Fundamentals of a Personal Computer


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Fundamentals of a Personal Computer

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Fundamentals of a Personal Computer

  1. 1. Fundamentals of a Personal Computer (PC) Chapter 1
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the functions of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the different types of computers </li></ul><ul><li>List the components of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the front and back side of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the Power-On Self Test (POST) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of a PC <ul><li>Accepts data input from user </li></ul><ul><li>Stores data </li></ul><ul><li>Processes the input using instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Displays processed data on output devices </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Computers Types of Computers Microcomputer Minicomputer Mainframe Supercomputer
  5. 5. Microcomputer – I <ul><li>Digital computer that works on a microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Used in homes and offices </li></ul><ul><li>Performs tasks such as word processing, desktop publishing, and accounting </li></ul>
  6. 6. Microcomputer – II <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low processing speed </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Minicomputer – I <ul><li>Known as the mid-range server </li></ul><ul><li>Medium sized multiprocessing and multi-user computer </li></ul><ul><li>Used by small sized companies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Minicomputer – II <ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cater to multiple users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs than mainframes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulky </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mainframe – I <ul><li>Known as enterprise servers </li></ul><ul><li>Occupies entire rooms or floors </li></ul><ul><li>Used for centralized computing </li></ul><ul><li>Serve distributed users and small servers in a computing network </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mainframe – II <ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports many users and instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Supercomputer <ul><li>Fastest and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Used by applications for molecular chemistry, nuclear research, weather reports, and advanced physics </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate a large amount of heat during operation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Components of a PC <ul><li>Input Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul>
  13. 13. Input Devices <ul><li>Used to enter data in computer </li></ul><ul><li>Different types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Output Devices <ul><li>Used to display or produce processed data </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors and printers used to display output </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of output devices are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fax </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Storage Devices <ul><li>Used to store data in the computers </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of storage devices are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid-State Storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Audio Tape </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Processing Devices <ul><li>Computer main function is to process data </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of processing devices are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chipset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Communication Devices <ul><li>Establish communication between computer using different cables, interfaces and wireless devices </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of communication devices are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O Ports and Cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Cables </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Infrastructure <ul><li>Refers to main components and foundation on which computer functions </li></ul><ul><li>All the peripheral devices of the computer are attached </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of components are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System Case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion Boards </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Introducing the Front and Back Side of the PC <ul><li>Front Side of PC contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power switch to turn on the PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert CDs and DVDs in CD/DVD drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use floppy disks with the help of floppy drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LED display indicates status of system </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Introducing the Front and Back Side of the PC – I <ul><li>Back side of PC contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply and the cooling fan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input and output ports of the PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect devices to the ports at back of the PC </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Starting a PC for the First Time – I <ul><li>Basic Input Output System (BIOS) checks all peripheral devices, memory and hardware of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Power on Self test (POST) is performed before the PC boots operating system </li></ul>
  22. 22. Starting a PC for the First Time – II <ul><li>Functions performed by POST: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking power supply and motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing system configuration with PC Configuration Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking memory devices and drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking system memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts display and audio devices </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Summary – I <ul><li>Personal Computer is an electronic machine that accepts data, processes it on the basis of some instructions and produces output </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Computer performs a wide range of functions like data processing, programming, playing audio, video and games </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of computer are, microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes and supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>System case provides protective cover for all important components of PC and keeps system cool </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary – II <ul><li>LED displays on system case indicate operations going on inside PC </li></ul><ul><li>Different ports are located on back of system case </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply of PC converts alternating current to direct current </li></ul><ul><li>The motherboard is main part of a PC </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of I/O ports, serial, parallel, and USB </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices store data in the PCs </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary – III <ul><li>Different types of storage devices, magnetic, optical, and solid-state Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio Tapes (DAT) record and store music digitally </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of network cables, UTP, STP, coaxial, and fiber optic </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS runs a test called Power On Self Test when a PC turns on </li></ul>