Change Management for Publication Department


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an overview of change management for publication and technical communication teams

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Change Management for Publication Department

  1. 1. Change Management for Technical Communicators Presented by / Bogo Vatovec Change Management / Knowledge Engineering / User Experience / Interaction Design / Process Engineering
  2. 2. Getting to know each other <ul><li>Who are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you here? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you understand under Change Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you interested in it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your experience with Change Management? Describe one example of a change activity you have been involved with in the past 12 months. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction to Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>How people react to change </li></ul><ul><li>A guide to implementing the change </li></ul><ul><li>The Change Process </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in a Change Process </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Communication in a Change Process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Change Management: An Introduction
  5. 5. Some examples of a change / but not necessarily of Change Management <ul><li>Merging of two companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing a new marketing department in a software organization is about Change Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Merging of a training and publication departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving from MS Word to FrameMaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Going from printed to online documentation, from a Windows to a Web based interface. </li></ul><ul><li>A team is not productive to the extend desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees feel they are not involved and informed about directions, decisions and their role. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop certain skills to remain competitive. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How can I avoid being involved with Change Management? A guide to ignorance <ul><li>As a manager: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore all discussions about performance improvement, cost saving, business focusing, ROI, costs centers, business processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In am employee yearly goal setting meeting, do not set any goals or define any plan. Let it just be as it has been. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an employee and a person: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do what you always have been doing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t ask yourself about the meaning and purpose of your work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you never took vacation, don’t take it now. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If your wife/husband has always been unhappy about something, let it be like this. It’s not your business anyhow. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How can I avoid being involved with Change Management <ul><li>In fact, you can’t. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage counseling is often about managing change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death in a family is about change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting in love is about change. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. In a business context, Change Management is about performance <ul><li>Change Management serves business goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize the profit margin </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Produce more with less </li></ul><ul><li>Faster time to market </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management is not about: </li></ul><ul><li>Making employees happy. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft factors </li></ul>Change management is the effective management of a business change such that executive leaders, managers and front line employees work in concert to successfully implement the needed process, technology or organizational changes. (HBR, a Change Management Primer)
  9. 9. Essential of Change Management: Different perspectives <ul><li>Two perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management perspective (change leader): “I need results” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recipients perspective: “What does this change mean to me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees resist the change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued personnel leave the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical projects are delayed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers feel the impact indirectly through upset employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity declines. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The two perspectives define two aspects of Change Management <ul><li>Organizational Change Management (Improvement) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Change Management (Improvement) </li></ul>
  11. 11. What has Change Management to do with Technical Communication? <ul><li>Technical Communication as a profession is changing rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies we work for are changing continuously. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities of the Publication Department change continuously. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes, tools and skills needed change continuously. </li></ul><ul><li>A new management style is required. </li></ul><ul><li>A new self-understanding from the employees is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Various roles in a change process provide job enrichment possibilities for Technical Communicators. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Change Management aspects improve productivity and team work. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Exercise: the last change project you have seen or been involved with <ul><li>Think about the last project that involved making a change and you have been involved with: </li></ul><ul><li>Write down what worked well? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Write down what failed? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Time: </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes summaries </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organizational Change Management: An Overview
  14. 14. Organizational Change Management <ul><li>A business view from the top. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to develop organizational capabilities to understand, accept and support the needed business change. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary focus is on change management strategies, communication plans and training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>The involved parties include project team members, human resources and key business leaders that sponsor the change. </li></ul>
  15. 15. A manager’s view on a change: “I need results!” <ul><li>When can the change be completed? </li></ul><ul><li>How much improvement will be realized? </li></ul><ul><li>How will this change impact our financial performance? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the required investment? </li></ul><ul><li>How will this change impact our customers? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The goal is to develop the following organizational capabilities and skills: <ul><li>Change management roles </li></ul><ul><li>Critical barriers to implementing change </li></ul><ul><li>Change management planning and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational change management methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Managing employee resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Building executive sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Creating communication plans </li></ul><ul><li>Creating training and educational programs </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive and recognition programs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Individual Change Management: An Overview
  18. 18. Individual Change Management <ul><li>Change from a perspective of the employees. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus on tools and techniques to help an employee transition through the change process. </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching required to help them understand the role and decisions in the change process. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal and professional changes/improvement needed to support the new business goals. </li></ul>
  19. 19. A recipient’s view of a change: “What will this change mean to me?” <ul><li>Why are we doing this? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I still going to be needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is expected from me? Am I able to deliver? </li></ul><ul><li>What will I have to do differently? </li></ul><ul><li>How will I learn new things? </li></ul><ul><li>When will the change take place? </li></ul>
  20. 20. You will need to develop skills and capabilities in the following areas <ul><li>Diagnosing resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Models for managing individual change </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions and consequences around supporting change that face employees </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching tools and techniques for helping employees navigate the change process </li></ul><ul><li>Activities and exercises for supervisors to use with their employees to manage change </li></ul>
  21. 21. Useful skills and competencies for an individual participating in a Change Process <ul><li>Moderation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Goals settings and personal feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Handling the resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict handling </li></ul><ul><li>Team development </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>How would you go about to develop and hone these skills? </li></ul>
  22. 22. A guide to implementing change
  23. 23. Critical barriers to implementing change and why change projects fail <ul><li>Don’t touch the working system </li></ul><ul><li>Everything good comes from above </li></ul><ul><li>Not invented here </li></ul><ul><li>The wrong question </li></ul><ul><li>The solution is a part of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Function follows Form organizational design </li></ul><ul><li>Superman profiles for employees </li></ul><ul><li>Dishonest communication </li></ul><ul><li>Island solutions </li></ul><ul><li>No or bad communication </li></ul><ul><li>No engagement of employees in the change process </li></ul>
  24. 24. Successful organizations… <ul><li>Create energy through honest communication </li></ul><ul><li>Think in processes instead of structures </li></ul><ul><li>Design the organization as an open system </li></ul><ul><li>Organize from outside to inside </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the process through communication </li></ul><ul><li>Define measurable criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Involve participants early </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure learning </li></ul>
  25. 25. Principles for successful Change Implementation <ul><li>Goal oriented management </li></ul><ul><li>No actions without a proper diagnose </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic thinking and acting </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the affected </li></ul><ul><li>Help to self-help </li></ul><ul><li>Process-oriented governance </li></ul><ul><li>Careful selection of key persons </li></ul><ul><li>High acceptance from management and affected employees </li></ul><ul><li>Live communication </li></ul>
  26. 26. How do people react to a change?
  27. 27. The Janssen’s Four Room Apartment model Note: Another similar model is “the value of tears”
  28. 28. What to do with employees in each room? <ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Get people together </li></ul><ul><li>Share information </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on short term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Share information </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to enforce </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Give people some structure </li></ul><ul><li>Let them work out and stabilize the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Contentment </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic checks </li></ul>
  29. 29. Identify change agents <ul><li>Change agents are people especially inclined to support a change and are needed to start the snowball by helping you to convince the others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like to influence and lead change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in exploring opportunities/issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimistic and early tester of new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of risk associated with valuing diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek out and passes on information; opinion leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek recognition, respect, social leadership, and personal fulfillment </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Change Process
  31. 31. The Change Process Model - ADKAR ADKAR: Developed by Jeff Hiatt is 1995 and later published in an article titled &quot;The Perfect Change&quot; by the Change Management Learning Center in 1999
  32. 32. ADKAR Model <ul><li>Helps answer questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is communication so important during change?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do employees resist change?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do executive business leaders need to be active and visible sponsors of change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do employees become stressed and distracted from day to day work?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I find the barrier point to change, and manage employee or management resistance?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should front-line supervisors be active in coaching employees during change?  </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. ADKAR - Awareness Awareness is created through communication: <ul><li>Who should communicate what? </li></ul>Communicators <ul><li>When is the best time to communicate? </li></ul>Timing <ul><li>Face to face </li></ul><ul><li>Memos and other media </li></ul>Channels (enablers) <ul><li>Messages about the business today. </li></ul><ul><li>Messages about the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Messages about the impact on the employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Status updates and reports. </li></ul>Key messages
  34. 34. ADKAR : Building Desire <ul><li>Enablers to build a desired may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of job loss </li></ul><ul><li>Discontent with the current state </li></ul><ul><li>Imminent negative consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced job security </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation and sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Career advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of power or position </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership for the future state </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive or compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and respect for leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Hope in future state </li></ul>
  35. 35. ADKAR: Creating Knowledge <ul><li>In general, knowledge can be created through: </li></ul><ul><li>Training and education programs </li></ul><ul><li>Open and ready access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Examples and role models </li></ul>
  36. 36. ADKAR: Creating Ability to change <ul><li>Creating the ability to change consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Practice applying new skills, processes and tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities to change include: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical motor skill ability </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive or analytical ability </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior change </li></ul>
  37. 37. ADKAR - Reinforcement <ul><li>Reinforcement may include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Compensational changes </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal recognition </li></ul>
  38. 38. Communication in a change process
  39. 39. The key issue in Change Management: Communication <ul><li>The need and the goals for a change may be clear to the management, but are vague to the employees. </li></ul><ul><li>The employee can’t see the connection between the change goals and his professional/personal goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The management has been thinking about the change for a long time, but it is completely new to the employee. </li></ul><ul><li>The trust to the initiator may vary: is it really about what they are telling us or they just want to lay-off people? </li></ul>
  40. 40. The key issue in Change Management: Communication <ul><li>A communication plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a stakeholder analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the existing communication ways </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate and define the communication channels </li></ul><ul><li>Define a stakeholder communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare feedback and evaluation channels </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the communication materials </li></ul>Differentiate between a “lack of information” and “lack of communication”. Differentiate between “being informed” and “knowing”
  41. 41. Questions to answer in a change process <ul><li>Why is the change needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we want to actually achieve? What are the alternatives? </li></ul><ul><li>Why like this and not somehow else? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of risks are we facing? What can we lose? </li></ul><ul><li>What will we do differently in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any future for us? For me? </li></ul><ul><li>What role are we playing in the change? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we trust those who planned everything? </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t we wait with it longer? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Facts about communication in a change process <ul><li>Each change process is only as good as its communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of communication is based on a live dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t not communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication comes usually too late. </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody hears only what he wants. </li></ul><ul><li>To effectively communicate you need to know the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>No communication without purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick communication requires short flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much communication is, well, too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication doesn’t mean “everybody discussed with everyone” </li></ul><ul><li>There are also things that shouldn’t be communicated (to everyone) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Exercise: A change in the Publications Department <ul><li>Build groups of 2/3 persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: </li></ul><ul><li>You are a manager of a 15 people publication department. Your team uses MS Word. Your company just merged with another company whose publication group with 30 people uses FrameMaker. </li></ul><ul><li>You agreed to move from MS Word to FrameMaker. </li></ul><ul><li>How would you approach the task? </li></ul><ul><li>Time: </li></ul><ul><li>30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Each group presents the results </li></ul>
  44. 44. Exercise: Did you consider the following? <ul><li>What are the reasons for this change? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the planed impact? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the stakeholders? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact on them? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you consider the ROI? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of changes are needed to the publication process? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you think about the impact on reviewers and subject matter experts? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you train the employees? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Exercise: Continued <ul><li>Detail the stakeholder list: </li></ul><ul><li>Who is affected by the proposed solution? </li></ul><ul><li>How will they react? </li></ul><ul><li>What does interest them? What do they need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you handle their needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Time: </li></ul><ul><li>30 minutes </li></ul>
  46. 46. The role of a Technical Communication in a Change Process
  47. 47. How to identify (potential) change projects? <ul><li>Organizational change projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merges of companies/departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality initiatives (ISO, Balanced Scorecard, CMM,TQM, TickIt, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team and individual level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts and frictions in a team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mixed competency team doesn’t really work as a team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance lower than expected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of new roles, employee profiles, titles. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Exercise: <ul><li>Think about (change) projects in your organization. Write the projects on the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you feel it is a change project? </li></ul><ul><li>What could a technical communicator do in this project? </li></ul><ul><li>What could you do in the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the projects with your colleague. </li></ul><ul><li>Time: </li></ul><ul><li>30 minutes </li></ul>
  49. 49. Some typical roles a Technical Communicator can take in a Change Process <ul><li>Be the representative of the recipients side. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage and organize the communication activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Take over specific tasks in the change process, such as workshops preparation and moderation, conflict management. </li></ul><ul><li>Define or co-develop concepts and materials for individual performance improvement (training, coaching, …) </li></ul><ul><li>In the ADKAR process, Technical Communicators are strongly involved in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D – building Desired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K – creating Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A – develop Ability </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Next steps
  51. 51. How to proceed? <ul><li>How mature is change management in your organization? Join the existing group. </li></ul><ul><li>Become a change management champion. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for project with a change management dimension. Make sure to participate. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are a manager, make sure to include change management aspects to your activities and projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your skills in change management. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Recommended literature <ul><li>Recommended books: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Bridges, Managing Transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John P. Kotter, Leading Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard Business School Press, Managing Change and Transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter P. Senge, The Dance of Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter P. Senge, The fifth Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeff Davidsion, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Change Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended magazines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard Business Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPI (International Society for Performance Improvement) Quarterly </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Recommended internet sites Free online articles, materials, and resources for the ethical development of people, business and organizations. On the site you'll find in-depth articles, hundreds of long book reviews and lots of other information. The CMD is a website dedicated to Change Management and contains a wealth of resources One section of the Free Management Library
  54. 54. Thanks! Bogo Vatovec Consulting Office Gabriel-Max-Str. 20 / 10245 Berlin T +49 30 20078666 / F +49 30 20078661 / / © Bogo Vatovec Consultig