7B Project

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7B Project

  1. 1. A TYPICAL PLANT CELL AND ANIMAL CELL • Diagram of a typical animal cell. • Diagram of a typical plant cell.
  2. 2. DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL
  3. 3. PARTS OF A TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL AND THEIR FUNCTIONS: • NUCLEUS: It controls all the activities of the cell, including cell repair. • CHROMOSOMES: They are thread-like structures and are made of DNA and proteins . • GENES: They are part of chromosomes which store information to be passed down from one generation to another. • CELL MEMBRANE : It is a partially permeable layer that controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
  4. 4. • CYTOPLASM: It almost fills the entire animal cell.It is jelly-like and contains other cell parts. New materials are being made and broken down here. • VACUOLES: They are small and numerous in an animal cell. They contain food,water and waste material and other substances.
  5. 5. DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL PLANT CELL
  6. 6. A TYPICAL PLANT CELL AND ITS FUNCTIONS • A large central vacuole, a water-filled volume enclosed by a membrane known as the tonoplast that maintains the cell's turgor, controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap, stores useful material and digests waste proteins and organelles. • A cell wall composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, pectin and in many cases lignin, is secreted by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane. This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi (which are made of chitin), and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan.
  7. 7. • Plastids, the most notable being the chloroplast, which contains chlorophyll, a green-colored pigment that absorbs sunlight, and allows the plant to make its own food in the process known as photosynthesis. Other types of plastids are the amyloplasts, specialized for starch storage, elaioplasts specialized for fat storage, and chromoplasts specialized for synthesis and storage of pigments. As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding genes, plastids have their own genomes of about unique genes and, it is presumed, arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae.
  8. 8. DIAGRAM OF CELL DIVISION
  9. 9. CELL DIVISION • Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct type of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half, to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). Both of these cell division cycles are required in sexually reproducing organisms at some point in their life cycle, and both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor Prokaryotes also undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA replication.
  10. 10. GROUP MEMBERS Amina Zulfiqar Mustafa Nadeem Eman Farooq Muhammad Ahmed VII-B

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