Sampling issues – were they the ones choosing to go online?
Four elements of sense of community There are four elements of &quot;sense of community&quot; according to the McMillan & Chavis theory: Membership Membership includes five attributes: boundaries emotional safety a sense of belonging and identification personal investment a common symbol system Influence Influence works both ways: members need to feel that they have some influence in the group, and some influence by the group on its members is needed for group cohesion. Integration and fulfilment of needs Members feel rewarded in some way for their participation in the community. Shared emotional connection The &quot;definitive element for true community&quot; (1986, p. 14), it includes shared history and shared participation (or at least identification with the history).
Third Places Oldenburg identifies third places, or “great good places,” as the public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact. In contrast to first places (home) and second places (work), third places allow people to put aside their concerns and simply enjoy the company and conversation around them. Third places “host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work.” Oldenburg suggests that beer gardens, main streets, pubs, cafés, coffeehouses, post offices, and other third places are the heart of a community’s social vitality and the foundation of a functioning democracy. They promote social equality by leveling the status of guests, provide a setting for grassroots politics, create habits of public association, and offer psychological support to individuals and communities. Quotable “ In the absence of informal public life, living becomes more expensive. Where the means and facilities for relaxation and leisure are not publicly shared, they become the objects of private ownership and consumption.” “ What suburbia cries for are the means for people to gather easily, inexpensively, regularly, and pleasurably — a ‘place on the corner,’ real life alternatives to television, easy escapes from the cabin fever of marriage and family life that do not necessitate getting into an automobile.” “ Most needed are those ‘third places’ which lend a public balance to the increased privatization of home life. Third places are nothing more than informal public gathering places. The phrase ‘third places’ derives from considering our homes to be the ‘first’ places in our lives, and our work places the ‘second.’” “ The character of a third place is determined most of all by its regular clientele and is marked by a playful mood, which contrasts with people’s more serious involvement in other spheres. Though a radically different kind of setting for a home, the third place is remarkably similar to a good home in the psychological comfort and support that it extends…They are the heart of a community’s social vitality, the grassroots of democracy, but sadly, they constitute a diminishing aspect of the American social landscape.” “ Life without community has produced, for many, a life style consisting mainly of a home-to-work-and-back-again shuttle. Social well-being and psychological health depend upon community. It is no coincidence that the ‘helping professions’ became a major industry in the United States as suburban planning helped destroy local public life and the community support it once lent.” “ Totally unlike Main Street, the shopping mall is populated by strangers. As people circulate about in the constant, monotonous flow of mall pedestrian traffic, their eyes do not cast about for familiar faces, for the chance of seeing one is small. That is not part of what one expects there. The reason is simple. The mall is centrally located to serve the multitudes from a number of outlying developments within its region. There is little acquaintance between these developments and not much more within them. Most of them lack focal points or core settings and, as a result, people are not widely known to one another, even in their own neighborhoods, and their neighborhood is only a minority portion of the mall’s clientele.”
Media and modes are not distinct entities
Community Goes Online
‘Sad, Lonely World Discovered inCyberspace’The HomeNet Project (Kraut et al, 1998) 93 families in Pittsburgh, USA Monitored Internet use during their first year online Questionnaires focussing on psychological well being Interviewed participants about their useGreater Internet use associated with significant Declines in social involvement (the size of their social networks) Increases in loneliness Increases in depression
PseudocommunityInauthentic forms of community involvement brought about by increasing industrialisation and urbanisation (Beninger, 1987)Members of developed societies are essentially ‘bowling alone’ (Putnam, 2000) – not participating in ways that support their local community.
Adolescent’s sense of community onMySpace and Facebook (Reich, 2010)A Psychological Sense of Community (McMillan & Chavis, 1986)2. Membership3. Influence4. Integration and fulfilment of needs5. Shared emotional connectionNetworked Individualism Allows people to remain connected, but as individuals rather than being rooted in the home bases of work unit and household, Individuals switch rapidly between social networks rather than remain in a group or community.Reich (2010)
Are online communities real?Classic social science definitions of community would suggest not.Arguments against online community Their members aren’t collocated They don’t interact face to face They can’t (and don’t) form the necessary emotional bonds
Rheingold’s study of the WELLcommunity (1993) Text –based bulletin- board system (BBS) known as the Whole Earth Lectronic Link Virtual ethnography - showed the meaningful emotional connections that could develop via online community
Multimodal Interactionalanalysis of YouTube Where is the community? What makes it a community? What part do multimodal interactions play in making it feel like a community?
Things to look out for? Reciprocity in communication coordination of turn taking in conversation Communication as ‘gift’ exchange Ritualised behaviour openings and closings Defining the ‘meaning’ of the communicative space What behaviours are allowed/expected/norms How are these norms enforced
Shared Sense of SpaceThe Great Good Place (Third Places) Oldenburg’s three essential places in peoples lives the place they live,i the place they work, ando the place they gather for conviviality
Shared Sense of SpacePhysical space remains an important metaphor even when interactions are happening online
Shared PracticeRoutinised activities/behaviours that are shared by the groupUpdating status regularly (lifeblogging)Responding to Facebook birthday remindersRecording significant nights out/eventsReciprocal comments (i.e. using them as a conversational medium)The regularity of posts
Shared Practice – CommonLanguageNetiquette in Text-based environmentsParalanguage and Twitter @ RT #Reciprocity in comments/tweets
A Shared Practice – CommonVisual LanguageNetiquette in multimodal environmentsPhotos in FacebookGestures and body language in YouTube vloggingProfile pictures and backgroundsVlogging practicesGlobal dance/lip sync
Shared Resources and SupportSocial capital Bridging – exchanges typical of weak ties Bonding – social and emotional supportCommon Ground Common interests or goals Shared experiences and stories
Shared Identities A group identity (e.g. YouTubers) Processes of affiliation: friending, following, subscribing A set of consistent roles or personalities that exist within the community: local experts; ‘answer people’; entertainers; conversationalists; fans; ‘lurkers’ (viewers of videos are not YouTubers); haters, flamers or trolls; storytellers
Interpersonal relationships Friendships and romances are also a significant part of online communities Processes of connection: liking, favouriting, direct messaging (moving to other media), poking Internet and in-person contact extend and enhance each other (Wellman, 2004). Video
Multimodal ActivityExamine different media responses to the YouTubevideo provided and try to understand what makes thisan online ‘community’ activity.Lucielovesyou – Hipster videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6I-uV9EJWl8One group for each of the following:c Text commentsc Video content (dialogue and sound)i Video content (body language)o Video content (production elements)Note times and content (e.g. quotes, events, etc.)
Media ModesSound Speech, music, laughter, background noiseVideo Lighting Ambient lighting in homes Physical presence Posture, facial and bodily gestures, eye contact, pointing Production elements On screen effects, framing of shots, cutting between scenes, etc. Physical objects Placing objects in field of view, gesturing with objects,Photos Similar to video but staticOn screen text Video titles, tags, captions, comments, usernames, messages
Multimodal Analysis Processs Watch the videosf Identify themes ◦ Observe and identify significant mulitmodal events in communication – note the time ◦ Refer to existing literature on conversation to check what you see and hear – for example Goffman (1959)3. Watch the videos3 Describe the multimodal aspects of the videost Roughly transcribe the video data to clarify significant moments in communication and identify commonalities across videosr Watch the videosr Final transcription in a suitable form to explain themes and subthemes ◦ Include standard annotation conventions
Feedback Session What different stories do they tell? What modes exist within each medium ? How is this different from the exercise yesterday? What might we be missing here? What do you think is important for online community considering this evidence?
Multimodal transcription of videodata (using my own coding scheme)
Multimodal transcription –standardised annotation of speech: (n) pause noted in seconds = joining of words : an extension of the preceding syllable; ; rising or falling intonation for subsequent utterance underlined text indicates spoken with particular vocal energy - a sudden cut off to an utterance; ? a rising tone . a falling tone , a shifting continuous tone bridging utterances.
ReferencesReich, (2010) Adolescent’s sense of community on MySpace and Facebook. Journal of Community Psychology 38(6) pp. 688-705Rheingold, H. (1993) Virtual Community. Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Available online:http://www.rheingold.com/vc/book/intro.htmlTurkle, S. (2011) Alone Together. Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books.Wellman, B. and Gulia, M. (1997) “Virtual Communities as Communities.” In Communities in Cyberspace: Perspectives on New Forms of Social Organization, edited by Peter Kollock and Marc Smith. Los Angeles: University of California Press.