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Advanced Chemistry Chapter Three Stoichiometry
3.1 Counting by Weighing <ul><li>Average Mass = total mass/ number of objects </li></ul><ul><li>For purposes of counting, ...
3.2 Atomic Masses
Atomic Masses <ul><li>The modern system of atomic masses is based on  12 C, as the standard. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop...
Mass Spectrometer <ul><li>An instrument that passes atoms or molecules through a beam of high-speed electrons, which in tu...
Mass Spectrometer <ul><ul><li>An applied electric field accelerates the ions into a magnetic field.  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Mass Spectrometer <ul><li>The most massive ions are deflected the smallest amount.  </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison of the ...
A Scientist Injecting a Sample into a Mass Spectrometer. (right) Schematic Diagram of a Mass Spectrometer
Atomic masses <ul><li>Naturally occurring isotopes are averaged to reflect the percent of abundance of those isotopes. </l...
Mass spec Peaks
Mass Spec Bar Graph
Mass Spectrum of Natural Copper <ul><li>What is the average mass of natural copper? </li></ul>
Mass Spectrum of Natural Copper <ul><li>What is the average mass of natural copper? </li></ul><ul><li>63.55 amu/atom </li>...
3.3 The mole
Mole <ul><li>The number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure  12 C. </li></ul><ul><li>6.022 x 1...
Question? <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
Question? <ul><li>How many moles and number of atoms are in a 10.0g sample of Aluminum? </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>How many moles and number of  atoms are in a 10.0g sample of Aluminum? </li></ul>
3.4 Molar Mass
Molar Mass <ul><li>Is the mass in grams of one mole of the compound. </li></ul><ul><li>“ molecular weight” </li></ul>
Question? The formula for juglone, a dye, is C 10 H 6 O 3 . What is the molar mass?
Answer The formula for juglone, a dye, is C 10 H 6 O 3 . What is the molar mass?
Question? <ul><li>If the molar mass of juglone is 174.1g, How many moles of Juglone are in a 1.56 x 10 -2 g sample? </li><...
Answer <ul><li>If the molar mass of juglone is 174.1g, How many moles of Juglone are in a 1.56 x 10 -2 g sample? </li></ul>
3.5 Learning to Solve Problems
Conceptual Problem Solving <ul><li>Read the problem and decide on final goal. Gather facts and state the problem as simply...
Conceptual Problem Solving <ul><li>Work backwards from the final goal to decide where to start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How ...
Conceptual Problem Solving <ul><li>Once a solution is obtained, check to see in answer is reasonable. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
3.6 Percent Composition of Compounds
Mass Percentage <ul><li>Compare the mass of each element in one mole to the molar mass of  the compound. </li></ul>
Question? <ul><li>What is the  mass percentage of C, H and O in the following molecule: C 10 H 14 O? </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>What is the  mass percentage of C, H and O in the following molecule: C 10 H 14 O? </li></ul>
3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound
Empirical vs. Molecular Formula <ul><li>Empirical formula is the formula of a molecule in its smallest whole number ratio....
Substances Whose Empirical and Molecular Formulas Differ
Determining the Empirical Formula  <ul><li>Use percent composition as a 100g molecule sample.  </li></ul><ul><li>Divide th...
Determining the  Molecular Formula <ul><li>Determine the empirical formula by using mole ratios between elements. </li></u...
Question? <ul><li>Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound that gives the following percentages on an...
Answer <ul><li>71.65% Cl 24.27% C 4.07% H </li></ul><ul><li>molar mass = 98.96 g/mol </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical: ClCH 2 <...
3.8 Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations <ul><li>Representation of the chemical reaction process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants – left side </l...
Chemical Equations <ul><li>Atoms are reorganized. Bonds have been broken, and new ones have been formed.  </li></ul><ul><l...
Chemical Equations <ul><li>Subscripts apply to an atom or atoms in parenthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Coefficients apply to en...
Chemical Equations <ul><li>Physical states should be given. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid – (s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations
Writing and Balancing Equations <ul><li>Determine what reaction is occurring.  What are the reactants, the products, and t...
Writing and Balancing Equations <ul><li>Balance the equation by inspection, starting with the most complicated molecules. ...
Question? <ul><li>(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7(s)    Cr 2 O 3(s)   +  N 2(g)   +  H 2 O (g)   </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7(s)    Cr 2 O 3(s)   +  N 2(g)   +  H 2 O (g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1   1  +  1  +  4  </...
Question? <ul><li>NH 3(g)  +  O 2(g)  NO (g)  +  H 2 O (g)   </li></ul>
Answer <ul><li>NH 3(g)  +  O 2(g)  NO (g)  +  H 2 O (g) </li></ul><ul><li>4  +  5  4  +  6   </li></ul>
3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
Stoichiometry <ul><li>Write a balanced equation. </li></ul><ul><li>Coefficients in the balanced equation provide the mole ...
Calculating Mass of Reactants and Products
Stoichiometry
Question? <ul><li>NaHCO 3(s)  + HCl (aq)  NaCl (aq)  + H 2 O (l)  + CO 2(aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Mg(OH) 2(s)  + 2HCl (aq)   ...
Answer <ul><li>NaHCO 3(s)  + HCl (aq)  NaCl (aq)  + H 2 O (l)  + CO 2(aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Mg(OH) 2(s)  + 2HCl (aq)   2H ...
3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reagent
Stoichiometric Mixtures <ul><li>A stoichiometric mixture is one that contains the relative amounts of reactants that match...
Limiting Reactant <ul><li>The reactant that runs out first and therefore limits the amount of product that can form. </li>...
Solving a Stoichiometry Problem Involving Masses of Reactants and Products
 
Isopentyl Acetate
Carvone
Carbon Dioxide
Water
Figure 3.5  A Schematic Diagram of the Combustion Device Used to Analyze Substances for Carbon and Hydrogen
Figure 3.9  Three Different Stoichiometric Mixtures of Methane and Water, which React One-to-One
Figure 3.10  A Mixture of CH4 and H20 Molecules
Figure 3.11  Methane and Water Have Reacted to Form Products
Figure 3.12  Hydrogen and Nitrogen React to Form Ammonia
Jellybeans Can be Counted by Weighing
Weighing Hex Nuts
Copper Nugget
Figure 3.4  Samples Containing One Mole Each of Copper, Aluminum, Iron, Sulfur, Iodine, and Mercury
Pure Aluminum
Bee Stings Cause the Release of Isopentyl Acetate
Penicillin is Isolated from a Mold that Can be Grown in Large Quantities in Fermentation Tanks
Figure 3.7  The Two Forms of Dichloroenthane
Figure 3.8  The Structure of P4O10.
Computer-Generated Molecule of Caffeine
Methane Reacts with Oxygen to Produce Flame
Hydrochloric Acid Reacts with Solid Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate to Produce Gaseous Carbon Dioxide
Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate
Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate
Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez
Milk of Magnesia
Race Cars use Methanol as a Fuel
Table 3.1  Comparison of 1 Mole Samples of Various Elements
Table 3.2  Information Conveyed by the Balanced Equation for the Combustion of Methane
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Adv chem chapt 3

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Adv chem chapt 3

  1. 1. Advanced Chemistry Chapter Three Stoichiometry
  2. 2. 3.1 Counting by Weighing <ul><li>Average Mass = total mass/ number of objects </li></ul><ul><li>For purposes of counting, objects behave as though they are identical </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3.2 Atomic Masses
  4. 4. Atomic Masses <ul><li>The modern system of atomic masses is based on 12 C, as the standard. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1961 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Mass Spectrometer <ul><li>An instrument that passes atoms or molecules through a beam of high-speed electrons, which in turn knock electrons off the atoms or molecules being analyzed and change them into positive ions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mass Spectrometer <ul><ul><li>An applied electric field accelerates the ions into a magnetic field. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of deflection that occurs with each ion depends upon its mass. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mass Spectrometer <ul><li>The most massive ions are deflected the smallest amount. </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison of the positions where the ions hit the deflector plate provides accurate values of relative masses. </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Scientist Injecting a Sample into a Mass Spectrometer. (right) Schematic Diagram of a Mass Spectrometer
  9. 9. Atomic masses <ul><li>Naturally occurring isotopes are averaged to reflect the percent of abundance of those isotopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Counting by averaging the mass of atoms allows for an accurate atomic mass for chemical calculations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mass spec Peaks
  11. 11. Mass Spec Bar Graph
  12. 12. Mass Spectrum of Natural Copper <ul><li>What is the average mass of natural copper? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mass Spectrum of Natural Copper <ul><li>What is the average mass of natural copper? </li></ul><ul><li>63.55 amu/atom </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3.3 The mole
  15. 15. Mole <ul><li>The number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12 C. </li></ul><ul><li>6.022 x 10 23 </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of a natural element with a mass equal to the element’s atomic mass expressed in grams. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Question? <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Answer <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Answer <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Answer <ul><li>What is the mass, in grams, of 12 atoms of Aluminum? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Question? <ul><li>How many moles and number of atoms are in a 10.0g sample of Aluminum? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Answer <ul><li>How many moles and number of atoms are in a 10.0g sample of Aluminum? </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3.4 Molar Mass
  23. 23. Molar Mass <ul><li>Is the mass in grams of one mole of the compound. </li></ul><ul><li>“ molecular weight” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Question? The formula for juglone, a dye, is C 10 H 6 O 3 . What is the molar mass?
  25. 25. Answer The formula for juglone, a dye, is C 10 H 6 O 3 . What is the molar mass?
  26. 26. Question? <ul><li>If the molar mass of juglone is 174.1g, How many moles of Juglone are in a 1.56 x 10 -2 g sample? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Answer <ul><li>If the molar mass of juglone is 174.1g, How many moles of Juglone are in a 1.56 x 10 -2 g sample? </li></ul>
  28. 28. 3.5 Learning to Solve Problems
  29. 29. Conceptual Problem Solving <ul><li>Read the problem and decide on final goal. Gather facts and state the problem as simply as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are we going? </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Conceptual Problem Solving <ul><li>Work backwards from the final goal to decide where to start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Conceptual Problem Solving <ul><li>Once a solution is obtained, check to see in answer is reasonable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it make sense? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 3.6 Percent Composition of Compounds
  33. 33. Mass Percentage <ul><li>Compare the mass of each element in one mole to the molar mass of the compound. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Question? <ul><li>What is the mass percentage of C, H and O in the following molecule: C 10 H 14 O? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Answer <ul><li>What is the mass percentage of C, H and O in the following molecule: C 10 H 14 O? </li></ul>
  36. 36. 3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound
  37. 37. Empirical vs. Molecular Formula <ul><li>Empirical formula is the formula of a molecule in its smallest whole number ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular formula is the exact formula of the molecule as it exists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical = CH 5 N </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular = (CH 5 N) n </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Substances Whose Empirical and Molecular Formulas Differ
  39. 39. Determining the Empirical Formula <ul><li>Use percent composition as a 100g molecule sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the element mass sample by the molar mass of each element to determine the molar ratios between elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the molar ratios by the smallest ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>If needed, multiply all ratios by the same number to obtain low whole numbers. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Determining the Molecular Formula <ul><li>Determine the empirical formula by using mole ratios between elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the molar mass of the molecular formula by the molar mass of the empirical formula. (n) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply every element in the formula by (n). </li></ul>
  41. 41. Question? <ul><li>Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound that gives the following percentages on analysis (in mass percents): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71.65% Cl 24.27% C 4.07% H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The molar mass is 98.96 g/mol </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Answer <ul><li>71.65% Cl 24.27% C 4.07% H </li></ul><ul><li>molar mass = 98.96 g/mol </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical: ClCH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular: Cl 2 C 2 H 4 </li></ul>
  43. 43. 3.8 Chemical Equations
  44. 44. Chemical Equations <ul><li>Representation of the chemical reaction process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants – left side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products – right side </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Chemical Equations <ul><li>Atoms are reorganized. Bonds have been broken, and new ones have been formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are neither created nor destroyed therefore all atoms present in the reactants must be accounted for among the products. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Chemical Equations <ul><li>Subscripts apply to an atom or atoms in parenthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Coefficients apply to entire molecule/compound. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Chemical Equations <ul><li>Physical states should be given. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid – (s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid – (l) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas – (g) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved in water – (aq) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations
  49. 49. Writing and Balancing Equations <ul><li>Determine what reaction is occurring. What are the reactants, the products, and the physical states involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Write the unbalanced equation that summarizes the reaction. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Writing and Balancing Equations <ul><li>Balance the equation by inspection, starting with the most complicated molecules. Determine what coefficients are necessary so that the same number of each type of atom appears on both reactant and product sides. Do not change the identities (formulas) of any of the reactants or products. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Question? <ul><li>(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7(s) Cr 2 O 3(s) + N 2(g) + H 2 O (g) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Answer <ul><li>(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7(s) Cr 2 O 3(s) + N 2(g) + H 2 O (g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 1 + 1 + 4 </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Question? <ul><li>NH 3(g) + O 2(g) NO (g) + H 2 O (g) </li></ul>
  54. 54. Answer <ul><li>NH 3(g) + O 2(g) NO (g) + H 2 O (g) </li></ul><ul><li>4 + 5 4 + 6 </li></ul>
  55. 55. 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
  56. 56. Stoichiometry <ul><li>Write a balanced equation. </li></ul><ul><li>Coefficients in the balanced equation provide the mole ratios used in the conversion of mass and other quantities from one molecule/compound to another. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Calculating Mass of Reactants and Products
  58. 58. Stoichiometry
  59. 59. Question? <ul><li>NaHCO 3(s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Mg(OH) 2(s) + 2HCl (aq) 2H 2 O (l) + MgCl 2(aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Which one of these antacids neutralizes more acid with a 1.0g sample? </li></ul>
  60. 60. Answer <ul><li>NaHCO 3(s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Mg(OH) 2(s) + 2HCl (aq) 2H 2 O (l) + MgCl 2(aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Which one of these antacids neutralizes more acid with a 1.0g sample? </li></ul><ul><li>NaHCO 3 : 1.19 x 10 -2 mol HCl neutralized </li></ul><ul><li>Mg(OH) 2 : 3.42 x 10 -2 mol HCl neutralized </li></ul>
  61. 61. 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reagent
  62. 62. Stoichiometric Mixtures <ul><li>A stoichiometric mixture is one that contains the relative amounts of reactants that match the numbers in the balanced equation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming the reaction goes to completion, all reactants will be consumed to form products. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Limiting Reactant <ul><li>The reactant that runs out first and therefore limits the amount of product that can form. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine how much product can be formed from a given mixture of reactants, the limiting reactant must first be determined. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Solving a Stoichiometry Problem Involving Masses of Reactants and Products
  65. 66. Isopentyl Acetate
  66. 67. Carvone
  67. 68. Carbon Dioxide
  68. 69. Water
  69. 70. Figure 3.5 A Schematic Diagram of the Combustion Device Used to Analyze Substances for Carbon and Hydrogen
  70. 71. Figure 3.9 Three Different Stoichiometric Mixtures of Methane and Water, which React One-to-One
  71. 72. Figure 3.10 A Mixture of CH4 and H20 Molecules
  72. 73. Figure 3.11 Methane and Water Have Reacted to Form Products
  73. 74. Figure 3.12 Hydrogen and Nitrogen React to Form Ammonia
  74. 75. Jellybeans Can be Counted by Weighing
  75. 76. Weighing Hex Nuts
  76. 77. Copper Nugget
  77. 78. Figure 3.4 Samples Containing One Mole Each of Copper, Aluminum, Iron, Sulfur, Iodine, and Mercury
  78. 79. Pure Aluminum
  79. 80. Bee Stings Cause the Release of Isopentyl Acetate
  80. 81. Penicillin is Isolated from a Mold that Can be Grown in Large Quantities in Fermentation Tanks
  81. 82. Figure 3.7 The Two Forms of Dichloroenthane
  82. 83. Figure 3.8 The Structure of P4O10.
  83. 84. Computer-Generated Molecule of Caffeine
  84. 85. Methane Reacts with Oxygen to Produce Flame
  85. 86. Hydrochloric Acid Reacts with Solid Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate to Produce Gaseous Carbon Dioxide
  86. 87. Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate
  87. 88. Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate
  88. 89. Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez
  89. 90. Milk of Magnesia
  90. 91. Race Cars use Methanol as a Fuel
  91. 92. Table 3.1 Comparison of 1 Mole Samples of Various Elements
  92. 93. Table 3.2 Information Conveyed by the Balanced Equation for the Combustion of Methane

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