Nasa 51 years in spacefinal


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Nasa 51 years in spacefinal

  1. 1. The story of our space programs first 15 years<br />NASA The early years 1958-1972<br />
  2. 2. In 1958 NASA was founded because of what’s known as Vanguard 1. Vanguard 1 was America’s answer to sputnik which was put in orbit in October 1957. The rocket engines ignited. Four seconds after liftoff when the rocket was two feet in the air, the rocket’s poorly designed engines failed. The rocket fell back to the pad rupturing the fuel tank and destroying the engines. The rest of the rocket disintegrated in a massive explosion. Millions were watching and the U.S. was publicly humiliated. So we created NASA to organize our exploration efforts.<br />Vanguard 1 DISASTER<br />
  3. 3. Mercury was our first manned space flight program. It was announced on December 17 1958. The seven astronauts of the mercury program became America’s first astronauts. Their names are as follows:<br />John Glenn<br />Alan Shepard<br />Gus Grissom <br />Deke Slayton<br />Scott Carpenter<br />Wally Schira<br />Gordon Cooper <br />Mercury Introduction<br />
  4. 4. This tiny cramped compartment known as a capsule was used during all Mercury flights. It was so small the astronaut could barely fit.<br />Mercury Capsule<br />
  5. 5. This spacesuit was worn by all Mercury astronauts during flight. It was a modified version of a high altitude pressure suit.<br />Mercury Spacesuit<br />
  6. 6. This Rocket is a modified Redstone missile used for Mercury suborbital flights. It was used for MR-3 and MR-4. <br />Redstone Rocket<br />
  7. 7. Intro <br />After many long tests, delays, problems and accidents Alan Shepard was ready to fly. Unfortunately the Soviets had already put a man in orbit on April 25 1961. But on May 8th 1961 we were ready to follow. Alan Shepard eats breakfast, dresses in his spacesuit and heads out to the pad. <br />Mercury Redstone 3<br />
  8. 8. At 8:23 A.M. Alan Shepard blasts off the pad on his Redstone rocket. <br />Liftoff<br />
  9. 9. 5 minutes after liftoff Freedom 7 separated from the Redstone booster and its tower and began to turn around into orbit attitude. Astronaut Shepard practiced changing his altitude during flight. He also took several pictures:<br />Flight <br />
  10. 10. 5 minutes after booster separation Freedom 7 fires it’s retro rockets and prepares to return to earth. Reentry means a radio blackout so mission control does not know what’s happening. <br />Reentry<br />
  11. 11. 2 minutes after blackout began the spacecraft emerges from blackout. Shepard returns to the carrier unharmed. <br />Splashdown!<br />
  12. 12. Two months after Shepard’s flight Astronaut Gus Grissom blasts off aboard Liberty Bell 7 for a second sub-orbital redstone boosted flight on July 24 1961.<br />Mercury Redstone 4<br />
  13. 13. After 2 successful manned suborbital flights Project Mercury is ready to send a man into orbit. The man for the job- John Glenn. <br />Mercury Atlas 6<br />
  14. 14. This booster would make the astronauts go higher than the redstone could. It would boost the mercury astronaut and capsule into orbit. <br />Atlas Rocket<br />
  15. 15. On February 26th 1962 John Glenn is ready to fly. He makes his pre-launch preparations.<br />MA-6<br />
  16. 16. John Glenn lifts off the pad at 9:05 am to make three orbits of the earth.<br />Liftoff<br />
  17. 17. 6 minutes after liftoff the Atlas Rocket’s sustainer engine cuts off and the capsule turns into around into orbit attitude. John Glenn is now in Orbit 160 miles above the earth. The first orbit goes flawlessly. However midway through orbit #2 in mission control a warning light comes on. Glenn’s heat shield is loose. Controllers instruct Glenn to leave the retro-pack {witch is strapped across the heat shield but is jettisoned before reentry} on through the whole reentry. <br />Flight <br />
  18. 18. After Orbit #3 The retrorockets fire and the spacecraft falls out of orbit. The spacecraft streaks down over the U.S toward the Atlantic for a splashdown in the Atlantic. Reentry begins and contact is lost with mission control.<br />Reentry <br />
  19. 19. 2 and a half minutes after blackout ends. Glenn spashes down and is returned to the carrier.<br />Splashdown<br />
  20. 20. On May 24, 1962 Astronaut Scott Carpenter blasts off for 3 more orbits of the earth 4 months after Glenn’s flight.<br />Mercury Atlas 7<br />
  21. 21. On October 3, 1962 Wally Schira orbits the earth 6 times.<br />Mercury Atlas 8<br />
  22. 22. Mercury Atlas 9 would be Project Mercury’s final flight. On Their man for the job: Gordon Cooper. He would circle the earth 22 times, a day and a half, longer than any human spaceflight before it. He was also the last American to orbit the earth alone. He launches<br />Mercury Atlas 9<br />
  23. 23. And so ended Project Mercury, our first heroic and amazing steps into Space, our final frontier. These Mercury flights paved the way for Project Gemini witch is coming up. <br />Project Mercury Conclusion<br />
  24. 24. Gemini brings 9 new astronauts. Their goal- learn the many skills it would take to go to the moon.<br />Gemini Introduction<br />
  25. 25. The Gemini Capsule is a large version of a Mercury Capsule and carries more onboard systems which give the spacecraft more function. <br />Gemini Capsule<br />
  26. 26. This Rocket was used to boost the larger Gemini capsules into orbit.<br />Titan Rocket<br />
  27. 27. This flight, launched March 31st 1965 was piloted by John Young, a rookie and Gus Grissom, a Mercury Veteran go into Space to test the Titan- Gemini combination. They make 3 orbits.<br />Gemini 3<br />
  28. 28. This flight would solve a question which had been bothering NASA for a while. How to leave the spacecraft in a heavy suit and work outside the craft. They choose Jim McDivit and Edward White for the task. But before they can launch once again the Soviets beat them. The Soviets preform the first EVA 20 days before the Americans can launch <br />Gemini 4 Intro<br />
  29. 29. Gemini 4 blasts off the pad at 8: AM est.<br />Launch <br />
  30. 30. On the second orbit, McDivit Opens the hatch and White pokes his head out. 10 minutes later Ed White floats away from the spacecraft and becomes the first American to preform an EVA.<br />EVA<br />
  31. 31. After 4 days and 62 orbits White and McDivit return to Earth.<br />Conclusion<br />
  32. 32. Charles“Pete”Conrad and Gordon Cooper make another Gemini flight.<br />Gemini 5<br />
  33. 33. Gemini 7 piloted by Jim Lovell and Frank Borman rendezvous in earth orbit with Gemini 6 piloted by Tom Staford and Wally Schira<br />Gemini 6/7<br />
  34. 34. Gemini 8 launches from Cape Kennedy with the goal to dock in orbit with an unmanned Agena target vehicle. However after docking a stuck thruster makes the spacecraft spin out of control. Neil Armstrong and Dave Scott finnaly bring the Space craft under contol<br />Gemini 8<br />
  35. 35. Gemini 9 with astronauts Elliot See and Charels H Basset makes another Gemini flight.<br />Gemini 9<br />
  36. 36. Astronauts Gene Cernan and Tom Stafford make the next Gemini Spaceflight.<br />Gemini 10<br />
  37. 37. Gemini 11 is the second to last gemini flight.<br />Gemini 11<br />
  38. 38. Buzz Aldrin and Jim Lovell flew the final Gemini flight<br />Gemini 12<br />
  39. 39. With the end of Project Gemini we had learned the skills it would take to get to the moon. <br />Gemini Conclusion<br />
  40. 40. Finally it was time for Apollo, time to go to the moon. But first Apollo would have to make earth orbit tests of the equipment.<br />Apollo Introduction<br />
  41. 41. Apollo 1 with it’s crew consisting of Ed White, Gus Grissom and Roger Chaffe would never fly. During a pre flight test their block 1 early command module would burn in a pre-flight fire killing all 3 astronauts.<br />This Slide is dedicated to the memory of the Apollo 1 crew.<br />Gus Grissom, Edward White, Roger Chaffe<br />R.I.P<br />Apollo 1<br />
  42. 42. This Command Module is the redesigned Apollo command Module.<br />Command Module<br />
  43. 43. This Cylinder held the Command Modules life support and the Apollo spacecraft’s main engines.<br />Service module<br />
  44. 44. This is what the Command and Service Module would look like docked to the Lunar Module on the way to the moon.<br />CSM/LM Combonation<br />
  45. 45. For Orbital Apollo flights NASA develops the Saturn IB rocket<br />Saturn IB<br />
  46. 46. Takes Wally Schira, Walter Cumminghamand Don Eisley Into Orbit to test the CM/SM combo.<br />Apollo 7<br />
  47. 47. The Saturn 5 is the largest rocket ever built. It was used on the Apollo moon launches.<br />Saturn 5<br />
  48. 48. Apollo 8 carrying Jim Lovell, Bill Anders, Frank Borman will become the first manned craft to leave earth orbit to go to another world. First to orbit another world. Their destination, The Moon.<br />Apollo 8<br />
  49. 49. Liftoff<br />
  50. 50. 12 minutes after liftoff the spacecraft and the top stage of the rocket is in orbit. Then the third stage lights up to take the astronauts into deep space. During the 4 day trans lunar coast the astronauts have plenty of work. Then it’s time to enter Lunar Orbit.<br />Flight<br />
  51. 51. After Lunar Orbit Insertion, during Apollo 8’s 10 orbits of the moon many photos were taken <br />Lunar orbit<br />
  52. 52. After the burn to return to earth, Apollo 8 takes 3 days to return.<br />Return<br />
  53. 53. Apollo 8 hits the atmosphere at 25,000 miles per hour 6,000 miles faster than any craft before it. Reentry is successful and Apollo 8 splashed down right on target.<br />Reentry <br />
  54. 54. Dave Scott, Rusty Shweikart and Jim McDivit test the LM in Earth Orbit.<br />Apollo 9<br />
  55. 55. This was the final test before we would land on the moon. Gene Cernan, Tom Stafford and John Young were the astronauts.<br />Apollo 10<br />
  56. 56. 8 years, 4 months and 22 days after Kennedy challenged america to land on the moon Apollo 11 was ready to fly The countdown procedes on July 16th 1969. The crew consists of Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrinand Michael Collins.<br />Apollo 11 Intro<br />
  57. 57. On July 16th Apollo 11 lifts off<br />Liftoff<br />
  58. 58. After Lunar Orbit insertion Armstrong and Aldrin climb through the tunnel from the CM { Columbia} to the LM {Eagle}. They undock from the Columbia and begin the decent.<br />Undocking and decent<br />
  59. 59. 2 hours after undocking Eagle Lands. “Houston the Eagle has landed” reports Armstrong.<br />Landing <br />
  60. 60. 1 hour after touchdown, Neil Armstrong steps off the ladder of the LM and into history. Aldrin joins his comrade 30 min later the 2 explore the surface of the moon.<br />EVa<br />
  61. 61. Armstrong and Aldrin leave behind them, a flag and several scientific instruments.<br />EVA continued<br />
  62. 62. The dramatic Lunar Liftoff was captured on camera. The rendezvous and docking with the command module was successful.<br />Lunar Liftoff <br />
  63. 63. After TEI the spacecraft begins it’s 3 day return to earth.<br />Return Voyage <br />
  64. 64. Apollo 11 hits the atmosphere at 25,000 miles an hour. <br />Reentry<br />
  65. 65. The astronauts are recovered safely along with 250 pounds of moon rocks!<br />Recovery <br />
  66. 66. Apollo 11 finally fulfills Kennedy’s dream. But little actual exploration was done. There would be more Apollo moon landings to follow. But for now the moon rocks were in a NASA laboratory to be studied by scientists.<br />Apollo 11 Conclusion<br />
  67. 67. Apollo 12 carrying Alan Bean, Pete Conrad and Richard Gordon to the ocean of storms. Second manned Lunar Landing<br />Apollo 12<br />
  68. 68. Apollo 12 Continued<br />
  69. 69. Apollo 13 carrying Jim Lovell, Fred Haise and Jack Swigert is ready to fly to a difficult landing site in the moon’s Fra Maural hills <br />Apollo 13<br />
  70. 70. Apollo 13’s liftoff is uneventful.<br />Liftoff <br />
  71. 71. On the third day an explosion occurs knocking the service module out of action. They use the lunar module as a lifeboat to get back to earth.<br />Accident <br />
  72. 72. Apollo 13 safely returns to Earth 7 days after launch.<br />Return<br />
  73. 73. Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell make the next landing at Fra Moura Apollo 13’s planned landing site <br />Apollo 14<br />
  74. 74. Apollo 14 continued<br />
  75. 75. Dave Scot Jim Irwin and Al Worden make the next moon landing. This is the first moon landing witch is extended and carries a lunar rover witch will be used to go to sites over 3 miles from the LM.<br />Apollo 15<br />
  76. 76. Apollo 15 continued<br />
  77. 77. John Young, Charels Duke and Ken Matingly preforms the next moon landing<br />Apollo 16<br />
  78. 78. Apollo 16 Continued<br />
  79. 79. At 9:00 PM on December 6 1972 a Saturn V sits on the pad. Although it looks no different than the ones before it. It is a special launch- it would be NASA’s final moon mission. Also it is NASA’s first night launch.<br />Apollo 17<br />
  80. 80. Apollo 17 carrying Gene Cernan, Harrison Shmidht and Ronald Evans blasts off.<br />Launch<br />
  81. 81. After LOI the LM Challenger undocks with CM America and begins it’s decent. <br />A 17’s landing is shown below<br />Decent<br />
  82. 82. Over 3 days the crew explore Taurus Litrow valley collecting more samples than any flight before it.<br />EVA<br />
  83. 83. At the end of EVA 3 the astronauts hold a brief ceremony. Then they liftoff.<br />Liftoff<br />
  84. 84. Apollo 17 returns to Earth.<br />Return<br />
  85. 85. So ended NASA’s early years. We were ready to move on to the Space Shuttle. We are ready to stop here however. We had left earth and in it discovered more of our human identities. And the moon, it’s a desolate deserted world. But we left our mark clear to see for all humanity. <br />Conclusion <br />
  86. 86. Title: Flight, Chris Craft. Author: Chris Craft<br />Title: Apollo Our Epic Journey to The Moon. Author: David West Reynolds<br />Images: WWW. NASA IMAGES.GOV<br />Diagrams: Google Images<br />BIBLIography<br />