Chapter 3 v.1


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Chapter 3 v.1

  1. 1. MemoryChapter 3
  2. 2. Objectives  Explain the types of memory  Explain the types of RAM  Explain the working of the RAM  List the different memory packages  Install the memory module  Upgrade the memory module  Troubleshoot the memory problemsChapter 1 Slide 2 of 14
  3. 3. Types of Memory - I Memory is categorized into Volatile and Non- volatile Memory Volatile Memory – Stores data temporarily Non -Volatile Memory – Stores data permanentlyChapter 1 Slide 3 of 14
  4. 4. Types of Memory - II Physical Memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) • Read Only Memory (ROM) • Hybrid Logical Memory Virtual Memory Flash Memory Cache MemoryChapter 1 Slide 4 of 14
  5. 5. Types of RAM - I  Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) – Stores the data as long as the power is supplied to the system  Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) – Stores the data for few millisecondsChapter 1 Slide 5 of 14
  6. 6. Types Of DRAM Extended Data-Out DRAM (EDO DRAM) – Fetches the data from the next cell before the previous process completes Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) – Synchronizes the memory speed with the CPU clock speedChapter 1 Slide 6 of 14
  7. 7. Types Of DRAM Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM) – Sends data very frequently on the data bus and reads data on every rise and fall of the clock cycle DDR-SDRAM – It is almost twice the speed of the SDRAM Video Random Access Memory (VRAM) – Stores the images that are to be displayed on the computer screen Synchronous Graphics RAM (SGRAM) – Speeds up memory access for graphics functionsChapter 1 Slide 7 of 14
  8. 8. Working of RAM Stores the data until the processor is executing the current data Once the processor finishes the current execution, RAM forwards the next data to the processorChapter 1 Slide 8 of 14
  9. 9. Types of Memory Packages Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM) – Contains pins for accepting data from the control circuit Dual In-line Memory Module (DIMM) – Similar to a SIMM. The difference between the SIMM and DIMM is that DIMM is a 168-pin package Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module (SODIMM) – Has a notch at the bottom of the circuit board Micro DIMM – Connects the memory module with the memory socket Rambus in-line Memory Module (RIMM) – Similar to DIMM package. It only differs in the pin configurationChapter 1 Slide 9 of 14
  10. 10. Memory Specifications Size of a Data Bus of a Memory Module - Specifies the amount of information that is flowing in each clock cycle Error Checking and Correcting Module - Used this module for detecting and correcting errors of the memory block Parity and Non-Parity chips - Detects and notifies the user about the error Memory Frequency – Is set as a multiple of FSB and Front Side Bus (FSB) is used to describe the Data Bus Memory Bank - Is a logical unit of memory in a computer and consists of one or more memory modulesChapter 1 Slide 10 of 14
  11. 11. Upgrading the Memory Increases the speed of the system Change either the previous RAM or add one more RAM with the previous RAM to upgrade the memoryChapter 1 Slide 11 of 14
  12. 12. Troubleshooting  Using BIOS Beep Codes – Performs the POST test and ensures that the system is working properly  Using PC Memory Diagnostic Software – Enables the user to solve problems related to memoryChapter 1 Slide 12 of 14
  13. 13. Summary -I  Memory is categorized into volatile memory or non-volatile memory  Volatile memory stores the data temporarily whereas the non- volatile memory stores the data permanently  RAM is a semiconductor-based memory where the CPU or the other hardware devices can write the data and read the same from it  ROM is the permanent data storage area  Virtual memory is an imaginary memory area that stores instructions or dataChapter 1 Slide 13 of 14
  14. 14. Summary - II  EDO DRAM starts fetching the data from the next cell before the previous process completes  SDRAM synchronizes the memory speed with the CPU clock speed  RDRAM package is used in the high bandwidth and the low latency applications  DDR-SDRAM transfers data on both the edges of the clock signal that is on the rising and falling edges of the clock signal  VRAM stores the images that are to be displayed on the computer screenChapter 1 Slide 14 of 14
  15. 15. Summary - III  SIMM is a small circuit board designed to hold the memory chips  DIMM package is a small circuit board that contains the memory chips. The difference between the SIMM and DIMM is that DIMM is a 168-pin package  SODIMM has notch at the bottom of the circuit board  Micro DIMM package pins connect the memory modules with the memory socket  RIMM is used by high bandwidth and low latency applicationsChapter 1 Slide 15 of 14
  16. 16. Summary - IV  BIOS program does the Power on Self Test (POST) testing as the system turns on to ensure that the system is working properly  You can troubleshoot the memory problems by using BIOS beep codes e.g. AWARD and AMI  PC Memory Diagnostic Software enables user to solve memory related problemsChapter 1 Slide 16 of 14