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AI Lab at a Library? Why Artificial Intelligence Matters & What Libraries Can Do

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A talk given at the American Libraries Association Annual Conference, June 25, 2018 by Bohyun Kim, Chief Technology Officer, University of Rhode Island Libraries.

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AI Lab at a Library? Why Artificial Intelligence Matters & What Libraries Can Do

  1. 1. AI Lab at a Library? Why Artificial Intelligence Matters & What Libraries Can Do Monday, June 25 10:30 - 11:30 AM MCC Rm 393 Please complete and return the quick evaluation card to the volunteers as you leave. Your feedback is important! To provide full evaluation responses of LITA @ 2018 ALA Annual conference complete this full survey using any of your devices: ▪ bit.ly/litaatannual2018
  2. 2. AI Lab at a Library? Why Artificial Intelligence Matters & What Libraries Can Do #AI_libs Bohyun Kim Chief Technology Officer & Associate Professor, University of Rhode Island Libraries American Libraries Association Annual Conference, June 25, 2018
  3. 3. What We Will Discuss Today I. Artificial intelligence (AI) • Purpose; Main drivers of the recent developments; AI in use today II. AI & Libraries III. The AI Lab at the University of Rhode Island IV. The Dark Side of AI & Algorithmic Biases V. The Future of AI
  4. 4. I.Artificial Intelligence
  5. 5. (a) What is the purpose of AI?
  6. 6. https://www.nature.com/news/self-taught-ai-is-best-yet-at-strategy-game-go-1.22858
  7. 7. https://www.theguardian.co m/technology/2018/mar/27/ arizona-suspends-ubers- self-driving-car-testing- after-fatality
  8. 8. https://www.wired.com/2017/02/robots-wrote-this-story/
  9. 9. Examples of AI Applications • Siri • Alexa • Tesla • Amazon • Netflix • Pandora • Nest
  10. 10. https://www.afr.com/news/special-reports/acs-2018/ai-replacing-and-creating-jobs-simulataneously-20180603-h10wc3
  11. 11. (b) What drove the recent breakthroughs in AI? https://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/artic le/download/1904/1802
  12. 12. https://poundforabrown.wordpress.com/2013/07/20/the-chinese-room/
  13. 13. Machine Learning ⊂ Artificial Intelligence https://webdam.com/blog/machine-learning-making-dam-better/
  14. 14. https://blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2016/07/29/whats-difference-artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-deep-learning-ai/
  15. 15. https://www.amchkg.com/shileiblog/2017.1.4deep-learning
  16. 16. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/26/technology/in-a-big-network-of-computers-evidence-of-machine- learning.html • +1 billion parameters • 16,000 CPU cores • 10 million unlabeled YouTube videos
  17. 17. (c) Artificial Intelligence in Use Today
  18. 18. https://www.technologyreview.c om/s/525586/facebook-creates- software-that-matches-faces- almost-as-well-as-you-do/ • +120 million weights • 9-layer neural network • 4 million images
  19. 19. https://techcrunch.com/2018/04/26/alexa-will-soon-gain-a-memory-converse-more- naturally-and-automatically-launch-skills/
  20. 20. https://hbr.org/2018/03/ai-will-change-radiology-but-it-wont-replace-radiologists
  21. 21. II.Artificial Intelligence & Libraries
  22. 22. (a) Abstracting & Indexing
  23. 23. (b) Information Discovery & Retrieval
  24. 24. https://quartolio.com/
  25. 25. https://yewno.com/edu/concept/102e6bf8445dff7c922e1cc4e997ebf3
  26. 26. https://mitlibraries-hamlet.mit.edu/similar_to/16605/
  27. 27. (c) Feature Detection & Content Extraction
  28. 28. https://2018.code4lib.org/talks/deep-learning-and-historical-collections Also see : Eric Phetteplace, Bohyun Kim, and Ashley Blewer, “Reflections on Code4Lib 2018,” ACRL TechConnect (blog), March 12, 2018, https://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/post/reflections-on-code4lib-2018/.
  29. 29. (d) Voice User Interface (VUI) & Chatbots
  30. 30. https://www.eventscribe.com/2018/ALA-Midwinter/fsPopup.asp?Mode=presInfo&PresentationID=348820
  31. 31. https://books.google.com/talktobooks/ https://research.google.com/semanticexperiences/about.html +100,000 books
  32. 32. https://books.google.com/talktobooks/query?q=what%20is%20the%20best%20place%2 0to%20go%20on%20earth
  33. 33. https://books.google.com/talktobooks/query?q=why%20is%20there%20a%20wage%20difference%20b etween%20men%20and%20women
  34. 34. Jessamyn West, “TILT #55 - ‘Hey Google ARE Women Smarter than Men...?,’” TinyLetter (blog), accessed June 11, 2018, http://tinyletter.com/jessamyn/letters/tilt-55-hey-google-are-women-smarter-than-men.
  35. 35. Are libraries (library collections) ready for intelligent machines?
  36. 36. https://chrisbourg.wordpress.com/2017/03/16/what-happens-to-libraries-and-librarians-when- machines-can-read-all-the-books/
  37. 37. •Opportunities for improving existing library services/operation? •New library services or programs? •Challenges?
  38. 38. https://www.ibm.com/watson/ Delegation of High- Level Decisions
  39. 39. III.TheAI Lab at theUniversity of Rhode Island (URI)
  40. 40. https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/article/2017/03/15/data-analytics-programs-taking-colleges
  41. 41. https://today.uri.edu/news/uri-to-launch-artificial-intelligence-lab/
  42. 42. What Inspired the URI AI Lab • A response to the freshmen survey results about topics they wished to see in the college curriculum. • Dovetails with already existing initiatives at URI • Big Data cluster • A new BS/BA major in data science • DataSpark , a non-profit data analytics firm, acquired by URI in 2017, is placed under the URI Libraries. • Started as a grant proposal for the Champlin Foundation in the summer of 2017.
  43. 43. Participants • A team led by the Dean of the URI Libraries, Karim Boughida • PIs collaborating across multiple disciplines: • University Libraries • Department of Computer Science & Statistics /Big Data Initiative and Data Science Programs • Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering • Department of Philosophy Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017.
  44. 44. (a) Vision & Funding
  45. 45. The AI Lab at URI - Vision • To provide an easy-to-access facility at a centralized location (the main library), which not only serves all disciplines, but also thousands of information-seeking students per day. • The URI AI Lab as the first in the nation to be located in a library and to function as an information-rich source for all those wishing to learn about artificial intelligence, both theoretically and practically. Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017.
  46. 46. Funding • The grant was awarded in the fall of 2017. • Approximately $143,000 from the Champlin grant award • Additional commitment from participating colleges, the URI Libraries, and the URI Provost’s office
  47. 47. (b) Planning
  48. 48. Focus • Facilitate student learning on AI • Multi-disciplinary approach to foster thinking and collaboration across different subject areas • Three different zones to provide “learning-by-doing” experiences for students through course projects or personal interest.
  49. 49. Learning Zones • Zone 1: AI Workstations for Individualized Learning • Zone 2: Hands-on Project Bench • Deep Learning Robots: programmobilerobots instrumentedwithcameras, radars, sensors, andactuators; buildAI algorithms tonavigatebothknown andunknownenvironments. • Internet-of-things forSmartCities: aphysical model of RhodeIsland containingdistributedsensors andactuators todesignintelligent algorithmic projects tocontrol cityenvironments suchas lighting, traffic, transit and parking. • Big DataAnalytics: access andanalyzevarious kinds of bigdataavailablein publicdomain. • Zone 3: AI Hub for Collaborative Thinking Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017.
  50. 50. Designed to Be Integrated with URI Courses • Wearable Internet of Things (ELE 491/591) • apply machine/deep learning algorithms to enhance designed wearables that collect data on health. • Neural Engineering (BME 468/ELE 568) • utilize the AI Lab’s processing power to gain a deeper understanding of using brain electrical activity to control robots and other technology. • Philosophy (PHL 103) • undertake foundational programming exercises, allowing students to engage in discussions related to relationships between man and machine. Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017.
  51. 51. Beyond Course Projects • Expected to serve as a generator of new courses exploring AI from fields outside computing, engineering, and mathematics. • Examining the implications of AI for neuroscientific applications to health and cognition (psychology/health studies) • Clarifying what constitutes “thinking” and whether self-aware machines have rights (philosophy) Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017.
  52. 52. Beyond Course Projects [continued] • Hosts events to identify and bring together faculty, staff and the greater community with an active interest in AI from diverse vantage points. • Lectures and talks • Hackathons open to students from URI and beyond • Opportunities to integrate AI-focused learning experiences into existing K-12 initiatives, such as SMILE (Science and Math Investigative Learning Experience) and the RI STE(A)M Center (which promotes K-12 scientific literacy) Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017.
  53. 53. (c) Implementation
  54. 54. Implementation Currently Underway i. Computing Equipment ii. Space & Furniture iii. Talks & Events iv. Brainstorming
  55. 55. [i] Computing Equipment • Decided on equipment optimized for machine learning/deep learning tasks • Server: Nvidia DGX-1 Server for GPU computing • Workstations: Lambda Tensorbooks
  56. 56. https://lambdal.com/lambda-stack-deep-learning-software
  57. 57. Source: Kunal Mankodiya, Aras Dargazany, Cheryl Foster, Joan Peckham, Harrison Dekker, Angel Ferria, and Karim Boughida, "ai.uri: The Artificial Intelligence Lab (a grant proposal)," September, 2017. [ii] Space & Furniture
  58. 58. https://www.meetup.com/URI-AI/ [iii] Talks & Events
  59. 59. “People of Color in AI: A Discussion on Ethical Implications and Impacts,” a recent event held at the URI Libraries. https://web.uri.edu/li brary/2018/03/29/peo ple-of-color-in-ai-a- discussion-on- ethical-implications- and-impacts/
  60. 60. Branstorming Session [iv] Brainstorming
  61. 61. Potential Offerings • Table One: Events • Table Two: Instruction and Courses • Table Three: AI Lab Technology • Table Four: AI Ethics
  62. 62. [v] Challenges
  63. 63. https://www.insidehighered.com/ne ws/2018/01/17/rhode-island-hopes- putting-artificial-intelligence-lab- library-will-expand-ais-reach
  64. 64. IV.The Dark Side ofAI & Algorithmic Biases
  65. 65. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604 087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/
  66. 66. https://www.wired.com/2017/04/courts-using-ai-sentence-criminals-must-stop-now/
  67. 67. https://www.aclu.org/blog/privacy-technology/pitfalls-artificial-intelligence-decisionmaking-highlighted-idaho-aclu-case
  68. 68. http://explainableai.com/
  69. 69. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/09/technology/facial-recognition-race-artificial-intelligence.html
  70. 70. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/group/fate/
  71. 71. https://blackinai.github.io/
  72. 72. https://gizmodo.com/google-employees-resign-in-protest-against-pentagon-con-1825729300
  73. 73. https://www.blog.google/topics/ai/ai-principles/
  74. 74. V.The Future ofAI
  75. 75. What is “intelligence”?
  76. 76. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test#/media/File:Turing_test_diagram.png Turing Test
  77. 77. Image from Max Tegmark, Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence (New York: Knopf, 2017), p.53. Figure 2.2: Illustration of Hans Moravec’s “Landscape of Human Competence”
  78. 78. Ethics Revisited https://pixel.nymag.com/imgs/daily/selectall/2016/08/09/09-trolley.w710.h473.jpg
  79. 79. What Is a Machine To Do?
  80. 80. Ethics for Data Science & AI • It’s popular for people nowadays to suddenly bring up ethics as if it will solve all the problems. • Ethics isn’t there to give us answers. • Ethics is there to show how complicated the Qs are in the first place.
  81. 81. Why AI Matters to Librarianship
  82. 82. ThankYou! BohyunKim @bohyunkim[Twitter] http://bohyunkim.net/blog[Blog] ChiefTechnologyOfficer Universityof RhodeIslandLibraries

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