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לימוד קריאה לתלמידים לקויי למידה


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מצגת באנגלית לגבי לימוד קריאה לתלמידים לקוי למידה

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לימוד קריאה לתלמידים לקויי למידה

  1. 1. From Story Kits to “Speak ‘N Write”: 10 Ideas for Including Students with Disabilities in Literacy Instruction Paula Kluth, Ph.D. [email_address] ------------------ Inclusion Works! 2008
  2. 2. Adapting the read aloud… <ul><li>Think of a student with disabilities who has a hard time participating in a teacher read aloud (can’t sit on the rug, vocalizes during story, doesn’t have a way to communicate or participate)— </li></ul><ul><li>Create some adaptations for that student. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What kind of </li></ul><ul><li>curriculum have we </li></ul><ul><li>traditionally used to </li></ul><ul><li>teach students with </li></ul><ul><li>autism and other </li></ul><ul><li>significant disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>in our schools? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two Contrasting Views of Literacy (Karen Erickson, Ph.D., The Center for Literacy & Disability Studies) <ul><li>Readiness Model </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is learned in a predetermined, sequential manner that is linear, additive, and unitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy learning is school-based. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy learning requires mastery of certain pre-requisite skills </li></ul><ul><li>Some children will never learn to read </li></ul><ul><li>Current/Emergent View </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is learned through interaction with and exposure to all aspects of literacy (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, and writing). </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is a process that begins at birth and perhaps before </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy abilities/skills develop concurrently and interrelatedly </li></ul><ul><li>All children can learn to use print meaningfully. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Traditional Methods of Supporting the Literacy Development of Students with Disabilities <ul><li>Direct teaching of sight words </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination trials of familiar and functional words (e.g., bathroom, exit, yes, no) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional academics </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics-based published programs </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>And Beloin (1995) found in her </li></ul><ul><li>observation of special education </li></ul><ul><li>classrooms (mostly for students labeled </li></ul><ul><li>with autism and MR), that it was more </li></ul><ul><li>typical than unusual to see students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>involved in rote copying of: </li></ul><ul><li>--letters </li></ul><ul><li>--their name & </li></ul><ul><li>--the date </li></ul><ul><li>as their primary, if not exclusive, experience in </li></ul><ul><li>writing. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Colasent & Griffith (1998) <ul><li>3 students: speech was largely echolalic & </li></ul><ul><li>test scores were low (from “untestable” to a </li></ul><ul><li>high of Grade 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher read three fiction books & used whole language strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Students bloomed when given opportunities to listen to and discuss </li></ul><ul><li>thematic lit-- all of them demonstrated the ability to “state a title, state </li></ul><ul><li>their favorite character, and describe their personal feelings” after </li></ul><ul><li>listening to the target texts </li></ul><ul><li>All three wrote longer passages and longer sentences, using more </li></ul><ul><li>sophisticated vocabulary, after interacting with the three stories than they </li></ul><ul><li>had in the context of their past (functional skill) instruction. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Sonnenmeier, McSheehan, and Jorgensen (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>a multi-year case study: Jay (10 years old), autism </li></ul><ul><li>--seen as having an “18-24 months” academic level before the study </li></ul><ul><li>--receptive language “below the first percentile” for his age </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>augmentative communication, technology, curriculum adaptations, teaching strategies, & personal supports (e.g., peer assistance) </li></ul><ul><li>an “immersion approach” with Jay’s voice output communication aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all of the students were given the same overlay to use during class activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the classroom teacher used an enlarged copy of the core vocabulary overlay during whole class instruction & used the VOCA and/or paper overlays to provide modeling, restatements, etc. </li></ul></ul>By the end of one year, Jay had access to an expanded set of 80-100 curriculum-related messages on the DynaMyte. He demonstrated the ability to use Boardmaker symbols and switched easily between the DynaMyte, computer, and paper overlays. He: --communicated single words and word combos using the VOCA to make requests --he also demonstrated the ability to recognize words in print (recognizing 8 words with 100% accuracy and 13 with 75% accuracy) ------ “ We are beginning to realize that Jay’s performance is linked to how well we perform. If we don’t support Jay well, we won’t do well.”
  9. 9. <ul><li>How can we adapt </li></ul><ul><li>literacy instruction </li></ul><ul><li>to meet the needs of </li></ul><ul><li>ALL? </li></ul>
  10. 10. #1-Expand Definition of Literacy <ul><li>An ideological model of literacy expands the definition </li></ul><ul><li>of literacy from the ability to read and write to the </li></ul><ul><li>practice of construing meaning using all available signs </li></ul><ul><li>within a culture, including visual, auditory, and sensory </li></ul><ul><li>signs (Neilson, 1998; Gee, 1996; Eisner; 1991). To </li></ul><ul><li>become literate, then, students must develop a critical </li></ul><ul><li>awareness of multiple texts and contexts (Neilson, </li></ul><ul><li>1998; Gee, 1996). This involves an ability to understand </li></ul><ul><li>how social and cultural ways of being and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>affect how meaning is construed and conveyed (Gee, </li></ul><ul><li>1996; Brown, 1991; Eisner, 1991). (p. 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards, Heron, and Francis (2000), AERA Annual Conference </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Traditionally, literacy has been conceived as a rigid commodity acquired during childhood through individual exposure to direct instruction in a series of subskills arranged hierarchically (Kliewer, retrieved 2006 ). </li></ul><ul><li>We argue for a social model of multiple literacies that are dynamic and constructed in interaction among individuals </li></ul><ul><li>(Kliewer, retrieved 2006 ). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Invite Students Into the “Literate Community” (Kliewer,1998) <ul><li>In classrooms where all students are accepted in the literate community: “all children are considered active participants in the construction of literate meanings within specific contexts. This assumption of literate value then serves as the core from which literate capacities are realized” (Kliewer, p. 100). </li></ul><ul><li>In such classrooms teachers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge and question school practices that marginalize learners (e.g., exclusion, tracking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create communities that encourage all students to teach each other, to showcase talents, take risks, to create, to collaborate and to see themselves as readers, writers, and thinkers. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. #2- “Invite” Students into Literature Circles & Book Clubs <ul><li>Feature books written by people with disabilities -some are excellent choices for literature circles. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically students are encouraged to bring written or drawn notes to their circles. If a student is not able to create notes on his or her own: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide teacher-created notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have the student work from notes of a peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have the student write notes or highlight passages on copies of the pages) so the text can serve as notes for discussion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a new role for a student who cannot participate in the group as it is typically structured: topic changer, discussion recorder, graphic note-taker, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Show a videotape of a book club before students participate in the structure; some students will do better with an informal and open-ended activity when they have visual examples of what it should look like. </li></ul><ul><li>Be explicit about what types of comments, feedback, and interaction you expect from students. If you want students to ask “clarifying questions”, provide a list of examples. </li></ul>
  14. 14. #3-Adapt & Personalize the Standards Standard Adapted standard Assessment Students will be able to use appropriate mechanics, usage, and conventions of language. When using his Alphasmart to copy sentences from the chalkboard, Ross will include all punctuation. Keep two work samples per week. Students will differentiate fact from opinion across texts. When given a paragraph of an informational text to read, Ross will identify one fact from that paragraph. Offer Ross an opportunity to practice this skill during science and social studies lessons. On a checklist, keep a record of how many times he answers correctly. Students will identify literacy elements in stories (e.g., characters, setting, plot). Using Kidspiration software, Ross will create a story map that includes at least three story events. Print and collect the map from each story. Review with Ross and provide feedback.
  15. 15. Standard Adapted standard Assessment Students will be able to use appropriate mechanics, usage, and conventions of language. During DOL, Tiala will (a) use the pointer to indicate the beginning of the sentence and (b) hand the pointer to peers as they approach the board. Videotape quarterly. Students will differentiate fact from opinion across texts. During the classroom exercise where students stand when they hear a fact and sit when they hear an opinion, Tiala will participate without prompts. Anecdotal reporting. Students will identify literacy elements in stories (e.g., characters, setting, plot). Using her TANGO communication device, Tiala will choose a character (e.g., frog, princess) for a group story from 5 possible options. Keep a checklist of options and selected choices.
  16. 16. for an article on how 10 ways to adapt text, see my website: #4- Adapt the Text
  17. 18. Adapting “Of Mice & Men” <ul><li>A high school English teacher needed to adapt Of Mice and Men for a student that read on a 2nd-grade level. Among other supports, she used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a dictionary of vocabulary related to the text (e.g., depression, acres); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illustrations of several concepts the class discussed including threshing machines, farms, mules and an orchard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphic organizers related to the story (e.g., timeline, Venn diagram comparing Lenny and Curly); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic summaries of the story (page by page or chapter by chapter); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>book on CD and a DVD of the movie. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Use Active & Collaborative Structures </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Using the Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Partners look over a piece of text and decide together how far they will read silently before stopping to “say something”. The “something” might be a question, a brief summary, a </li></ul><ul><li>key point, an interesting new idea or a new connection. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Once they have reached the chosen stopping point, both partners say something. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Partners continue the process until the selection is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The whole group engages in a discussion of the text. </li></ul>Say Something is a paired reading strategy for constructing meaning from text-based information. Through structured exchanges, participants develop relationships between new information and what they all ready know or believe. #5- Say Something!
  20. 21. Adaptations to Say Something (from: Udvari-Solner & Kluth, 2007) <ul><li>Say Something can be used with non-text material. Students may be partnered with one student examining text on a topic and the other examining visual media (photos, pictures). At an agreed upon time frame (e.g., after examining the materials for 3 minutes) students can stop and “say something.” </li></ul><ul><li>Students may also be paired with readings on the same topic but at different reading levels. At the stopping points students share what they have gained from their own specific reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Say Something can be implemented with one person in the partnership reading aloud. </li></ul><ul><li>For students who read at a different pace, the student who completes the reading first can write down her say-something comment while her partner completes the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>If a student uses a communication board, pictures, or symbols to communicate, that individual can select a picture or response to share at the end of the section (e.g., “That was interesting”; “I didn’t understand that”; “That was silly”). To teach and reinforce the new communication system, the peer might be encouraged to use the system as well. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Figure 5.9. Mystery in the Night Woods – collaborative 4 Corners Comprehension #6- 4 Corners Comprehension
  22. 23. #7-Write Around <ul><li>Example: Write Around- Haiku </li></ul><ul><li>Haiku combines form , content , and language in a meaningful, yet compact form. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiku doesn't rhyme. </li></ul><ul><li>A Haiku must &quot;paint&quot; a mental image in the reader's mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiku poets, which you will soon be, write about everyday things. Many themes include nature, feelings, or experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually they use simple words and grammar . The most common form for Haiku is three short lines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>five (5) syllables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the second line seven (7) syllables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the third line contains five (5) syllables. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Create Writing Supports & Scaffolding </li></ul>
  24. 25. #8- Collaborative Writing
  25. 26. <ul><li>“ Breanna was crying yesterday, Mom,” he told me. “She was really upset.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Oh, uh-huh?” I said, distracted… “Mom, really,” Blaze went on. “She cried and it </li></ul><ul><li>was like a storm…she didn’t make any sound but there were all these clouds and rain </li></ul><ul><li>in her face.” </li></ul><ul><li>This I paid attention to. “Blaze, why don’t you write that down?...Just like you told </li></ul><ul><li>me.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Oh, okay,” he said, as if this was a good idea that hadn’t occurred to him. Blaze’s </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty with the physical act of writing included him toward brevity, so he was </li></ul><ul><li>finished very soon after he started. [When he gave it to me], I had the same surge of </li></ul><ul><li>joy that I felt whenever I had read anything particularly good. </li></ul><ul><li>When Breanna cried it looked like a storm </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t make any sound </li></ul><ul><li>but there was rain </li></ul><ul><li>and clouds </li></ul><ul><li>and sun </li></ul><ul><li>and darkness in her face </li></ul><ul><li>Blaze hadn’t used any punctuation, so I added a couple of commas and periods. That </li></ul><ul><li>was the extent of my edit. </li></ul>#9- Speak & Write Kluth & Chandler-Olcott, K. (2007). A land we can share: Teaching literacy to students with autism. Brookes.
  26. 27. #10- Story Kits Kluth & Chandler-Olcott, K. (2007). A land we can share: Teaching literacy to students with autism. Brookes. <ul><li>Use to remind students to cover elements in a retelling </li></ul><ul><li>Use to give students a choice of writing topics </li></ul><ul><li>Use as an adaptation for those w/o reliable communication </li></ul><ul><li>(“What should we write about next?) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Access to Literacy in the Inclusive Classroom: More Ideas <ul><li>READ- every teacher, every day– PROMOTE FLUENCY, vocabulary development & comprehension success </li></ul><ul><li>Give students opportunities to read, write, speak, listen daily (e.g., pair-shares, morning message, daily fun fact) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a text-rich environment and text-rich materials (even if you are not sure if the student is a reader) </li></ul><ul><li>Find materials that relate to students’ lives and fascinations </li></ul><ul><li>Use a range of materials (TV, magazines) especially those the student seems to prefer (e.g, catalogs, comic books) </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize on unique interests; suggest in-depth projects that require the development of new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use visuals (diagrams, photos, charts) </li></ul><ul><li>Read aloud/audio tapes of stories for ALL ages </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage written conversations/e-mail, and structured “note passing” </li></ul><ul><li>Have students write their own stories- including their own experiences and their own photographs or illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to use technology to increase literacy skills (e.g., web site design, using new computer programs, instant messaging) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask parents for ideas; interview them about HOW their child is literate </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>The school gave me all sorts of extra help with reading and I couldn’t even </li></ul><ul><li>remember one letter from the other. However much anyone taught me, it just </li></ul><ul><li>would not sink in. I had an assessment by an educational psychologist when I </li></ul><ul><li>was seven years and eight months old and my reading age was not assessable </li></ul><ul><li>because I just couldn’t read anything. The next day Mum got a phone call from </li></ul><ul><li>the school asking her to come in and see them. </li></ul><ul><li>She told me that she was very worried as that usually meant that I was having a </li></ul><ul><li>massive tantrum, but when she got there the teacher had something that they </li></ul><ul><li>just couldn’t wait to tell. I had picked up a copy of A Midsummer Night’s </li></ul><ul><li>Dream , which the teacher was using to show how plays are written. It seems </li></ul><ul><li>that I opened the book and began to read it fluently. How weird is that? </li></ul><ul><li>(Jackson, p. 117) </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson, L. (1998). Freaks, geeks, and Asperger syndrome. Kingsley. </li></ul>Jackson’s advice for those working with students with autism is to “never give up on a child who seems unable to learn to read”.
  29. 30. Literacy & Disability Resources Books Downing, J. (2005). Teaching literacy to students with significant disabilities. Corwin Press. Keefe, C.H. (1996). Label-free learning: Supporting learners with disabilities. York, Maine: Stenhouse. Kliewer, C. (1998). Schooling children with Down syndrome. New York: Teachers College Press. Kluth, P. & Chandler-Olcott, K. (2007). A land we can share. Baltimore: Brookes. Moline, S. (1995). I see what you mean: Children at work with visual information. York, Maine: Stenhouse. Oelwein, P.L. (1995). Teaching reading to children with Down syndrome: A guide for parents and teachers. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House. Parker, K. (1997). Jamie: A literacy story. York, Maine: Stenhouse.
  30. 31. <ul><li>Useful Websites </li></ul><ul><li>The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>David Koppenhaver’s Personal Website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Koppenhaver, an education professor at Gustavus Adolphus College in </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota is a pioneer in the area of literacy and disability. His website </li></ul><ul><li>includes several useful links to articles, resources, and research. </li></ul><ul><li>Currents in Literacy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The Center’s mission is to promote literacy learning and use for </li></ul><ul><li>individuals of all ages with disabilities. It is the belief of the CLDS that </li></ul><ul><li>disabilities are only one of many factors that influence an individual's </li></ul><ul><li>ability to learn to read and write and to use print throughout their life </li></ul><ul><li>and across their living environments. </li></ul><ul><li>******* Paula Kluth’s Personal Website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Literacy & Disability Resources
  31. 32. see <ul><li>for articles on adapting the read aloud, </li></ul><ul><li>teaching literacy to students with </li></ul><ul><li>autism, using visual supports in the </li></ul><ul><li>teaching of reading and many others </li></ul>