Intro to physical anthropology


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Intro to physical anthropology

  1. 1. Physical/Biological Anthropology Chapter 1
  2. 2. Anthropology • from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human • The broad-scope scientific study of people from all periods of time and in all areas of the world. • Anthropology focuses on both biological and cultural characteristics and variation as well as biological and cultural evolution
  3. 3. Holism • A distinguishing feature of the discipline of anthropology is its holistic approach to the study of the whole human condition. – Anthropology involves both biological and sociocultural aspects of humanity. – The time frame goes from the earliest beginnings of humans to the present. – Anthropology studies all varieties of people wherever they may be found.
  4. 4. Four Fields of Anthropology Anthro Subfield Cultural Interest Data Culture: Shared, Learned, Behavior dynamic, adaptive, Ideas integrated, ideational Biological /Physical Human evolution and variation Bodies Genes/DNA Linguistics Language (verbal and non-verbal), communication Sounds, words, grammar, movement, gestures, expressions Archaeology Cultural change over time Artifacts Material culture
  5. 5. Two Dimensions of Anthropology • Theoretical/Academic Anthropology • Applied Anthropology – The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
  6. 6. Physical/biological anthropology • What is human? • human biology, evolution, human adaptation, diversity, heredity, genetics, ecology, natural selection • the process by which populations of organisms come to differ from their ancestral populations
  7. 7. Human Evolution • Our biology is the result of millions of years of evolutionary history: – – – – 225 million years of mammalian evolution 65 million years of primate evolution 6 million years of hominid evolution 2 million years of evolution of the genus Homo
  8. 8. Physical Anthropology • Areas of Specialization: – – – – – – – – – – – Human genetics - inheritance and inherited variation Primatology - living nonhuman primates Human biological variation - evolutionary studies Paleontology Paleoanthropology Human growth and development Forensic Anthropology Human ecology Forensic ecology Osteology Applied Physical Anthropology
  9. 9. Basics • Empirical knowledge • Based on experiment and observation, or based entirely on practical experience • Perceived through the senses • Phenomenon – observable event
  10. 10. Scientific Method • Hypothesis – educated guess/tentative statement • Data collection and analysis • Hypothesis testing - expected way for an outcome based on observed data • Theory – shows the relationship (framework) that explains and interprets facts – A statement based on highly confirmed hypothesis
  11. 11. Theory • Bodies of knowledge that make predictions (not fortune telling) • summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing • (inferring, suggesting) • Monocausal/Multicausal explanation • XbJBIk&feature=related
  12. 12. Chapter 1 – part 2 Introduction to Evolution and Natural Selection
  13. 13.
  14. 14. VIEWS ON THE ESSENCE OF HUMANS: NATURE AND TIME • Anthropocentric • spontaneous generation - living organism could arise from non-living material – immutable • sw&noredirect=1 • Age of Exploration early 15th century to 17th century
  15. 15. Classification – 1700s • Carulus Linnaeus • binomial nomenclature – Genus / species (Homo sapiens)
  16. 16. Jean Babtist Lamarck – 1744-1829 • the "inheritance of acquired traits“ – organism acquired new characteristics in its lifetime by virtue of using or not using different body parts – Use and disuse, then pass on – Not valid now but important b/c species not seen as fixed and immutable, but in a constantly changing state
  17. 17. Catastrophism - Cuvier (17691832) • Fossil record = extinction • Theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope • Establsihed that extinction was a fact • fossil forms found in each layer of the earth are bounded by a creation and destruction event • Charles Lyell – – Catasrophism is wrong because there are gradual accumulation of small changes
  18. 18. Uniformatism - Charles Lyell, James Hutton • Catastrophism is wrong – landscape developed over long periods of time through a variety of slow geologic and geomorphic processes. • natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present The ideas of Hutton and Lyell led to an understanding of "the rock cycle" as we know it today.
  19. 19. ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE 1823-1913 • co-discoverer of “The Theory of Natural Selection” with Charles Darwin in 1858 • proposed that evolution occurs as a result of natural selection.
  20. 20. Natural Selection • Bodies of knowledge – Comparative Morphology – Fossil record ed
  21. 21. Charles Darwin Lu8&feature=related • Animals were not individually created but had gradually evolved over time from one a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection
  22. 22. Adaptive Radiation • branching evolution in which different populations of a species become reproductively isolated from each other by adapting to different ecological niches and eventually become separate species. • To learn more about Darwin
  23. 23. Natural Selection Survival of the fittest the process of favoring or weeding out individuals with different characteristics from a population. Those individuals that are well-suited for their environments will be favored in the sense that they will pass on their heritable attributes to the next generation at a higher rate than individuals not as well-suited to the environment
  24. 24. Natural Selection First Postulate: Population grows rapidly / resources grow slowly therefore…
  25. 25. 2nd postulate 2. Survival of the fittest: best traits – individuals vary – variation effects the ability to survive and reproduce • VARIATION MADE BY GENE MUTATION AND NATURAL VARIATION
  26. 26. 3rd postulate 3. Variation may be heritable (offspring resembles parents. If true the favorable variation (trait) will spread, the individuals that possess features that increase the chance of surviving are likely to pass on these features to the next generations.
  27. 27. Evolution Xaxg&feature=related 1)Genetic variation 2)Overproduction of offspring 3)Struggle for existence 4) Differential survival and reproduction • Evolution is – variation made by gene mutation and natural variation
  28. 28. Evolution, Theory and belief • A theory is based on repeated observations of a phenomenon that results in accumulated wisdom and the ability to generalize
  29. 29. However: biological phenomena • biological systems are always changing, albeit in minute ways. • Theories are bodies of knowledge that make predictions, not fortune telling
  30. 30. Review • Anthropology emphasizes • Holism: How does everything fit into a pattern? • Comparison: In what way are biological organisms the same? How are they different?
  31. 31. Review • Biological/Physical Anthropology is • Based on scientific inquiry: controlled tests and observations • Relies on established scientific theory, of which evolutionary models are one.
  32. 32. Evolution: Fact and theory • The change in a group overtime (is a fact) • The process of evolution is a theory • Evolution is a body of knowledge that is used to make predictions that are either supported or rejected using the scientific method.
  33. 33. Intelligent Design Theory Creationists - life forms do not change through time from generation to generation lution_case/
  34. 34. Physical/Biological Anthropology Chapter One– Study Questions • What is anthropology? What are the four subfields of anthropology and what do they study? • What is physical anthropology? How does physical anthropology relate to other subfields of anthropology? Name the other subfields of anthropology? • What is empirical knowledge? • What is a hypothesis? What is a theory? • What is meant by scientific thinking? How does it differ from religious thinking? • What are the rules of anthropology as a science?
  35. 35. • What is biological evolution? • What is classification? Who created the classification system for all living things? How many names are used in classification? What language are these names in? • Who proposed the idea of “inheritance of acquired traits?” What does this propose? Is this theory valid today? • What is catastrophism? Who developed this idea? • What is the principle of uniformatism? Who developed this idea? • What did Darwin find on the Galapagos islands that formed is ideas on evolution? • What is adaptive radiation?
  36. 36. • Name the differences in Pre-Darwin and Post-Darwin Views? • What is Natural Selection? What are the three steps in Evolution by Natural Selection (Darwin’s postulates)? • What is meant by “survival by the fittest?” • What is Intelligent Design Theory? * • Give an example of evolution resulting from natural selection. • Why is evolution a fact and a theory? Define fact and theory when answering this. • What does holistic mean?