users to input printed or typewrittendocuments with a scanner
  64. 64. involves the use of a special pen on a monitor surface, as with a personal digital assistant
  65. 65. activated by user’s voice after voice has been programmed into the computer; currently accepts limited number of vocal commands
  66. 66. these devices displayinformation that has beenheld or generated within a computer
  67. 67. peripheral that uses ink or toner to output documents, images, and plain text files onto paper
  68. 68. display consisting of a device that takes signals from a computer and displays them on a CRT screen
  69. 69. a device that draws pictures on paper based on commands from a computer. Plotters differ from printers in that they draw lines using a pen. As a result, they can produce continuous lines, whereas printers can only simulate lines by printing a closely spaced series of dots. Multicolor plotters use different-colored pens to draw different colors.
  70. 70. a device used to produce sound
  71. 71. increase a message as temporary output that computer users hear
  72. 72. are reduced sized photographic reproductions of printed information on film cards. The cards can be read using microfiche readers and printed using microfiche printers
  73. 73. a piece of hardware that is used for both providinginformation to the computer and receiving information
  74. 74. the modem modulates the computer output to an acceptable signal for transmission and then demodulates the signal back for computer input
  75. 75. computer hardware thatholds and spins a magnetic or optical disk and readsand writes information on it
  76. 76. a rigid magnetic diskmounted permanently in a drive unit
  77. 77. a direct-access disk, hasinformation recorded on it with a laser beam that burns pits into its surface
  78. 78. the main part of a personal computer. The system unit includes the chassis, microprocessor, main memory, bus, and ports, butdoes not include the keyboardor monitor, or any peripheral devices
  80. 80. is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place
  81. 81. supervises or monitors the functions performed by the entire computer system according to conditions setforth by the stored program
  82. 82. the part of a computer that performs all arithmetic computations, such asaddition and multiplication, and all comparison operations. The ALU is one component of the CPU (central processing unit).
  83. 83. is somewhat like anelectronic filing cabinetcapable of holding data or instructions
  84. 84.  ROM(Read  RAM(Random Access) Only)contains the pre-programmed computer instructions such as the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) and special is used to store the programs data that the computer uses and data that you will run. throughout its processing.
  85. 85. the main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboards chipset
  86. 86. an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of ports. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disk drives, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices
  87. 87. a connector in a computer into which an expansion card can be plugged. The connector supplies power to the card and connects it to the data bus, address bus and control signals of the motherboard
  88. 88. A collection of wires through which data istransmitted from one partof a computer to another
  89. 89. computer instruction or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software
  90. 90.  System Software Application Software
  91. 91. consist of programs designed to facilitate the use of the computer by the user. Any software required to support the production or execution of application programs but which is not specific to any particular application
  92. 92. a set of program designed to efficiently manage the resources of the computer system.
  93. 93. is a system program that converts the English-like instructions used by computer programmersinto the machine-readable code used by the hardware
  94. 94. perform such standard tasks as organizing and maintaining data files, translating programs written in various languages to a language acceptable to the computer
  95. 95. is a type of program that solves specific user-oriented processing problems
  96. 96. program accepts words typed into a computer and processes them to produce edited text
  97. 97. system allows you to use differenttypefaces, specify various margins and justifications, and embed illustrations and graphs directly into the text. The most powerful desktop publishing systems enable you to create illustrations, while less powerful systems let you insert illustrations created by other programs
  98. 98. are computer programs that let people electronically create andmanipulate spreadsheets (tables of values arranged in rows and columns with predefined to relationships to each other). Spreadsheets are used formathematical calculations such asaccounts, budgets, statistics and so
  99. 99. a set of programs is necessary to facilitate adding new data as well as modifying and retrieving of existing data within a database
  100. 100. interactive hardware or software played forentertainment, challenge,or educational purposes
  101. 101.  Public Domain Software Freeware Shareware Commercial Software
  102. 102.  Has no copy right Free to use or make copy of Can be copied, used in other programs, or charged by anyone
  103. 103.  Has a copyright Can only give away exact copies of the software Can not be changed or used in another program without the copyright holder’s permission
  104. 104.  Has a copyright Allowed to use software paying for it 1. can be a demo 2. can set an amount of time you can use the software 3. Can trust that you will pay for it if you like the software
  105. 105.  Has the most resistive copyright Have to buy the software before you can use it. Can usually make one copy of the software as a backup copy Can not copy, look at the program’s code, change, or use the software in another program.
  106. 106. 1. MANAGEMENT used in school management such as budget, inventory, student records, etc.1. LEARNING INSTRUCTION teacher-centered instruction student-centered learning1. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH for gathering and processing
  107. 107. a group of computers and other devices connected together.
  108. 108. is a group of computers andassociated devices that share acommon communications line and typically share theresources of a single processor or server within a smallgeographic area (for example, within an office building)
  109. 109. a data network designed for a town or city. (MAN) A datanetwork intended to serve an area the size of a large city. Such networks are being implemented by innovative techniques, such as runningoptical fibre through subway tunnels.
  110. 110. are built to provide communication solutions for organizations or people who need to exchange digital information between twodistant places (in one country or in two different countries)
  111. 111. the computers are within a limited geographic area,such as a campus or military base
  112. 112. a network contained withina users home that connects a persons digital devices
  113. 113. Networks Topology
  114. 114. All devices are connected toa central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology
  115. 115. All devices are connected to oneanother in the shape of a closed loop, sothat each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, butthey offer high bandwidth and can span large distances
  116. 116. All devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to installand manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub
  117. 117. A tree topology combinescharacteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star- configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable
  118. 118. Types of Cables Used in Networks
  119. 119.   Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable  Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Microwave  Coaxial Cable  Fiber Optic Cable
  120. 120. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks. The quality of UTP mayvary from telephone-grade wire to extremelyhigh-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twistedwith a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacentpairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supportedtransmission rate and the greater the cost per foot.
  121. 121. A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to radio and electricalfrequency interference. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for environmentswith electrical interference; however, the extra shielding can using Token Ring topology. make the cables quite bulky. Shielded twisted pair is often used on networks
  122. 122. are very high-frequency radio signals that aretransmitted through open space.
  123. 123. Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braidedmetal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. Although coaxialcabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistantto signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable.
  124. 124. Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmitsignals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability tocarry information at vastly greater speeds. Thiscapacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and modify.
  125. 125. provide a special form ofmicrowave transmission. It requires earth stations, or“dishes,” that transmit andreceive signals to and from the orbited satellite
  126. 126. A wide collection of computer networks
  127. 127. The software program you use to access the World Wide Web
  128. 128. Uses the text in a web site to index so thatsearch engine users can find it by typing it by selecting the appropriate category.
  129. 129. Uses human editors to place the site into a hierarchy or outline of topics so that users can find it by selecting the appropriate category.
  130. 130. A method of naming documents or places on the internet
  131. 131. it refers to all of the publicly accessible web sites in the world
  132. 132. in an electronic message sent from one computer to another.