• Describe nursing education in relation to
the Foundation of Knowledge model.
• Explore knowledge acquisition and sharing.
• Assess technology tools and delivery
modalities used in nursing education.
• Compare and contrast knowledge
Instructional Applications Of
• A way to erase geographical boundaries for
• May enhance the presentation of content
• May improve learning outcomes
• Helps tailor instruction to individual
• Opportunities for simulations
• Complex multimedia
• Virtual reality-assisted clinical scenarios
• Information and literature-gathering
Social Media in Education
• Twitter® (twitter.com) can be used to focus and hone
• Flickr® (flickr.com) for photo sharing
• Glogster® (glogster.com) a graphical blog
• Pixton® (pixton.com) to make comics or cartoons
• Prezi® (prezi.com) to create zooming presentations
• Slideshare® (slideshare.net) a community for sharing
• YouTube (youtube.com) to watch and share videos
• Wordle™ (wordle.net) to create word clouds from text
Interactivity in Web-enhanced
– students interact to troubleshoot, work out challenges,
and exchange solutions
– Students interact with course content
– direct interaction with instructor
• learner–interface interactions
– access to content
• Consider usability, functionality, and
– When evaluating software or hardware for
purchase, careful assessment of the products
and services will help an educator,
administrator, or student to make the best
– Hardware decisions will depend upon the way
a computer system will be used, in addition to
cost, ease of use, and durability.
• Nursing educators are discovering that current
students are not responding in the same ways
they did during their own tenure as students.
• Technology-laden students from the millennial
age demand instant information delivered in
an entertaining fashion, an expectation built
upon extensive exposure to e-mail, text
messaging, online chatting, and the Internet.
• Learning is a multispatial function, and in
the age of technology innovation,
instructional delivery can inhabit many
forms in both physical and virtual spaces.
• “Spaces” in academia are no longer defined
by a class or its content, but instead by the
learning the class is trying to promote.
Teaching Methods Compared
• Although the most widely used teaching method
among nurse educators, traditional face-to-face
lecture yields only a 5% information retention
rate over a 24-hour period, compared with
– demonstration (30%)
– discussion groups (50%)
– practice activities (75%)
– peer teaching (90%)
• The professor guides conversation and sets up
discussion, acting less as classroom authority and
more as facilitator, helping students maintain
focus, gently guiding discussion, and ultimately
empowering students to push knowledge
boundaries in a safe and secure atmosphere of
• interactive, cooperative learning strategies might
include gaming, role playing, and problem-based
• E-learning, online and web-based education have
caused a significant shift in student-teacher
relationships in nursing education.
– online learning allows educators to translate theory
into practice, creating a virtual classroom space that
promotes collaboration, engagement, discussion, and
– detractors of online learning initiatives suggest that
sharing an online space undermines the student-
teacher relationship, makes building peer relationships
difficult, and generally disrupts the normal classroom
dynamic, thus creating an unfamiliar, uncomfortable
• Asynchronous and time-independent
elements of Web-based courses
– provide flexible class times
– meet needs of population of nontraditional
• Allows participation by anyone, anywhere in the
world, with access
• Re-envision classroom interaction, and
depending on the specific delivery mode, can
even change basic pedagogical concepts.
• Traditional courses are more frequently being
offered as online, virtual classes, i.e., “distance
education”: learning that occurs elsewhere than
in the traditional classroom.
• Web-enhanced instruction allows technically
ambivalent institutions to participate in the
technology revolution without huge budgetary
expenditure and also addresses a preference by
some faculty for a way to include innovation and
technology in classes without giving up traditional
• “Digital” and “multimedia” classrooms,
– integrate computer and audio-visual technologies by
providing a ceiling-mounted projector with an access
point at the front of the room, an instructor
podium/workstation, sound, and network access.
• Enhanced smart classroom
– also provide networked student workstations
instead of traditional desks, allowing students
to follow along online and perform network or
Web searches, chat, blog, etc.
Net Generation or Millennials
• students who have grown up inside a wired
world of instant access and online
• connected, digital, experiential, and social
• interacting in peer-to-peer situations is a
familiar and common learning mode
• desire information immediately
• are skilled multitaskers
• Provide information to students and the
skills to find, evaluate, understand, and
apply this information
• Attempt to mimic lectures by guiding users
through a series of objectives or tasks,
usually allowing the user to do the work at
his or her own pace
• May use animation, text, graphics, sound,
questions, and different kinds of
interactivity to engage and intrigue the
• Combine high-fidelity equipment with real-
time demonstrations of simulated medical
emergencies or patient situations
• Task and skill training ranks as the most
popular form of simulation, during which
students hone repetitive skills through
interaction with a wide range of equipment
See Chapter 24 for in-depth coverage of Simulations
• Multiple sensory inputs, either mediated or
generated by a computer, through visual
stimulation, audio input, and touch
• Fosters unintentional learning through gamer-like
– students discover and create knowledge in order to
• Their experiences result in greater
comprehension and deeper knowledge
• The general consensus in nursing education
suggests that any technology that allows users
to interact and engage both materials and
each other is useful.
• Webcasts, typically live presentations
delivered via the Web, offer great potential
for students and faculty to engage both
information and each other globally, tapping
students’ multiple intelligences in order for
them to access what they need.
• One of the most common and proliferate
search tools in technology today is the “wiki.”
– Wikis are websites or hypertext document
collections that allow users to edit and add
content in an open-ended forum.
• Instant messaging (IM), one of many
collaborative Web “chat” tools available to
any user with a computer and Internet access.
• Real-time chats occur all over the Internet,
at each hour of every day.
– In a chat, students can meet, discuss, and
engage each other over any given topic.
• One low-investment information-gathering
tool for use by nursing professionals
includes membership in a listserv.
• Electronic discussion groups that use e-mail to
communicate, listservs promote communication
and collaboration with others interested in a
particular field of study.
– Similar to listservs in the way they deliver specific
information to one’s e-mail, a portal allows the
personalization of a specific website.
• Portals organize information from Web pages into
simple menus so that the user may choose what
they want to view and how they want to view it.
• Podcasts are audio recordings linked to the Web
that are then downloaded to an MP3 player or
computer where the listener accesses the
recording or video.
– “Audiopods” is a term used to describe traditional, or
audio-based, podcasts. Participating in podcasting can
exercise not just basic technology skills, but also
writing, editing, and speaking skills as well.
• Similar to audiopods in set-up and
accessibility, videopods are podcasts that
provide video in addition to audio
– Faculty might use videopodcasts to
demonstrate concepts, interview experts in
the field, and even assess student progress.
Webinars and WebCasts
• Webinars, are web-based seminars that use
web conferencing software that allows an
educator to share their computer screen
and files and interact with their students.
• Webcasts present to the audience with
limited or no interactivity.
• As technologically-savvy students continue to
demand accessible, interactive learning tools to
keep them engaged, an increasing number of
instructors are experimenting with and
incorporating multimedia into their courses.
• Research suggests that the seeing, hearing, doing
and interacting afforded by multimedia facilitates
learning retention, with multimedia at least as
effective as traditional instruction, but with the
benefit of greater learner satisfaction.
• Libraries have also begun to recognize their
role in students’ success with and
predisposition to collaborative learning
with redesigned spaces that reflect
students’ need to huddle in small groups,
sit closely together without barriers, chat
about their work, and view digital
information without physical hindrances
like carrels or work stalls.
Evaluating Learning Tools
• Integral and critical component of educational
• Administrators and nursing educators across
various programs are responsible for evaluation
• When looking for feedback and assessment of a particular
learning activity, data are best collected during and at the
completion of the activity.
– Evaluation by participants at the end of project is also valuable
since learners can provide information related to the attainment
of objectives and the teaching effectiveness of both the faculty
and the learning materials while the experience is still fresh and
• When a paper assignment or project does
fail, the outcome provides a valuable
learning opportunity for all educators to
look closely at the pedagogy, structure,
goals, outcomes, and expectations of
success of the proposed activity and
determine what needs revising or re-
evaluating in order for what the educator
would term “successful” completion.
• While traditional in-class discussion seems
almost outdated in light of the stunning
advances in technology that allow learners
to participate in every kind of activity from
computer-guided online quizzes to
interactive simulations, the educator as
facilitator still holds value and importance
in a traditional or even blended classroom.
• Legal and financial implications of employee and
student performance--a major concern for all
providers and health care organizations
• National Agencies (ANA) established minimum
competencies for nurses .
• Schools have redesigned their curricula as the
competency-based curricular outcomes
• Sharing experiences of clinical learning can help
convey life-saving information to other clinicians
in a way that is more memorable and less
imposing than warnings delivered outside a social
• The power of pooled knowledge in combination
with knowledge produced in dialogue with others
helps to limit tunnel vision and is a powerful
strategy for maximizing the clinical knowledge of
• Networking encourages professional support by
making successful professionals accessible to
• Nurses tend to gather their information from
personal networks such as colleagues or
professional meetings, the increased availability
of technology to assist in networking has greatly
facilitated information exchange.
Knowledge Dissemination and
• Formal networks, such as the International Nurse
Practitioner/Advanced Practice Nursing Network
(INP/PNN), unveiled in 2000, promote the
exchange of knowledge, resources, and expertise
in order to enhance the presence of nursing in
• Membership and participation in professional
associations also provide ways to network and
advance one’s profession.
Knowledge Dissemination and
• Publishing provides excellent opportunities to
extend knowledge and share research.
• Making presentations at contemporary
professional conferences allows nursing
educators and students to gain experience and
share scholarship with colleagues.
• Conferences often host poster presentations to
share research findings, innovations and
exemplar programs in a low-investment but
Fair Use of Information
• Fair use refers to a legal concept that permits the
use of copyrighted works for specific purposes
without obtaining permission from the author or
without paying for the use of the work.
• Fair use has expanded from print materials to
apply to the copying and redistribution of digital
media including photographs, graphics, music,
videos, audio and software or computer
Criteria for Determining Fair Use
Section 107 of the US Copyright Law (US
Copyright Office, n.d.).
• The purpose and character of the use, including whether
such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit
• The nature of the copyrighted work
• The amount and substantiality of the portion used in
relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
• The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or
value of, the copyrighted work
Thought Provoking Questions
1. What are some of the forces behind the push towards a
more wired learning experience in nursing education?
2. What technology do you find most beneficial to use in
your practice or education setting? Why do you find this
tool useful? From your perspective, how could this tool
3. Jean, a diabetes nurse educator, recently read an article
in an online journal that she accessed through her
health agency’s database subscription. The article
provided a comprehensive checklist for managing
diabetes in older adults, which she prints and
distributes to her patients in a diabetes education class.
Does this constitute fair use or is this a copyright
violation? Explain your answer.