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A brief history of machine learning

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AI & Machine Learning from 1946-2016

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A brief history of machine learning

  1. 1. Incomplete History of Machine Learning 1946 - 2016 Bob Colner
  2. 2. General AI is the quest to build intelligent machines. Machine learning is a branch of AI focusing on systems that learn from their environment (i.e. data). The goal is to generalize this training to act intelligent in new environments. Machine Learning & Artificial Intelligence
  3. 3. The Quest for Artificial Intelligence begins with the first computer.
  4. 4. 1946 ENICA Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer First general purpose digital computer. Powered by vacuum tubes Built by US Army, used by John von Neumann to develop the H-Bomb. Heralded as a Giant Brain by the press. Prompted Alan Turing to devise a test to detect artificial intelligence. The Turing-Test has yet to be definitively passed.
  5. 5. 1955 Arthur Samuel is recognized as the first learning machine which leaned to play (and win) checkers. His algorithms used a heuristic search memory to learn from experience. By the mid 1970’s his program was beating capable human players. Give machines the ability to learn without explicitly programming them - Arthur Samuel, 1955 “
  6. 6. 1958 The Perceptron was the first artificial neural network. Developed by Frank Rosenblatt at the US office of Naval Research for visual recognition tasks. The New York Times reported the perceptron to be: "the embryo of an electronic computer that will be able to walk, talk, see, write, reproduce itself and be conscious of its existence."Perceptron Mark I
  7. 7. 1969 “ Cognitive scientist in the field of AI. Co-founder of the MIT AI lab. Published influential book describing fundamental limits of the perceptron (and all 2 layer neural networks). This was a bummer. Will robots inherit the Earth? Yes, but they will be our children. - Marvin Minsky
  8. 8. AI Winter 1970-1980
  9. 9. In the mid 1980’s multiple people independently (re)discovered the Backpropagation algorithm. Allowed more powerful neural networks with hidden layers to be trained. Reinvigorated research; many people excited about Neural Nets as model for the mind/brain (connectionism) & commercial applications. 1985 Neural Network Breakthrough
  10. 10. 1995 By the 1990’s neural networks had fallen out of favor (again). Lack of good theory, tendency to overfit, biologically implausible. New methods like Support Vector Machines are in-vogue. SVM are amenable to rigorously mathematical analysis and achieve state-of-the art performance. Statistical Approaches to Machine Learning
  11. 11. IBM’s Deep Blue beats Chess Grandmaster Garry Kasparov. (Brute Force != ML). 1997
  12. 12. The ImageNet Challenge Classify 1M Images into 1K Categories Microsoft’s deep rectified model exceeds human accuracy in 2015
  13. 13. What are DeepNets Doing?
  14. 14. Google’s AlphaGo Model defeats Euro Go Campaign 2016
  15. 15. Boomtrain Editor 2016
  16. 16. Looking to the (Near) Future 2015 Royal Society Keynote: Geoffrey Hinton

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