Copyright Basics


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Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution states, "The Congress shall have power... to promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discovers." The purpose of this protection is to balance between protection of intellectual property and the rights of those seeking to access information.

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Copyright Basics

  1. 1. Copyrights & Research Researchers Beware! Let’s Review Some Copyright Basics By Mr. Breitsprecher
  2. 2. Copyrights Apply <ul><li>Most things are copyrighted </li></ul><ul><li>No need to register </li></ul><ul><li>No need to identify with “ © ” or statement </li></ul><ul><li>If in “tangible form,” copyrights apply </li></ul><ul><li>Once created, saved, or put online, creator has copyrights </li></ul>
  3. 3. Term “Copyrights” <ul><li>Copyrights means “right to copy” </li></ul><ul><li>Protects how ideas are presented </li></ul><ul><li>Does not protect the idea itself </li></ul><ul><li>Facts cannot be copyrights </li></ul>
  4. 4. Six Copyrights <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Public Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Public Display </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio Transmissions of Sound Recordings </li></ul>
  5. 5. Need Permission to… <ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly perform </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly display </li></ul><ul><li>Digitally transmit audio sound recordings </li></ul>Unless the intended use falls under a special category called fair use
  6. 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Making copies </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading from Web </li></ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Rewriting or recreating </li></ul><ul><li>Photographing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adaptation <ul><li>Modifications, alterations, use of another’s ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Changing format, posting from a book to a Web </li></ul><ul><li>Copying someone else’s HTML all </li></ul>
  8. 8. Distribution <ul><li>Owners controls how work is distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Including electronic transmissions or posting on Web </li></ul>
  9. 9. Public Performance <ul><li>Right to perform in public covered by copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Digital broadcasts, other transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Live renditions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Public Display <ul><li>Owners control how work is shown to public </li></ul><ul><li>Digital transmission considered public display </li></ul>
  11. 11. Audio Transmission <ul><li>Copyright owners control how audio recordings are distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Sending or downloading audio file over the Internet is a digital transmission. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fair Use <ul><li>Can use copyrighted material if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not commercial, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not infringe on main copyrighted idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not affect potential market for original copyrighted work </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 4 “Fair Use” Factors <ul><li>Purpose or character of use </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of original work </li></ul><ul><li>Amount and substantiality of use </li></ul><ul><li>Affect on potential market </li></ul>
  14. 14. Copyright Notices <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright, Copr., or © </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The year first published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of copyright holder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 © Breitlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not need notice to be protected by copyrights </li></ul>©
  15. 15. Avoid Problems <ul><li>If in doubt, get written permission </li></ul><ul><li>Read licenses for software, graphics, video, or audio </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful with Web content </li></ul><ul><li>Someone else’s violation does not mean everyone else can violate copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Many copyright violations on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Find out who owns rights before using </li></ul>
  16. 16. Protect Yourself <ul><li>Use original material on websites </li></ul><ul><li>Copyrights do not cover ideas, concepts, methods, facts, principles, discoveries. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the way these are explained </li></ul><ul><li>Collect facts & ideas from several sources </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sources protects against charges of “adaptation” </li></ul><ul><li>Get permission from photographer and the subject(s) before using pictures </li></ul>
  17. 17. Facts Not Copyrighted <ul><li>Only presentation of facts covered </li></ul><ul><li>Links are facts, just like phone numbers – free to use </li></ul><ul><li>Do not link to sites that violate copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Lists of links are covered by copyrights </li></ul>
  18. 18. If In Doubt, CHECK! <ul><li>US Copyright Office ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>R.I.G.H.T.S. Redistribution of Graphics Has to Stop ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford Copyright & Fair Use Center ( fairuse ) </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Clearance Center ( ) </li></ul>