2010 home winemaking class


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2010 home winemaking class

  1. 1. Linda Donovan<br />541.621.1589<br />2010 Home Winemaking Class<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />UCD Grad<br />Making Wine for 15 years<br />In Rogue Valley for 9 years<br />Started Pallet Wine Company in Medford<br />This class will walk you through the process of making 5 gallons of finished (drinkable) wine.<br />
  3. 3. Class Outline<br />Vineyards and Harvesting<br />Berry and Juice Composition<br />Must and Juice Adjustments<br />White Wine Making<br />Analysis Techniques<br />Red Wine Making<br />Finishing, Fining and Bottling<br />Miscellaneous Information<br />Tasting problems and successes from previous years<br />
  4. 4. Vineyards and Harvesting<br />Why Grapes?<br />Source<br />How to pick<br />How much to pick<br />When to Pick????????????????<br />
  5. 5. Determine Ripeness - Sweetness<br />Sugar content in grapes<br />Measured in ºBrix<br />White wines ideal = 21 – 23 ºBrix<br />Red wine ideal = 23-25 ºBrix<br />Dessert wines = as high as possible<br />
  6. 6. Acidity <br />Mostly Tartaric and Malic acids<br />Some Citric acid<br />Some Acetic acid and Suscinic acids<br />Will determine how tart the finished wine is<br />Contributes to quality of finished wine<br />White wine should be 7-9 g/L at harvest<br />Red wines should be 6-8 g/L at harvest<br />Dessert wines will be too low at harvest (waiting for sugar)<br />
  7. 7. pH …. the most important criteria<br />Will discuss (at length) next class<br />Range for whites 3.2- 3.5<br />Range for reds 3.3 – 3.6<br />
  8. 8. Flavor…. Also very important<br />Flavors change during ripening<br />
  9. 9. Condition of Grapes<br />Bird damage<br />Mold<br />Sunburn<br />Not getting any riper<br />Falling apart<br />
  10. 10. Weather and schedule<br />Cool, dry weather ideal – cold fruit is best!!<br />Grower’s schedule<br />Picker’s schedule<br />Equipment availability<br />
  11. 11. Ready to Pick…<br />
  12. 12. Need 100 pounds of Fruit<br />Clean buckets and clippers<br />Buckets hold approximately 20 pounds of fruit<br />Should be food grade buckets<br />If able to weigh= better<br />We will get about 6 gallons of juice or 22 Liters <br />We will end with about 5 gallons of wine or 19 Liters<br />
  13. 13. Analyze and Adjust Juice<br />ºBrix<br />Several methods<br />Brix * .55 = final alcohol ie. 24Brix = 13.2 % alcohol<br />Too high alcohol = yeast death (sweet) and “hot” taste<br />Too low sugar = not “winelike” and less stable in bottle<br />Add 1.25 pounds of table sugar to raise 10 gal of juice 1ºBrix<br />Use C1V1 = C2V2 formula to decrease sugar<br />
  14. 14. Correct for Acid<br />Total Acidity (TA) is reported in grams per Liter<br />Increase Acid in g/L<br />10 Liters of wine at 5.2 TA<br />Want TA of 7.0  increase of 1.8 g/L or, 18 grams of TARTARIC ACID<br />Lower TA by adding .62 g/L Potassium Carbonate to decrease TA by 1 g/L<br />19 Liters of wine at 9.5 TA<br />Want 7.0 g/L, add 1.5grams/Liter or 28.5 grams for 19 L.<br />
  15. 15. Measure pH<br />Very Important to understand <br />Microbial Importance<br />Chemical Importance<br />Reaction catalyst … “drives” reactions toward or against goal<br />Stability Importance<br />Measure often<br />Will increase over time<br />Increasing and decreasing TA will affect pH!!!<br />
  16. 16. Add Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)<br />Kills “bad” bugs<br />Our yeast not as sensitive <br />Prevents browning<br />Protects juice and wine<br />Expressed in ppm<br />We will add 45 ppm to our juice using Campden tablets<br />1 tablet per gallon = 75ppm increase <br />5 gallons at 0ppm = add 3 tablets<br />
  17. 17. Making White Wine<br />Let the Fun Begin!!!<br />
  18. 18. Pressing first<br />Transfer and sort grape clusters into press<br />No leaves<br />No moldy grapes<br />Spiders. Earwigs and dirt = OK<br />Press grapes until as dry as possible into two clean 5 gallon buckets<br />Press slowly – too slow= low yield, too hard= bitter tannins from seeds, stems and skins<br />Make adjustments now<br />
  19. 19. Settling<br />Keep as cool as possible<br />Allow to settle overnight in cool place- don’t move around<br />Rack clear juice into 5 gallon carboy plus other glass container- fill ¾ full only! <br />Put fermentation lock, breather cap on top.<br />
  20. 20. Add Yeast<br />For white wine, we are using Champagne yeast<br />Need to hydrate and acclimate yeast<br />Wait a couple days to see bubbles<br />Monitor Brix and temps- temps go up fast!<br />Smell often<br />Will get very frothy<br />Keep clean<br />Top up container (s) near end of fermentation 0Brix<br />Keep flies out but let gas out- can explode if sealed<br />
  21. 21. Allow to finish and age<br />When wine is “dry” , or when wine tastes good to you= time to stop and protect wine.<br />Will begin to clarify<br />No CO2<br />No Air!<br />No heat<br />
  22. 22. Ageing, Stylistic Options and Finishing<br />Oak Chips – use carefully<br />Sur Lies (on lees) stylistic<br />Blending<br />More acid/Less acid<br />ML Fermentation<br />Bacterial Fermentation<br />Malic acid to Lactic Acid<br />Stabilizes the wine<br />Creates Butter Flavors<br />pH, temp and competition issues<br />
  23. 23. If wine is “done”<br />Rack off solids<br />Add SO2 at a rate of 50 ppm<br />Top carboy<br />Replace breather bung with a solid bung<br />Keep cool<br />Start thinking about bottling!!!<br />
  24. 24. Stabilize prior to bottling<br />Tartrates will precipitate and form “wine diamonds”<br />Proteins will form a haze<br />Tartaric acid stabilization= get wine cold for 2 weeks (32 degrees F) and allow process to happen in carboy and not in bottle<br />Proteins need a little bentonite to pull them out of solution<br />Just for looks of a clear wine<br />Add about 10 grams of bentonite and allow to settle.<br />Rack once more and bottle<br />
  25. 25. If wine is sweet or not through ML, must filter to avoid fermentation in bottle. <br />Or drink it fast!!<br />Check S02 once more and make additions based on pH<br />
  26. 26. Bottling<br />Transfer wine into clean glass (rack)<br />Use Nitrogen to displace air in bottle<br />Avoid Oxygen!!<br />Closure<br />Capsule<br />Label<br />
  27. 27. Analysis Techniques<br />Red Wine Making<br />Tasting!!!!<br />Next Time:<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Analysis Techniques<br />
  30. 30. Measuring Sugar<br />Refractometer<br />Measures the bending of light<br />Use until alcohol is produced<br />Cost about $30 (look on eBay)<br />Great to take into the vineyard<br />Hydrometer<br />Measures specific gravity – how thick<br />Different scales<br />Brix scale = -2 to 30<br />Need about 150 mls per test (can pour juice back into fermenter)<br />
  31. 31. Sugars<br />CliniTest Tablets<br />Easy to use- made to measure sugar in urine<br />Very accurate in white wine<br />Red wine needs to be decolorized for easier reading<br />Use carbon or pvpp<br />.5 mls of sample (5 drops) and 1 pill. Sample gets hot when reaction occurs. <br />Orange= sweet<br />Blue = dry<br />
  32. 32. pH<br />Test strips range from 2.5 – 4.5<br />Small hand held = $20<br />Important to know pH <br />
  33. 33. Titratable Acidity (TA)<br />Acid test kits<br />Reported in g/L or g/100ml<br />6.5 g/L or .65g/100 ml<br />Important to degas sample<br />
  34. 34. SO2<br />Tirets test kits at Grains Beans etc.<br />Nielson Research Corporation<br />245 South Grape Street<br />Medford, OR 97501<br />(541)770-5678<br />Maria NRCWinelab@yahoo.com<br />
  35. 35. Malo Lactic Fermentation<br />Will stall if wine gets too cold and finish in the spring<br />Will see bubbles in wine while fermenting<br />Should take about 8 weeks to complete<br />Can test with paper chromotography<br />
  36. 36. Misc. Analysis<br />Volatile Acidity (VA) = amount of vinegar<br />Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) = stinky, rotten egg<br />Alcohol (Ethanol)<br />
  37. 37. Red Wine Making<br />A little different than whites<br />
  38. 38. Process<br />Pick<br />Destem<br />Into fermenter<br />Adjust sugar, acid… if necessary<br />Keep warm<br />Add yeast<br />Hydrate like white wine<br />Begin to monitor<br />
  39. 39. Punch Down<br />Keep Cap wet and clean<br />Distribute Heat<br />Allow air in<br />Extract tannins<br />Not too much<br />Taste often<br />
  40. 40. Press<br />Drain wine first<br />Transfer skins and seeds to press<br />Gently press <br />Wine will be sweet<br />Wine will be tannic<br />Add press wine back to free run<br />
  41. 41. Allow wine to settle<br />Rack off heavy solids<br />Continue to monitor<br />Will begin second fermentation (naturally)<br />Keep warm and topped up<br />Smell often<br />Add a little oak <br />Allow to age until it tastes good!<br />
  42. 42. Finishing and bottling Wine<br />When wine is “ready”<br />Blending<br />Fining – if too bitter<br />Egg whites<br />Milk<br />Gelatin<br />Stabilize tartaric acids<br />Know your pH and adjust SO2 accordingly<br />
  43. 43. SO2 and pH<br />Low pH requires much less sulfur dioxide (SO2) to be “protected”<br />pH 3.1 = 15 ppm<br />pH 3.3 = 20 ppm<br />pH 3.5 = 25 ppm<br />pH 3.7 = 35 ppm<br />pH 3.9 = 40ppm<br />This is the amount of SO2 that is present at bottling<br />Will lose a lot while transferring into bottles<br />
  44. 44. Making a Port Style wine<br />Eliminates the need for filtering <br /> Alcohol protects against microbe growth<br /> Use same formula as sugar dilution:<br />C1V2 = C2V2<br />C= concentration (sugar or alcohol)<br />V = Volume<br />
  45. 45. Adding sugar and alcohol<br />If wine is “ dry” add about 6 pounds of sugar to 5 gallons of wine (add less if wine is a bit sweet)<br />Add about ½ gallon of high proof alcohol<br />C1V1 + C2V2 = C3V3<br />
  46. 46. Bottling<br />Clean bottles<br />Clean transfer tubes<br />NO AIR!!!<br />Fill, Cork, Label<br />Keep finished wine in a cool (68 degrees) and humid <br />Taste often- usually needs a few weeks before tastes good<br />
  47. 47. Tasting Wines<br />Color<br />Clarity<br />Aroma<br />Taste<br />Finish<br />
  48. 48. See you next year<br />GOOD LUCK!!!<br />