Teaching Language as a System
PhD. Norma Flores
4.1 The importance of
Grammar is the way words are put together to
form correct sentences.
Spelling is forming words from letters.
Mistakes are occasional
Errors are, mis-learnerd
Common & proper
Describes a noun
Describes a concept describe by the v
Substitutes a noun
Is in is going
Can, must, may
The, a, all, some, many
In, before, of, according to, despite
4.2 Factors involved in
Creating a path to a
of English grammar.
Depending of the learner
Capacity for risk
Size of the group
Stages of the
Type of approach
Ways to store the
Order of difficulty
4.3 Teaching Grammar
Progress by stages
Rules giver by the teacher
CLT in the classroom
(Communicative Language Teaching)
Explanation, brief, clear and simple.
Teachers do not know everything
Mother tongue if needed
Grammar techniques should be
meaningful, lively, motivating, communicative, they should
promote accuracy and are fluent.
Using charts and graphs
Maps or simple drawings
Listening to stories
Piling up events
4.4 Identification of
problem areas in teaching
Teaching grammar structures without context.
Text books contain manipulative drills grounded
in shallow and artificial contexts, so these drills
become rather meaningless so students
The inductive approach can be frustrating.
Adolescents and adult learners have become
analytical with regard to the rules that govern
their native languages.
No language teaching should be driven by
grammar instruction alone.
Whole language teaching
|P.A.C.E| (Donato and AdairHauck)
• Presenting the
in a Thematic
• The presentation
of the language.
• Asking about
patterns found in
• Get learners to
on the target
waste of time.
• Learners and
be coconstructors of
• Assistance in
• This activity will
allow leaners to
use their new
• The activity
• They are not
“Language learning is a thinking process,
or from the learner´s viewpoint, a
guessing game. Teachers need to design
cognitively demanding activities that will
encourage learners to hypothesize,
predict, take risk, make errors, and selfcorrect.” (Fountas and Hannigan 1989).
By doing so, the learners become active
participants in the learning process.
Krashen, Stephen (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language
Acquisition. Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-028628-3. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
Startvik, j. and Leech, G. (1994). A communicative grammar in English.
New York, New York, USA.
Stern, H. (1984). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. London,