Modelling Personalization


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Shows approaches to modelling personalization in information architecture

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Modelling Personalization

  1. 1. I’m not you Modelling and conceptualizing personalization in information architecture Presented by / Bogo Vatovec Change Management / Knowledge Engineering / User Experience / Interaction Design / Process Engineering
  2. 2. <ul><li>Integration of personalization in a design of an interactive system. </li></ul>What will I be talking about?
  3. 3. Personalization related deliverables <ul><ul><li>Personalization Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to personalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing personalization scenarios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting the right strategy for my project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals and KPIs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Improvement program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User, content and functional profiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspect-oriented use cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probabilistic models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing the tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing and Acceptance </li></ul></ul>I‘m going to skip the red ones….
  4. 4. Introduction to personalization
  5. 5. Personalization can mean lots of different things to different stakeholders
  6. 6. Some of these cases are trivial If you are happy enough that they apply to you, forget the rest of the presentation. For the others…
  7. 7. First some categorization No pretention that this modell is complete
  8. 8. Introduction – how personalization works <ul><li>Personalization works essentially using the following methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit settings: I want A, B and C. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity of profiles: If A is similar to B then do C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of actions: If 1) and 2) and 3), then do 4). </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of: If A is similar to B and 1) and 2) then do 4) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Explicit personalization – the user chooses options
  10. 10. Implicit personalization
  11. 11. Most popular – collaborative filtering <ul><ul><ul><li>If user A is looking at product 1 and has a similar profile to user B and user B also bought product 1 and bought product 2, recommend product 2 to user A. </li></ul></ul></ul>Example: collaborative filtering
  12. 12. Conceptualizing personalization
  13. 13. Conceptualizing personalization has one basic rule Describe behaviour without and with personalization separately.
  14. 14. Separate behaviour without and with personalization Without personalization, the user experience looks like this….. With personalization, the user experience looks like that….. Personalization expands the existing essential functionality. It is never a function on its own. The interactive system must serve its main purpose also without personalization.
  15. 15. IAs use common usage scenarios to define the context of personalization
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Align personalization with the business strategy and desired user experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it important to have user profiles? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which data about the users is important? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of a benefit does the interactive system provide for the user and the business through different personalization types? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly state the personalization strategy by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describing the personalization type used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describing usage scenarios illustrating the experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State the benefits for the business and the user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure every stakeholder understands this </li></ul></ul>Make sure to consider the following
  17. 17. Visualizing the big picture
  18. 18. Conceptual models - a „rich picture“
  19. 19. Conceptual models – A relationships diagram
  20. 20. Profiles, profiles, profiles
  21. 21. User profiles <ul><li>A0: Anonymous first time visitor </li></ul><ul><li>A1: Anonymous returning visitor leaving traces </li></ul><ul><li>R1: Registered user (essential profile) </li></ul><ul><li>R2: Registered returning user (essential and extended profile) </li></ul><ul><li>RP1: Registered returning user with behaviour (essential, extended and behavioural profile) </li></ul>User profile ID Behavioral data Core profile Extended profile A0 A1 R1 R2 RP1
  22. 22. Content and function profile Content/function Attributes Tags Tag cloud
  23. 23. Example: Detailing the user profile
  24. 24. Clarify user profile management <ul><ul><li>When is the user profile created? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When is the user profile deleted? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the user delete his profile? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens to the content related to the user profile? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much can the user know about his profile? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can the user manage/modify his profile? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. It‘s time for use cases and flowcharts
  26. 26. Use cases in Information Architecture Illustrative purpose only
  27. 27. Use case model allows us to better understand the interactive system generalize include A use case model consists of three main type of relationships: Illustrative purpose only
  28. 28. The aspects-oriented use case modelling gives extend relationship a dynamic dimension extend Illustrative purpose only
  29. 29. This dynamic dimension changes system behaviour
  30. 30. User profiles can be incorporated in the activity diagram For use case haters: Use the flow-diagramm connecting screens in the same way and create various flow for each profile-type
  31. 31. This is silly. Have no idea anymore what we are talking about
  32. 32. Bringing it all together in a readable form
  33. 33. Modelling using aspects-orientation provides several advantages <ul><ul><li>Makes conceptualization and incremental detailing easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables iterative development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for functional reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for easier testing and verification </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. This was easy, wasn‘t it? Wait – were are at the personalization rules? Wait – were are the Bayesian models? Wait – were are adaptive interfaces?
  35. 35. Personalization rules specify conditions when personalization applies <ul><ul><li>Some examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If user is looking at content A and content B has similar tags, show content B as related content. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If user A is looking at product 1 and has a similar profile to user B and user B also bought product 1 and bought product 2, recommend product 2 to user A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If user A with profile A has click 1 then 2 then 3 and pauses for 2,5s here, show context sensitive help. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the conceptualizing process, we use a simple descriptive language like this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice example Number 2) – it has a sequence of conditions…. Will talk about this in a minute. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Let‘s move to technology a bit and then explore the rest
  37. 37. Personalization strategy defines the use cases for technology <ul><ul><li>Capture user behaviour on the website and store it in the user profile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamically generate content recommendations based on user behaviour in real time (in one session) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamically generate content recommendations based on the stored user profile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for statistical analysis of user behaviour based on user profiles to expand marketing knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the user the possibilities to customize the layout of the home pages. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. To come up with requirements, you need to further specify them
  39. 39. Technical architecture for personalization Users User interface Layer Personalization Profile Layer Specific Values Vocabulary Layer Attributes Content User Profile Content Profile Content Attributes User Attributes Personalization Rules Personalization Rules Modified from the model by Argus Center for Information Architecture Analytics User Behaviour Content Statistics
  40. 40. How can this model help us? <ul><ul><li>How much does one system require explicit user profile setting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much implicit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it integrate with other systems to fill out the profiles? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the system support vocabulary level personalization rules? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How easy it is to automatically populate content values? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What features does the personalization system include to manage controlled vocabularies? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Those of you who carefully listened notices that I missed an important compontent….. TIME
  42. 42. Until now we looked at the user and content profiles as one object with one state Since the user profile has only one state, we forget the sequence of actions – user‘s decision making process
  43. 43. Here the fun begins: Adaptive user interfaces and even – yes – artificial intelligence <ul><li>Adaptive user interfaces are interfaces which automatically acquire knowledge about the users, update this knowledge over time, and uses this knowledge to adapt to the users’ requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence is defined as as &quot;the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Remember the personalization rule from before <ul><ul><ul><li>If user A with profile A has click 1 then 2 then 3 and pauses for 2,5s here, show context sensitive help. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To model this, we need to have a user profile with a sequence of events </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><ul><li>How can we track all past user actions? Which data do we need to track? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can previous behaviour give us enough information for action? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we provide qualitative personalization rules based on this data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can previous behaviour provide us enough information to predict future user actions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Wizard of Oz research methodology in reverse – can the experts predict user action? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We talk about probability, game theory and statistics… </li></ul></ul>Considering time brings a new dimension of complexity and challenges
  46. 46. This is where probability theories and machine learning come into the game <ul><ul><li>The good news is that – unless you have a peculiar interest in this – you can get along with the first part of the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Summary – remember what we talked about… <ul><ul><li>We looked at the following topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization types and categorization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization scenarios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User, content and functional profiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspect-oriented use cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probabilistic models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Summary – the doggy bag <ul><ul><li>What you should take with you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization was not invented by Amazon. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define what personalization is for you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain this to every stakeholder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model personalization so that project members understand how it will work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use various models for various stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore various modelling methods and start using them. They help in the communication and clarification of issues and open points. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Thank you! Bogo Vatovec bovacon Boxhagener Str. 111 / 10245 Berlin T +49 30 20078666 / F +49 30 20078661 / / © bovacon